2016

Sebastian Karpf, Matthias Eibl, Benjamin Sauer, Fred Reinholz, Gereon Hüttmann, and Robert Huber,
Two-photon microscopy using fiber-based nanosecond excitation, Biomed. Opt. Express , vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 2432-2440, 07 2016. Optica Publishing Group.
DOI:10.1364/BOE.7.002432
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Karpf:16,
author = {Sebastian Karpf and Matthias Eibl and Benjamin Sauer and Fred Reinholz and Gereon H\"{u}ttmann and Robert Huber},
journal = {Biomed. Opt. Express},
keywords = {Fiber optics imaging; Nonlinear optics, fibers; Lasers, fiber; Fluorescence microscopy; Nonlinear microscopy; Femtosecond pulses; In vivo imaging; Laser sources; Nanosecond pulses; Optical systems; Ultrafast lasers},
number = {7},
pages = {2432--2440},
publisher = {Optica Publishing Group},
title = {Two-photon microscopy using fiber-based nanosecond excitation},
volume = {7},
month = {Jul},
year = {2016},
url = {https://opg.optica.org/boe/abstract.cfm?URI=boe-7-7-2432},
doi = {10.1364/BOE.7.002432},
abstract = {Two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy is a powerful technique for sensitive tissue imaging at depths of up to 1000 micrometers. However, due to the shallow penetration, for in vivo imaging of internal organs in patients beam delivery by an endoscope is crucial. Until today, this is hindered by linear and non-linear pulse broadening of the femtosecond pulses in the optical fibers of the endoscopes. Here we present an endoscope-ready, fiber-based TPEF microscope, using nanosecond pulses at low repetition rates instead of femtosecond pulses. These nanosecond pulses lack most of the problems connected with femtosecond pulses but are equally suited for TPEF imaging. We derive and demonstrate that at given cw-power the TPEF signal only depends on the duty cycle of the laser source. Due to the higher pulse energy at the same peak power we can also demonstrate single shot two-photon fluorescence lifetime measurements.},
}
Robert Huber, Lars Dworak, Jacques E. Moser, Michael Grätzel, and Josef Wachtveitl,
Beyond Vibrationally Mediated Electron Transfer: Coherent Phenomena Induced by Ultrafast Charge Separation, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C , vol. 120, no. 16, pp. 8534-8539, 04 2016.
DOI:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b02012
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b02012,
author = {Huber, Robert and Dworak, Lars and Moser, Jacques E. and Grätzel, Michael and Wachtveitl, Josef},
title = {Beyond Vibrationally Mediated Electron Transfer: Coherent Phenomena Induced by Ultrafast Charge Separation},
journal = {The Journal of Physical Chemistry C},
volume = {120},
number = {16},
pages = {8534-8539},
year = {2016},
doi = {10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b02012},

URL = { 
        https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b02012
    
},
eprint = { 
        https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b02012
    
}
,
    abstract = { Wave packet propagation succeeding electron transfer (ET) from alizarin dye molecules into the nanocrystalline TiO2 semiconductor has been studied by ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. Because of the ultrafast time scale of the ET reaction of about 6 fs, the system shows substantial differences to molecular ET systems. We show that the ET process is not mediated by molecular vibrations, and therefore classical ET theories lose their applicability. Here the ET reaction itself prepares a vibrational wave packet and not the electromagnetic excitation by the laser pulse. Furthermore, the generation of phonons during polaron formation in the TiO2 lattice is observed in real time for this system. The presented investigations enable an unambiguous assignment of the involved photoinduced mechanisms and can contribute to a corresponding extension of molecular ET theories to ultrafast ET systems like alizarin/TiO2. }
}
Sijia Wang, Gereon Hüttmann, Thomas Scholzen, Zhenxi Zhang, Alfred Vogel, Tayyaba Hasan, and Ramtin Rahmanzadeh,
A light-controlled switch after dual targeting of proliferating tumor cells via the membrane receptor EGFR and the nuclear protein Ki-67, Sci Rep , vol. 6, pp. 27032, 2016.
DOI:10.1038/srep27032
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Wang2016,
   author = {Wang, S. and Huttmann, G. and Scholzen, T. and Zhang, Z. and Vogel, A. and Hasan, T. and Rahmanzadeh, R.},
   title = {A light-controlled switch after dual targeting of proliferating tumor cells via the membrane receptor EGFR and the nuclear protein Ki-67},
   journal = {Sci Rep},
   volume = {6},
   pages = {27032},
   note = {2045-2322
Wang, Sijia
Huttmann, Gereon
Scholzen, Thomas
Zhang, Zhenxi
Vogel, Alfred
Hasan, Tayyaba
Rahmanzadeh, Ramtin
Journal Article
England
Sci Rep. 2016 Jun 1;6:27032. doi: 10.1038/srep27032.},
   abstract = {Using nanotechnology for optical manipulation of molecular processes in cells with high spatial and temporal precision promises new therapeutic options. Especially tumor therapy may profit as it requires a combination of both selectivity and an effective cell killing mechanism. Here we show a dual targeting approach for selective and efficient light-controlled killing of cells which are positive for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Ki-67. Liposomes with the covalently linked EGFR antibody Erbitux enabled selective uptake of FITC-labeled Ki-67 antibody TuBB-9 in EGFR-positive cells pre-loaded with the photoactive dye BPD. After irradiation at 690 nm, BPD disrupted the endosomal membranes and delivered the antibodies to the nucleoli of the cells. The second irradiation at 490 nm activated the FITC-labeled TuBB-9, which caused inactivation of the Ki-67 protein and subsequent cell death via apoptosis. Efficient cell killing was possible at nanomolar concentrations of TuBB-9 due to the effective transport by immune liposomes and the high efficacy of the Ki-67 light-inactivation. Delivery of the liposomal constructs and cell destruction correlated well with the EGFR expression pattern of different cell lines (HeLa, OVCAR-5, MCF-7, and human fibroblasts), demonstrating an excellent selectivity.},
   ISSN = {2045-2322},
   DOI = {10.1038/srep27032},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
Mahdy Ranjbar, Max Philipp Brinkmann, Aysegül Tura, Martin Rudolf, Yoko Miura, and Salvatore Grisanti,
Ranibizumab interacts with the VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 signaling pathway in human RPE cells at different levels, Cytokine , vol. 83, pp. 210-216, 2016.
Datei: S1043466616300722
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Ranjbar2016,
   author = {Ranjbar, Mahdy and Brinkmann, Max Philipp and Tura, Aysegül and Rudolf, Martin and Miura, Yoko and Grisanti, Salvatore},
   title = {Ranibizumab interacts with the VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 signaling pathway in human RPE cells at different levels},
   journal = {Cytokine},
   volume = {83},
   pages = {210-216},
   abstract = {Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an important role in ocular homeostasis, but also in diseases, most notably age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To date, anti-VEGF drugs like ranibizumab have been shown to be most effective in treating these pathologic conditions. However, clinical trials suggest that the RPE could degenerate and perish through anti-VEGF treatment. Herein, we evaluated possible pathways and outcomes of the interaction between ranibizumab and human RPE cells (ARPE-19). Results indicate that ranibizumab affects the VEGF-A metabolism in RPE cells from an extra- as well as intracellular site. The drug is taken up into the cells, with the VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) being involved, and decreases VEGF-A protein levels within the cells as well as extracellularly. Oxidative stress plays a key role in various inflammatory disorders of the eye. Our results suggest that oxidative stress inhibits RPE cell proliferation. This anti-proliferative effect on RPE cells is significantly enhanced through ranibizumab, which does not inhibit RPE cell proliferation substantially in absence of relevant oxidative stress. Therefore, we emphasize that anti-VEGF treatment should be selected carefully in AMD patients with preexistent extensive RPE atrophy.},
   keywords = {Ranibizumab
RPE
VEGF-A
VEGFR-2
Oxidative stress},
   ISSN = {1043-4666},
   url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1043466616300722},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
Hendrik Spahr, Dierck Hillmann, Carola Hain, Clara Pfäffle, Helge Sudkamp, and Gesa Franke,
Imaging vascular dynamics in human retina using full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation), 2016. pp. 96970E-96970E-1.
Datei: 12.2214303
Bibtex: BibTeX
@inproceedings{Spahr2016,
   author = {Spahr, Hendrik and Hillmann, Dierck and Hain, Carola and Pfäffle, Clara and Sudkamp, Helge and Franke, Gesa and Hüttmann, Gereon},
   title = {Imaging vascular dynamics in human retina using full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)},
   volume = {9697},
   pages = {96970E-96970E-1},
   note = {10.1117/12.2214303},
   abstract = {We demonstrate a new non-invasive method to assess the functional condition of the retinal vascular system. Phase-sensitive full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography (PhS-FF-SS-OCT) is used to investigate retinal vascular dynamics at unprecedented temporal resolution. Motion of retinal tissue, that is induced by expansion of the vessels therein, is measured with an accuracy of about 10 nm. The pulse shape of arterial and venous pulsation, their temporal delay as well as the frequency dependent pulse propagation through the capillary bed are determined. For the first time, imaging speed and motion sensitivity are sufficient for a direct measurement of pulse waves propagating with more than 600 mm/s in retinal vessels of a healthy young subject.},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2214303},
   type = {Conference Proceedings},
year = { 2016}
}
Mario Pieper, and Hinnerk Schulz-Hildebrandt,
Imaging of mucus clearance in the airways of living spontaneously breathing mice by optical coherence microscopy (Conference Presentation), 2016. pp. 969116-969116-1.
Datei: 12.2209054
Bibtex: BibTeX
@inproceedings{Pieper2016,
   author = {Pieper, Mario and Schulz-Hildebrandt, Hinnerk and Hüttmann, Gereon and König, Peter},
   title = {Imaging of mucus clearance in the airways of living spontaneously breathing mice by optical coherence microscopy (Conference Presentation)},
   volume = {9691},
   pages = {969116-969116-1},
year = { 2016},
   note = {10.1117/12.2209054},
   abstract = {Mucus transport is essential to remove inhaled particles and pathogens from the lung. Impaired removal of mucus often results in worsening of lung diseases. To understand the mechanisms of mucus transport and to monitor the impact of therapeutic strategies, it is essential to visualize airways and mucus in living animals without disturbing transport processes by intubation or surgically opening the airways. We developed a custom-built optical coherence microscope (OCM) providing a lateral and axial resolution of approximately 1.5 µm with a field of view of 2 mm at up to 150 images/s. Images of the intact trachea and its mucus transport were recorded in anesthetized spontaneously breathing mice. NaCl solution (0.9% and 7%) or Lipopolysaccharide were applied intranasally. OCM resolved detailed structure of the trachea and enabled measuring the airway surface liquid (ASL) thickness through the tracheal wall. Without stimulation, the amount of ASL was only a few µm above the epithelium and remained constant. After intranasal application of 30 µl saline at different concentrations, an early fast cough-like fluid removal with velocities higher than 1 mm/s was observed that removed a high amount of liquid. The ASL thickness increased transiently and quickly returned to levels before stimulation. In contrast to saline, application of Lipopolysaccharide induced substantial mucus release and an additional slow mucus transport by ciliary beating (around 100 µm/s) towards the larynx was observed. In conclusion, OCM is appropriate unique tool to study mechanisms of mucus transport in the airways and effects of therapeutic interventions in living animals.},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2209054},
   type = {Conference Proceedings}
}
Norbert Linz, Sebastian Freidank, Xiao-Xuan Liang, and Alfred Vogel,
Wavelength dependence of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in water and implications for laser surgery, American Physical Society,Phys. Rev. B , vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 1-19, 2016.
Datei: PhysRevB.94.024113
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Linz2016,
   author = {Linz, Norbert and Freidank, Sebastian and Liang, Xiao-Xuan and Vogel, Alfred},
   title = {Wavelength dependence of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in water and implications for laser surgery},
   journal = {American Physical Society,Phys. Rev. B},
   volume = { 94},
   number = {2},
   pages = {1-19},
   url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.94.024113},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
J. Kasper, N. Traulsen, and M. Mall,
Towards automated evaluation of mucus transport measured by microscopic OCT (mOCT) during hypertonic saline treatment of Cystic Fibrosis, Pneumologie , vol. 70, no. 07, pp. 1-48, 2016.
DOI:10.1055/s-0036-1584651
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Schulz-Hildebrandt2016,
   author = {Schulz-Hildebrandt, H. and Pieper, M. and Kasper, J. and Traulsen, N. and Mall, M. and König, P. and Hüttmann, G.},
   title = {Towards automated evaluation of mucus transport measured by microscopic OCT (mOCT) during hypertonic saline treatment of Cystic Fibrosis},
   journal = {Pneumologie},
   volume = {70},
   number = {07},
   pages = {1-48},
   ISSN = {0934-8387},
   DOI = {10.1055/s-0036-1584651},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
H P Urbach,
Surface harmonics on liquid lenses, in 2016 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) , 2016. pp. 248-249.
DOI:10.1109/IPCon.2016.7831063
Bibtex: BibTeX
@INPROCEEDINGS{Strauch2017,
author={Strauch, M and Urbach, H P},
booktitle={2016 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC)},
title={Surface harmonics on liquid lenses},
year={2016},

pages={248-249},
keywords={lenses;optical harmonic generation;optical tuning;oscillations;surface harmonics;liquid lenses;tunability;nonspherical surfaces;surface oscillations;Lenses;Liquids;Surface waves;Optical surface waves;Harmonic analysis;Shape;Optical switches},
doi={10.1109/IPCon.2016.7831063},
ISSN={},
month={Oct},}
S. Kang, Y. G. Park, J. R. Kim, E. Seifert, and Y. J. Roh,
Selective Retina Therapy in Patients With Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: A Pilot Study, Medicine (Baltimore) , vol. 95, no. 3, pp. e2524, 2016.
DOI:10.1097/md.0000000000002524
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Kang1016,
   author = {Kang, S. and Park, Y. G. and Kim, J. R. and Seifert, E. and Theisen-Kunde, D and Brinkman, R and Roh, Y. J.},
   title = {Selective Retina Therapy in Patients With Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: A Pilot Study},
   journal = {Medicine (Baltimore)},
   volume = {95},
   number = {3},
   pages = {e2524},
   note = {1536-5964
Kang, Seungbum
Park, Young Gun
Kim, Jae Ryun
Seifert, Eric
Dirk, Theisen-Kunde
Ralf, Brinkmann
Roh, Young Jung
Journal Article
United States
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Jan;95(3):e2524. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000002524.},
   abstract = {We evaluated visual outcomes, changes of maximum macular thickness (MMT) and subretinal fluid (SRF), and safety in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) after treatment with selective retina therapy (SRT). Retrospective cohort study of patients with chronic CSC presenting to a university-based hospital from January 2014 through January 2015 was conducted. A total of 12 eyes of 12 patients with chronic CSC lasting for at least 3 months was recruited. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 12 months. Following evaluation of test spots at temporal arcades, SRT (Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride [Nd:YLF] laser; wavelength, 527 nm, pulse duration, 1.7 microsececond) was applied to the surrounding areas of leakage observed on fluorescein angiogram and/or pigment epithelial detachment (PED). Changes in best-correct visual acuity (BCVA), MMT, and SRF and macular sensitivity (MS) by microperimetry (MP) were evaluated. Eyes received treatment in a mean of 3.83 spots at the pulse energy of 65 to 90 muJ. Mean BCVA (logMAR) improved from 0.23 +/- 0.12 at baseline to 0.14 +/- 0.13 at 3 months. MMT decreased from 341.4 +/- 85.5 mum at baseline to 236.0 +/- 57.9 mum at 3 months. SRF completely resolved in 75% (9 eyes) at 3 months. Large PEDs (2 eyes) were flattened at 3 months. Retreatment was performed in 4 eyes. MP showed no evidence of scotoma around SRT-treated lesions. SRT treatment targeting the surrounding area of leakage point showed favorable visual and structural outcomes in chronic CSC patients without the risk of scotoma.},
   ISSN = {0025-7974},
   DOI = {10.1097/md.0000000000002524},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
Y. G. Park, J. R. Kim, S. Kang, E. Seifert, and Y. J. Roh,
Safety and efficacy of selective retina therapy (SRT) for the treatment of diabetic macular edema in Korean patients, Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol , 2016.
DOI:10.1007/s00417-015-3262-1
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Park2016,
   author = {Park, Y. G. and Kim, J. R. and Kang, S. and Seifert, E. and Theisen-Kunde, D. and Brinkmann, R. and Roh, Y. J.},
   title = {Safety and efficacy of selective retina therapy (SRT) for the treatment of diabetic macular edema in Korean patients},
   journal = {Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol},
   note = {1435-702x
Park, Young Gun
Kim, Jae Ryun
Kang, Seungbum
Seifert, Eric
Theisen-Kunde, Dirk
Brinkmann, Ralf
Roh, Young-Jung
Journal article
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2016 Jan 23.},
   abstract = {PURPOSE: Selective retina therapy (SRT) stimulates retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell migration and proliferation into irradiated areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SRT in Korean patients with clinically significant diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS: Prospective non-randomized interventional case series study. Twenty-three eyes of 21 patients with clinically significant DME were treated with SRT and followed for 6 months. Patients underwent an evaluation of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters. Microperimetry was employed to measure macular sensitivity within the central 10 degrees field, and the central macular thickness (CMT) and maximum macular thickness (MMT) were measured. RESULTS: An improvement in BCVA of one to two ETDRS lines was observed in 41.2 % of patients and an improvement of greater than two lines in 29.4 %. Although there was no significant change in CMT (P > 0.05), MMT decreased from 465.8 +/- 87.4 mum to 434.3 +/- 83.9 mum (P = 0.006), and mean macular sensitivity increased from 20.8 +/- 3.4dB to 22.5 +/- 3.5dB (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The gains in BCVA and improvement in macular sensitivity demonstrated that SRT may be used as an effective and safe treatment modality in Korean patients with clinically significant DME.},
   keywords = {Diabetic macular edema
Dosimetry
Microperimetry
Retinal pigment epithelium
Selective retina therapy},
   ISSN = {0721-832x},
   DOI = {10.1007/s00417-015-3262-1},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
Ayako Yasui, Manabu Yamamoto, Kumiko Hirayama, Kunihiko Shiraki, Dirk Theisen-Kunde, Ralf Brinkmann, Yoko Miura, and Takeya Kohno,
Retinal sensitivity after selective retina therapy (SRT) on patients with central serous chorioretinopathy, Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology , pp. 1-12, 2016.
Datei: s00417-016-3441-8
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Yasui2016,
   author = {Yasui, Ayako and Yamamoto, Manabu and Hirayama, Kumiko and Shiraki, Kunihiko and Theisen-Kunde, Dirk and Brinkmann, Ralf and Miura, Yoko and Kohno, Takeya},
   title = {Retinal sensitivity after selective retina therapy (SRT) on patients with central serous chorioretinopathy},
   journal = {Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology},
   pages = {1-12},
   abstract = {To assess retinal sensitivity after selective retina therapy (SRT) in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR).},
   ISSN = {1435-702X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-016-3441-8},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
H. D. Kim, S. Y. Jang, S. H. Lee, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Ohn, and T. K. Park,
Retinal Pigment Epithelium Responses to Selective Retina Therapy in Mouse Eyes, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci , vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 3486-95, 2016.
DOI:10.1167/iovs.16-19508
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Kim2016,
   author = {Kim, H. D. and Jang, S. Y. and Lee, S. H. and Kim, Y. S. and Ohn, Y. H. and Brinkmann, R. and Park, T. K.},
   title = {Retinal Pigment Epithelium Responses to Selective Retina Therapy in Mouse Eyes},
   journal = {Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci},
   volume = {57},
   number = {7},
   pages = {3486-95},
   abstract = {PURPOSE: To investigate the characteristics of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and retinal damage induced by selective retina therapy (SRT) in mice, and to elucidate longitudinal changes in RPE cells. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice received SRT and continuous-wave laser photocoagulation (cwPC). The cell death pattern was evaluated using TUNEL assay, and proliferative potential of the RPE cells was evaluated using 5-ethynyl-2'-dexoyuridine (EdU) assay. To investigate the cell-cell integrity of RPE cells, beta-catenin staining was performed. The number and hexagonality of RPE cells in the SRT-treated area were estimated using a Voronoi diagram with time periods of 3 hours to 14 days. Antibodies to microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF) and orthodenticle homeobox 2 (Otx2) were used to confirm the specific characteristics of RPE cells in the SRT-treated area. RESULTS: The number of TUNEL-positive cells located in the neural retina was significantly lower in lesions treated with SRT compared to those treated with cwPC. EdU-positive RPE cells were first detected 3 to 12 hours after SRT, and increased until 3 to 7 days after SRT. beta-catenin staining showed that hexagonality was compromised and subsequently, RPE cells expanded in size within the targeted location. The number of RPE cells in SRT lesions decreased gradually until 12 hours after SRT and recovered by 14 days. Upregulated expression of MiTF and Otx2 was observed for 2 weeks in the SRT lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Selective retina therapy seems to induce selective RPE damage without collateral thermal injury in the neural retina. Furthermore, SRT-treated lesions recovered by proliferation of RPE cells that were present in the treated lesions and by expansion of adjacent RPE cells.},
   ISSN = {0146-0404},
   DOI = {10.1167/iovs.16-19508},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
Moritz Moltmann, Hendrik Spahr, Jan Tode, Anna Roeck, Dirk Theisen-Kunde, Stefan Koinzer, and Ralf Brinkmann,
Retinal lesion formation during photocoagulation investigated by high-speed 1060 nm Doppler-OCT: first clinical results, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science , vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 5852-5852, 2016.
Datei:
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Hüttmann2016,
   author = {Huttmann, Gereon and Moltmann, Moritz and Spahr, Hendrik and Tode, Jan and de Roeck, Anna and Theisen-Kunde, Dirk and Birngruber, Reginald and Koinzer, Stefan and Brinkmann, Ralf},
   title = {Retinal lesion formation during photocoagulation investigated by high-speed 1060 nm Doppler-OCT: first clinical results},
   journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
   volume = {57},
   number = {12},
   pages = {5852-5852},
   abstract = {Abstract Purpose : The molecular processes during heating with a photocoagulation laser, particularly in sub-visible or mere thermal stimulation treatment, have only partly been understood, and different theories exist that try to explain its clinical efficacy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was successfully used to grade lesions with high accuracy 1 hour after the treatments and beyond. During the irradiation, changes in tissue scattering and, by use of the Doppler signal, tissue motion caused by thermal expansion and coagulation-induced tissue contraction were shown to correlate ex-vivo and in rabbits with the strength of photocoagulation lesions. Aim of this study was to validate feasibility and reproducibility of these results in humans. Methods : In an ongoing study more than 100 lesions of three patients have been imaged with a slitlamp-based OCT (1060 nm, 90,000 A-scans/s) with varying irradiance during laser exposure. Durations of the exposure were 50 ms and 200 ms; spot size was 300 µm. Eye movements and heart beat were corrected by cross-correlation of the images. Increased tissue scattering and movement of the neuronal retina due to thermal expansion were determined from the image sequences with 3 ms temporal resolution. Results : In the first treatments with this prototype device, we received acceptable image quality in 1/3 of the lesions. Changes in the neuronal retina were successful visualized during and after the laser irradiation, demonstrating the feasibility of a real-time assessment of initial effects of photocoagulation in humans. Lesion visibility in standard, reflection-based OCT was much weaker during treatment compared to 1 hour afterwards. Increased tissue scattering was observed in stronger lesions already during the laser irradiation. At reduced irradiance, scattering increase was only observed after the end of irradiation. However, tissue motion towards the vitreous was still observed in these cases. Conclusions : In conclusion, high-speed OCT recording during photocoagulation measures initial tissue changes during photocoagulation in humans. It may enhance our understanding of the tissue dynamics right after laser irradiation. It may provide useful information for a real-time dosage control as well. This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.},
   ISSN = {1552-5783},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
J. Horstmann, S. Siebelmann, I. Glasunow, and A. Schadschneider,
OCT verstehen – Teil 1: Physikalische Grundlagen, Augenheilkunde up2date , vol. 6, no. 04, pp. 289-300, 2016.
DOI:10.1055/s-0042-113337
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Horstmann2016,
   author = {Horstmann, J. and Siebelmann, S. and Schulz-Hildebrandt, H. and Glasunow, I. and Schadschneider, A. and Hüttmann, G.},
   title = {OCT verstehen – Teil 1: Physikalische Grundlagen},
   journal = {Augenheilkunde up2date},
   volume = {6},
   number = {04},
   pages = {289-300},
   ISSN = {1616-9719},
   DOI = {10.1055/s-0042-113337},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
J. Horstmann, S. Siebelmann, I. Glasunow, and A. Schadschneider,
OCT verstehen – Teil 2: Praktische Aspekte und Anwendung, Augenheilkunde up2date , vol. 6, no. 04, pp. 305-320, 2016.
DOI:10.1055/s-0042-117459
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Horstmann2016,
   author = {Horstmann, J. and Siebelmann, S. and Schulz-Hildebrandt, H. and Glasunow, I. and Schadschneider, A. and Hüttmann, G.},
   title = {OCT verstehen – Teil 2: Praktische Aspekte und Anwendung},
   journal = {Augenheilkunde up2date},
   volume = {6},
   number = {04},
   pages = {305-320},
   ISSN = {1616-9719},
   DOI = {10.1055/s-0042-117459},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
Dierck Hillmann, Hendrik Spahr, Carola Hain, Helge Sudkamp, Gesa Franke, Clara Pfäffle, and Christian Winter,
Aberration-free volumetric high-speed imaging of in vivo retina, Scientific Reports , vol. 6, pp. 1-11, 2016.
Datei: srep35209
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Hillmann2016,
   author = {Hillmann, Dierck and Spahr, Hendrik and Hain, Carola and Sudkamp, Helge and Franke, Gesa and Pfäffle, Clara and Winter, Christian and Hüttmann, Gereon},
   title = {Aberration-free volumetric high-speed imaging of in vivo retina},
   journal = {Scientific Reports},
   volume = {6},
   pages = {1-11},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep35209},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
Jan Philip Kolb, Thomas Klein, Matthias Eibl, Tom Pfeiffer, Wolfgang Wieser, and Robert Huber,
Megahertz FDML laser with up to 143nm sweep range for ultrahigh resolution OCT at 1050nm, in Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XX , Joseph A. Izatt and James G. Fujimoto and Valery V. Tuchin, Eds. SPIE, 2016. pp. 969703.
DOI:10.1117/12.2214758
Bibtex: BibTeX
@inproceedings{10.1117/12.2214758,
author = {Jan Philip Kolb and Thomas Klein and Matthias Eibl and Tom Pfeiffer and Wolfgang Wieser and Robert Huber},
title = {{Megahertz FDML laser with up to 143nm sweep range for ultrahigh resolution OCT at 1050nm}},
volume = {9697},
booktitle = {Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XX},
editor = {Joseph A. Izatt and James G. Fujimoto and Valery V. Tuchin},
organization = {International Society for Optics and Photonics},
publisher = {SPIE},
pages = {969703},
abstract = {We present a new design of a Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser (FDML laser), which provides a new record in sweep
range at ~1μm center wavelength: At the fundamental sweep rate of 2x417 kHz we reach 143nm bandwidth and 120nm
with 4x buffering at 1.67MHz sweep rate. The latter configuration of our system is characterized: The FWHM of the
point spread function (PSF) of a mirror is 5.6μm (in tissue). Human in vivo retinal imaging is performed with the MHz
laser showing more details in vascular structures. Here we could measure an axial resolution of 6.0μm by determining
the FWHM of specular reflex in the image. Additionally, challenges related to such a high sweep bandwidth such as
water absorption are investigated.},
keywords = {Optical coherence tomography, OCT, tunable laser, Fourier domain mode locking, FDML, MHz OCT},
year = {2016},
doi = {10.1117/12.2214758},
URL = {https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2214758}
}
Kerstin Schlott, Stefan Koinzer, Alexander Baade, Johann Roider, and Ralf Brinkmann,
Lesion strength control by automatic temperature guided retinal photocoagulation, Journal of Biomedical Optics , vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 098001-098001, 2016.
DOI:10.1117/1.JBO.21.9.098001
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Schlott2016,
   author = {Schlott, Kerstin and Koinzer, Stefan and Baade, Alexander and Birngruber, Reginald and Roider, Johann and Brinkmann, Ralf},
   title = {Lesion strength control by automatic temperature guided retinal photocoagulation},
   journal = {Journal of Biomedical Optics},
   volume = {21},
   number = {9},
   pages = {098001-098001},
   note = {10.1117/1.JBO.21.9.098001},
   abstract = {Abstract.  Laser photocoagulation is an established treatment for a variety of retinal diseases. However, when using the same irradiation parameter, the size and strength of the lesions are unpredictable due to unknown inter- and intraindividual optical properties of the fundus layers. The aim of this work is to investigate a feedback system to generate desired lesions of preselectable strengths by automatically controlling the irradiation time. Optoacoustics were used for retinal temperature monitoring. A 532-nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser was used for photocoagulation. A 75-ns/523-nm Q-switched Nd:YLF laser simultaneously excited temperature-dependent pressure transients, which were detected at the cornea by an ultrasonic transducer embedded in a contact lens. The temperature data were analyzed during the irradiation by a LabVIEW routine. The treatment laser was switched off automatically when the required lesion strength was achieved. Five different feedback control algorithms for different lesion sizes were developed and tested on rabbits in vivo. With a laser spot diameter of 133  μm, five different lesion types with ophthalmoscopically visible diameters ranging mostly between 100 and 200  μm, and different appearances were achieved by automatic exposure time control. The automatically controlled lesions were widely independent of the treatment laser power and the retinal pigmentation.},
   ISSN = {1083-3668},
   DOI = {10.1117/1.JBO.21.9.098001},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
M. Mall,
Intravital microscopy of mucus transport in mice provides mechanistic insight into hypertonic saline treatment of Cystic Fibrosis, Pneumologie , vol. 70, no. 07, pp. SOP2, 2016.
DOI:10.1055/s-0036-1584654
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Pieper2016,
   author = {Pieper, M. and Schulz-Hildebrandt, H. and Mall, M. and Hüttmann, G. and König, P.},
   title = {Intravital microscopy of mucus transport in mice provides mechanistic insight into hypertonic saline treatment of Cystic Fibrosis},
   journal = {Pneumologie},
   volume = {70},
   number = {07},
   pages = {SOP2},
   ISSN = {0934-8387},
   DOI = {10.1055/s-0036-1584654},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
Sijia Wang, Florian Rudnitzki, Heyke Diddens-Tschoeke, Zhenxi Zhang, and Ramtin Rahmanzadeh,
Indocyanine green as effective antibody conjugate for intracellular molecular targeted photodynamic therapy, Journal of Biomedical Optics , vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 078001-078001, 2016.
DOI:10.1117/1.JBO.21.7.078001
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Wang2016,
   author = {Wang, Sijia and Hüttmann, Gereon and Rudnitzki, Florian and Diddens-Tschoeke, Heyke and Zhang, Zhenxi and Rahmanzadeh, Ramtin},
   title = {Indocyanine green as effective antibody conjugate for intracellular molecular targeted photodynamic therapy},
   journal = {Journal of Biomedical Optics},
   volume = {21},
   number = {7},
   pages = {078001-078001},
   note = {10.1117/1.JBO.21.7.078001},
   abstract = {Abstract.  The fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) is clinically approved and has been applied for ophthalmic and intraoperative angiography, measurement of cardiac output and liver function, or as contrast agent in cancer surgery. Though ICG is known for its photochemical effects, it has played a minor role so far in photodynamic therapy or techniques for targeted protein-inactivation. Here, we investigated ICG as an antibody-conjugate for the selective inactivation of the protein Ki-67 in the nucleus of cells. Conjugates of the Ki-67 antibody TuBB-9 with different amounts of ICG were synthesized and delivered into HeLa and OVCAR-5 cells through conjugation to the nuclear localization sequence. Endosomal escape of the macromolecular antibodies into the cytoplasm was optically triggered by photochemical internalization with the photosensitizer BPD. The second light irradiation at 690 nm inactivated Ki-67 and subsequently caused cell death. Here, we show that ICG as an antibody-conjugate can be an effective photosensitizing agent. Best effects were achieved with 1.8 ICG molecules per antibody. Conjugated to antibodies, the ICG absorption peaks vary proportionally with concentration. The absorption of ICG above 650 nm within the optical window of tissue opens the possibility of selective Ki-67 inactivation deep inside of tissues.},
   ISSN = {1083-3668},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
Helge Sudkamp, Peter Koch, Hendrik Spahr, Dierck Hillmann, Gesa Franke, Michael Münst, and Fred Reinholz,
In-vivo retinal imaging with off-axis full-field time-domain optical coherence tomography, Optics Letters , vol. 41, no. 21, pp. 4987-4990, 2016.
DOI:10.1364/OL.41.004987
Datei: abstract.cfm
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{RN4897,
   author = {Sudkamp, Helge and Koch, Peter and Spahr, Hendrik and Hillmann, Dierck and Franke, Gesa and Münst, Michael and Reinholz, Fred and Birngruber, Reginald and Hüttmann, Gereon},
   title = {In-vivo retinal imaging with off-axis full-field time-domain optical coherence tomography},
   journal = {Optics Letters},
   volume = {41},
   number = {21},
   pages = {4987-4990},
   DOI = {10.1364/OL.41.004987},
   url = {http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-41-21-4987},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
Dierck Hillmann, Hendrik Spahr, Clara Pfäffle, Helge Sudkamp, and Gesa Franke,
In vivo optical imaging of physiological responses to photostimulation in human photoreceptors, PNAS Early Edition , pp. 1-6, 2016.
Datei: 1606428113.abstract
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Hillmann2016,
   author = {Hillmann, Dierck and Spahr, Hendrik and Pfäffle, Clara and Sudkamp, Helge and Franke, Gesa and Hüttmann, Gereon},
   title = {In vivo optical imaging of physiological responses to photostimulation in human photoreceptors},
   journal = {PNAS Early Edition},
   pages = {1-6},
   abstract = {Noninvasive functional imaging of molecular and cellular processes of vision may have immense impact on research and clinical diagnostics. Although suitable intrinsic optical signals (IOSs) have been observed ex vivo and in immobilized animals in vivo, detecting IOSs of photoreceptor activity in living humans was cumbersome and time consuming. Here, we observed clear spatially and temporally resolved changes in the optical path length of the photoreceptor outer segment as a response to an optical stimulus in the living human eye. To witness these changes, we evaluated phase data obtained with a parallelized and computationally aberration-corrected optical coherence tomography system. The noninvasive detection of optical path length changes shows neuronal photoreceptor activity of single cones in living human retina, and therefore, it may provide diagnostic options in ophthalmology and neurology and could provide insights into visual phototransduction in humans.},
   url = {http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2016/10/10/1606428113.abstract},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
Tianshi Wang, Tom Pfeiffer, Evelyn Regar, Wolfgang Wieser, Heleen van Beusekom, Charles T. Lancee, Geert Springeling, Ilona Krabbendam-Peters, Antonius F. W. van der Steen, Robert Huber, and Gijs van Soest,
Heartbeat OCT and Motion-Free 3D In Vivo Coronary Artery Microscopy, JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging , vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 622-623, 2016.
DOI:10.1016/j.jcmg.2015.08.010
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{WANG2016622,
title = {Heartbeat OCT and Motion-Free 3D In Vivo Coronary Artery Microscopy},
journal = {JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging},
volume = {9},
number = {5},
pages = {622-623},
year = {2016},
issn = {1936-878X},
doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2015.08.010},
url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1936878X15006713},
author = {Tianshi Wang and Tom Pfeiffer and Evelyn Regar and Wolfgang Wieser and Heleen {van Beusekom} and Charles T. Lancee and Geert Springeling and Ilona Krabbendam-Peters and Antonius F.W. {van der Steen} and Robert Huber and Gijs {van Soest}}
}
M. Ranjbar, M. P. Brinkmann, D. Zapf, M. Rudolf, and S. Grisanti,
Fc Receptor Inhibition Reduces Susceptibility to Oxidative Stress in Human RPE Cells Treated with Bevacizumab, but not Aflibercept, Cell Physiol Biochem , vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 737-47, 2016.
DOI:10.1159/000443030
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Ranjbar2016,
   author = {Ranjbar, M. and Brinkmann, M. P. and Zapf, D. and Miura, Y. and Rudolf, M. and Grisanti, S.},
   title = {Fc Receptor Inhibition Reduces Susceptibility to Oxidative Stress in Human RPE Cells Treated with Bevacizumab, but not Aflibercept},
   journal = {Cell Physiol Biochem},
   volume = {38},
   number = {2},
   pages = {737-47},
   note = {1421-9778
Ranjbar, Mahdy
Brinkmann, Max Philipp
Zapf, Dorinja
Miura, Yoko
Rudolf, Martin
Grisanti, Salvatore
Journal Article
Switzerland
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;38(2):737-47. doi: 10.1159/000443030. Epub 2016 Feb 15.},
   abstract = {BACKGROUND/AIMS: VEGF-A is induced by oxidative stress, and functions as a survival factor for various cell types, including retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs like aflibercept and bevacizumab have shown to be most effective in treating neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), however uptake of the drugs might lead to interference with cell physiology. Herein, we evaluated the significance of the Fc receptor (FcR) within this context and moreover explored the impact of VEGF inhibition under normal conditions as well as under oxidative stress, in terms of potential adverse effects. METHODS: ARPE-19 (human RPE) cells were treated with aflibercept and bevacizumab in presence or absence of H2O2 as oxidative stress stimulus. After 24h cells were evaluated for drug uptake, VEGF-A expression and secretion, levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as cell proliferation. Experiments were repeated with cells being pre-incubated with an FcR inhibitor prior to drug application. RESULTS: Both drugs inhibited extracellular levels of VEGF-A and were taken up into the RPE, resulting in significantly reduced intracellular levels of VEGF-A. When oxidative stress was applied, intracellular ROS levels in cells treated with both drugs rose, and cell proliferation was reduced. Prior incubation with the FcR inhibitor lessened the uptake of bevacizumab, but not aflibercept into RPE cells, and simultaneously enhanced cell survival under oxidative stress conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that uptake and accumulation of aflibercept and bevacizumab within RPE cells affect the intracellular VEGF-A metabolism negatively, leading to a biologically relevant reduced cell survival under oxidative stress. The FcR plays a substantial role in the uptake of bevacizumab, but not aflibercept, which allows an enhanced RPE cell survival through FcR blockage in an environment dominated by oxidative stress, as clinically significant for various inflammatory retinal disorders.},
   ISSN = {1015-8987},
   DOI = {10.1159/000443030},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
Regina Maushagen, Stefan Reers, Ann-Christin Pfannerstill, Angelina Hahlbrock, Roland Stauber, Ramtin Rahmanzadeh, Dirk Rades, Ralph Pries, and Barbara Wollenberg,
Effects of paclitaxel on permanent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and identification of anti-apoptotic caspase 9b, J Cancer Res Clin Oncol , vol. 142, no. 6, pp. 1261--71, 2016.
DOI:10.1007/s00432-016-2150-3
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Maushagen2016,
   title        = {Effects of paclitaxel on permanent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and identification of anti-apoptotic caspase 9b},
   author       = {Maushagen, R. and Reers, S. and Pfannerstill, A. C. and Hahlbrock, A. and Stauber, R. and Rahmanzadeh, R. and Rades, D. and Pries, R. and Wollenberg, B.},
   year         = 2016,
   journal      = {J Cancer Res Clin Oncol},
   volume       = 142,
   number       = 6,
   pages        = {1261--71},
   doi          = {10.1007/s00432-016-2150-3},
   issn         = {0171-5216},
   note         = {1432-1335 Maushagen, Regina Reers, Stefan Pfannerstill, Ann-Christin Hahlbrock, Angelina Stauber, Roland Rahmanzadeh, Ramtin Rades, Dirk Pries, Ralph Wollenberg, Barbara Journal Article Germany J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016 Jun;142(6):1261-71. doi: 10.1007/s00432-016-2150-3. Epub 2016 Apr 1.},
   abstract     = {PURPOSE: Paclitaxel is an effective chemotherapeutic agent against various human tumors inducing apoptosis via binding to beta-tubulin of microtubules and arresting cells mainly in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. However, the underlying specific molecular mechanisms of paclitaxel on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have not been identified yet. METHODS: The apoptotic effects and mechanisms of paclitaxel on different permanent HPV-negative HNSCC cell lines (UT-SCC-24A, UT-SCC-24B, UT-SCC-60A and UT-SCC-60B) were determined by flow cytometry assays, polymerase chain reaction analysis, immunofluorescence-based assays and sequencing studies. RESULTS: Paclitaxel induced a G2/M arrest in HNSCC cell lines followed by an increased amount of apoptotic cells. Moreover, the activation of caspase 8, caspase 10 and caspase 3, and the loss of the mitochondrial outer membrane potential could be observed, whereas an activation of caspase 9 could barely be detected. The efficient activation of caspase 9 was not affected by altered methylation patterns. Our results can show that the promoter region of apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) was not methylated in the HNSCC cell lines. By sequencing analysis two isoforms of caspase 9, the pro-apoptotic caspase 9 and the anti-apoptotic caspase 9b were identified. The anti-apoptotic caspase 9b is missing the catalytic site and acts as an endogenous inhibitor of apoptosis by blocking the binding of caspase 9 to Apaf-1 to form the apoptosome. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate the presence of anti-apoptotic caspase 9b in HNSCC, which may serve as a promising target to increase chemotherapeutic apoptosis induction.},
   keywords     = {Apoptosis Caspase 9b Caspases Head and neck cancer Paclitaxel},
   type         = {Journal Article}
}
D. Hillmann, C. Hain, C. Pfäffle, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, and P. Koch,
Darstellung von Blutfluss und Pulsation in retinalen Gefäßen mit Full-Field-Swept-Source-OCT, Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd , vol. 233, no. 12, pp. 1324-1330, 2016.
DOI:10.1055/s-0042-120279
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{Spahr2016,
   author = {Spahr, H. and Hillmann, D. and Hain, C. and Pfäffle, C. and Sudkamp, H. and Franke, G. and Koch, P. and Hüttmann, G.},
   title = {Darstellung von Blutfluss und Pulsation in retinalen Gefäßen mit Full-Field-Swept-Source-OCT},
   journal = {Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd},
   volume = {233},
   number = {12},
   pages = {1324-1330},
   ISSN = {0023-2165},
   DOI = {10.1055/s-0042-120279},
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
B. J. Tromberg, R. R. Anderson, M. W. Berns, J. A. Parrish, and G. Apiou-Sbirlea,
Biomedical optics centers: forty years of multidisciplinary clinical translation for improving human health, J Biomed Opt , vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 124001, 2016.
DOI:10.1117/1.JBO.21.12.124001
Bibtex: BibTeX
@article{RN5040,
   author = {Tromberg, B. J. and Anderson, R. R. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R. and Berns, M. W. and Parrish, J. A. and Apiou-Sbirlea, G.},
   title = {Biomedical optics centers: forty years of multidisciplinary clinical translation for improving human health},
   journal = {J Biomed Opt},
   volume = {21},
   number = {12},
   pages = {124001},
   ISSN = {1560-2281 (Electronic)
1083-3668 (Linking)},
   DOI = {10.1117/1.JBO.21.12.124001},
  
   year = {2016},
   type = {Journal Article}
}
Katharina Bliedtner, Eric Seifert, Leoni Stockmann, Lisa Effe, and Ralf Brinkmann,
Towards real time speckle controlled retinal photocoagulation, 2016. pp. 96931A-96931A-6.
Datei: 12.2212703
Bibtex: BibTeX
@inproceedings{Bliedtner2016,
   author = {Bliedtner, Katharina and Seifert, Eric and Stockmann, Leoni and Effe, Lisa and Brinkmann, Ralf},
   title = {Towards real time speckle controlled retinal photocoagulation},
   volume = {9693},
   pages = {96931A-96931A-6},
   note = {10.1117/12.2212703},
   abstract = {Photocoagulation is a laser treatment widely used for the therapy of several retinal diseases. Intra- and inter-individual variations of the ocular transmission, light scattering and the retinal absorption makes it impossible to achieve a uniform effective exposure and hence a uniform damage throughout the therapy. A real-time monitoring and control of the induced damage is highly requested. Here, an approach to realize a real time optical feedback using dynamic speckle analysis is presented. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser is used for coagulation. During coagulation, speckle dynamics are monitored by a coherent object illumination using a 633nm HeNe laser and analyzed by a CMOS camera with a frame rate up to 1 kHz. It is obvious that a control system needs to determine whether the desired damage is achieved to shut down the system in a fraction of the exposure time. Here we use a fast and simple adaption of the generalized difference algorithm to analyze the speckle movements. This algorithm runs on a FPGA and is able to calculate a feedback value which is correlated to the thermal and coagulation induced tissue motion and thus the achieved damage. For different spot sizes (50-200 μm) and different exposure times (50-500 ms) the algorithm shows the ability to discriminate between different categories of retinal pigment epithelial damage ex-vivo in enucleated porcine eyes. Furthermore in-vivo experiments in rabbits show the ability of the system to determine tissue changes in living tissue during coagulation.},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2212703},
   type = {Conference Proceedings},
year = { 2016}
}