Publikationen

2019

  • Freidank, S;Vogel, A;Anderson, R. R.;Birngruber, R and Linz, N: Correction of hyperopia by intrastromal cutting and liquid filler injection. J Biomed Opt 24 (5), pp. 1-7, 7, 2019
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Freidank2019,
       author = {Freidank, S;Vogel, A;Anderson, R. R.;Birngruber, R and Linz, N},
       title = {Correction of hyperopia by intrastromal cutting and liquid filler injection},
       journal = {J Biomed Opt} {24 (5)},
      
       number = {5 %J Journal of Biomedical Optics},
       pages = {1-7, 7},
       
       url = {https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.24.5.058001},
       year = {2019},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Kolb, J P;Weng, D;Hakert, H;Eibl, M;Draxinger, W;Meyer, T;Gottschall, T;Brinkmann, R;Birngruber, R;Popp, J;Limpert, J;Karpf, S and Huber, R: Virtual HE histology by fiber-based picosecond two-photon microscopy. in Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences XIX Proc. SPIE,10882, pp. 108822F, International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2019
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Kolb2019/2,
       author = {Kolb, J P;Weng, D;Hakert, H;Eibl, M;Draxinger, W;Meyer, T;Gottschall, T;Brinkmann, R;Birngruber, R;Popp, J;Limpert, J;Karpf, S and Huber, R},
       title = {Virtual HE histology by fiber-based picosecond two-photon microscopy},
       booktitle = {Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences XIX} {Proc. SPIE,10882},
       editor = {Ammasi Periasamy; Peter T. C. So; Karsten König},
       publisher = { International Society for Optics and Photonics},
       year = {2019},
       pages = {108822F},
    keywords = {AG-Huber_NL},
       
    doi = {10.1117/12.2507866},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    

2018

  • Seifert, E; Tode, J; Pielen, A; Theisen-Kunde, D; Framme, C; Roider, J; Miura, Y; Birngruber, R and Brinkmann, R: Selective retina therapy: toward an optically controlled automatic dosing. J Biomed Opt 23(11), pp. 1-12, 2018
    BibTeX Link
    @article{seifert2018,
       author = {Seifert, E; Tode, J; Pielen, A; Theisen-Kunde, D; Framme, C; Roider, J; Miura, Y; Birngruber, R and Brinkmann, R},
       title = {Selective retina therapy: toward an optically controlled automatic dosing},
       journal = {J Biomed Opt} {23(11)},
       
       pages = {1-12},
       ISSN = {1560-2281 (Electronic)
    1083-3668 (Linking)},
       DOI = {10.1117/1.JBO.23.11.115002},   
    keywords = {algorithm, lasers in medicine, ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, selective retina therapy, selectivity}
       year = {2018},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Sudkamp, H; Hillmann, D; Koch, P;vom Endt, M; Spahr, H; Münst, M; Pfäffle, C; Birngruber, R and Hüttmann, G: Simple approach for aberration-corrected OCT imaging of the human retina. Opt Lett 43(17), pp. 4224, 2018
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Sudkamp2018a,
       author = {Sudkamp, H; Hillmann, D; Koch, P;vom Endt, M; Spahr, H; Münst, M; Pfäffle, C; Birngruber, R and Hüttmann, G},
       title = {Simple approach for aberration-corrected OCT imaging of the human retina},
       journal = {Opt Lett} {43(17)},
       
       pages = {4224},
       ISSN = {0146-9592
    1539-4794},
       DOI = {10.1364/ol.43.004224},
       year = {2018},
       type = {Journal Article},
       keyword = {Retome}
    }
    
  • Evers, M ;Salma, N; Osseiran, S; Casper, M; Birngruber, R; Evans, C L and Manstein, D: Enhanced quantification of metabolic activity for individual adipocytes by label-free FLIM. Scientific Reports 8(1), 2018
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Evers2018,
       author = {Evers, M ;Salma, N; Osseiran, S; Casper, M; Birngruber, R; Evans, C L and Manstein, D},
       title = {Enhanced quantification of metabolic activity for individual adipocytes by label-free FLIM},
       journal = {Scientific Reports} {8(1)},
       
       DOI = {10.1038/s41598-018-27093-x},
       
       year = {2018},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Evers, M; Ha, L; Casper, M; Welford, D; Kositratna, G; Birngruber, R and Manstein, D: Assessment of skin lesions produced by focused, tunable, mid-infrared chalcogenide laser radiation. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 50(4), 2018
    BibTeX Link
    @article{ Evers2018
       author = {Evers, M; Ha, L; Casper, M; Welford, D; Kositratna, G; Birngruber, R and Manstein, D},
       title = {Assessment of skin lesions produced by focused, tunable, mid-infrared chalcogenide laser radiation},
       journal = {Lasers in Surgery and Medicine} {50(4)},
       DOI = {10.1002/lsm.22935},
      
       year = {2018},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Casper, M; Schulz-Hildebrandt, H; Evers, M; Birngruber, R; Manstein, D and Hüttmann, G: Optimized segmentation and characterization of capillary networks using OCT (Conference Presentation). Proc.SPIE 10467, in Proc. SPIE 10467, Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery 2018, 2018
    BibTeX Link Link
    @conference{Casper2018,
    title = {Optimized segmentation and characterization of capillary networks using OCT (Conference Presentation)},
    author = {Casper, M; Schulz-Hildebrandt, H; Evers, M; Birngruber, R; Manstein, D and H\"{u}ttmann, G },
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2292005},
    doi = {10.1117/12.2292005},
    year = {2018},
    date = {2018-03-14},
    booktitle = {Proc. SPIE 10467, Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery 2018},
    journal = {Proc.SPIE} {10467},
    
    abstract = {The ability to image the physiology of microvasculature with high spatial resolution in three dimensions while investigating structural changes of skin, is essential for understanding the complex processes of skin aging, wound healing and disease development. Further, the quantitative, automatic assessment of these changes enables to analyze large amounts of image data in an abstract but comprehensive manner. 
    However, previous work using OCT with methods of angiography was imaging less scattering, hence more challenging tissue than skin, such as brain and retina tissue. The published methods for capillary segmentation were mostly non-automatic, poorly benchmarked against state-of-the-art methods of computer vision and not applied to investigate medical processes and studies in a comprehensive fashion. 
    Here, segmentation of capillaries in skin is reported and its efficacy is demonstrated in both, a 
    longitudinal mouse study and a preliminary study in humans. By combining state-of-the-art image 
    processing methods in an optimized way, we were able to improve the segmentation results and analyze the impact of each post-processing step. 
    Furthermore, this automatic segmentation enabled us to analyze big amounts of 
    datasets automatically and derive meaningful conclusions for the planning of clinical studies. 
    With this work, optical coherence tomography is combined with methods of computer vision to a diagnostic 
    tool with unique capabilities to characterize vascular diversity and provide extraordinary 
    opportunities for dermatological investigation in both, clinics and research.},
    keywords = {},
    pubstate = {published},
    tppubtype = {conference}
    }

2017

  • Seiler, T G; Engler, M; Beck, E; Birngruber, R and Kochevar, I E: Interface bonding with corneal crosslinking (CXL) after LASIK ex vivo. Investig Ophthal and Vis Scie 58(14), pp. 6292-6298, 2017
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Seiler2017,
       author = {Seiler, T G; Engler, M; Beck, E; Birngruber, R and Kochevar, I E},
       title = {Interface bonding with corneal crosslinking (CXL) after LASIK ex vivo},
       journal = {Investig Ophthal and Vis Scie} {58(14)},
       
       pages = {6292-6298},
       DOI = {10.1167/iovs.17-22426},
       
       year = {2017},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Baade, A; von der Burchard, C; Lawin, M; Koinzer, S; Schmarbeck, B; Schlott, K; Miura, Y; Roider, J; Birngruber, R and Brinkmann, R: Power-controlled temperature guided retinal laser therapy. J Biomed Opt 22(11), pp. 1-11, 2017
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Baade2017,
       author = {Baade, A; von der Burchard, C; Lawin, M; Koinzer, S; Schmarbeck, B; Schlott, K; Miura, Y; Roider, J; Birngruber, R and Brinkmann, R},
       title = {Power-controlled temperature guided retinal laser therapy},
       journal = {J Biomed Opt} {22(11)},
       
       pages = {1-11},
       ISSN = {1083-3668},
       DOI = {10.1117/1.jbo.22.11.118001},
       year = {2017},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Malte Casper and Hinnerk Schulz-Hildebrandt and Michael Evers and Cuc Nguyen and Reginald Birngruber and Gereon Hüttmann and Dieter Manstein: Imaging cold-induced vasodynamic behaviour in skin using OCT for microangiography (Conference Presentation). in Proceedings Volume 10037, Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery, no. 10037OS, 2017
    BibTeX Link
    @conference{Casper2017,
    title = {Imaging cold-induced vasodynamic behaviour in skin using OCT for microangiography (Conference Presentation)},
    author = {Malte Casper and Hinnerk Schulz-Hildebrandt and Michael Evers and Cuc Nguyen and Reginald Birngruber and Gereon H\"{u}ttmann and Dieter Manstein},
    editor = {Spie},
    doi = {doi: 10.1117/12.2251485},
    year = {2017},
    date = {2017-04-19},
    booktitle = {Proceedings Volume 10037, Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery},
    volume = {10037OS},
    abstract = {In dermatology the reflexes of vasoconstriction and vasodilation are known as important mechanisms of thermoregulation of the inner body. Imaging the physiology of microvasculature of the skin with high spatial resolution in three dimensions while reacting to changes in temperature is crucial for understanding the complex processes of vasodynamics, which result in constriction and dilation of vessels. However, previous studies using Laser-Doppler flowmetry and -imaging could not provide reliable angiographic images which allow to quantify changes in blood vessel diameter. Here, we report a different approach for angiographic imaging of microvasculature of a anaesthetized rodent model using speckle variance optical coherence tomography (svOCT) during and after localized cooling. Therefore a commercial OCT with a center wavelength of 1.3 μm and a spatial resolution of 13µm was used in combination with a custom built cooling device to image such reflexes at the mouse ear pinna and dorsal skinfold. Cooling was applied in steps of 2−5◦ C starting at the baseline temperature of 27◦ C down to −10◦ C. To our surprise and in contrast to the general opinion in literature, we were able to observe that the majority of vessels with a diameter larger than 20 μm maintain perfused with a constant diameter when the tissue is cooled from baseline to subzero temperatures. However, vasoconstriction was observed very rarely and only in veins, which led to their occlusion. The results of this experiment lead us to reconsider essential aspects of previous understanding of temperature-induced vasodynamics in cutaneous microvasculature.},
    keywords = {},
    pubstate = {published},
    tppubtype = {conference}
    }

2016

  • Tromberg, B. J. and Anderson, R. R. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R. and Berns, M. W. and Parrish, J. A. and Apiou-Sbirlea, G.: Biomedical optics centers: forty years of multidisciplinary clinical translation for improving human health. J Biomed Opt, no. 21, pp. 124001, 2016
    BibTeX Link
    @article{RN5034,
       author = {Tromberg, B. J. and Anderson, R. R. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R. and Berns, M. W. and Parrish, J. A. and Apiou-Sbirlea, G.},
       title = {Biomedical optics centers: forty years of multidisciplinary clinical translation for improving human health},
       journal = {J Biomed Opt},
       volume = {21},
       number = {12},
       pages = {124001},
       ISSN = {1560-2281 (Electronic)
    1083-3668 (Linking)},
       DOI = {10.1117/1.JBO.21.12.124001},   
       year = {2016},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Sudkamp, Helge and Koch, Peter and Spahr, Hendrik and Hillmann, Dierck and Franke, Gesa and Münst, Michael and Reinholz, Fred and Birngruber, Reginald and Hüttmann, Gereon: In-vivo retinal imaging with off-axis full-field time-domain optical coherence tomography. Optics Letters, no. 41, pp. 4987-4990, 2016
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Sudkamp2016,
       author = {Sudkamp, Helge and Koch, Peter and Spahr, Hendrik and Hillmann, Dierck and Franke, Gesa and Münst, Michael and Reinholz, Fred and Birngruber, Reginald and Hüttmann, Gereon},
       title = {In-vivo retinal imaging with off-axis full-field time-domain optical coherence tomography},
       journal = {Optics Letters},
       volume = {41},
       number = {21},
       pages = {4987-4990},
       abstract = {With a simple setup, mainly composed of a low coherence light source and a camera, full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) allows volumetric tissue imaging. However, fringe washout constrains its use in retinal imaging. Here, we present a novel motion-insensitive approach to FF-OCT, which introduces path-length differences between the reference and the sample light in neighboring pixels using an off-axis reference beam. The temporal carrier frequency in scanned time-domain OCT is replaced by a spatial carrier frequency. Volumetric in-vivo FF-OCT measurements of the human retina were acquired in only 1.3 s, comparable to the acquisition times of current clinically used OCT devices.},
       keywords = {Imaging systems
    Coherence imaging
    Optical coherence tomography
    Frequency filtering
    Interferometric imaging},
    DOI = {10.1364/OL.41.004987}
     url= {https://www.osapublishing.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-41-21-4987}  
       year = {2016},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Huttmann, Gereon and Moltmann, Moritz and Spahr, Hendrik and Tode, Jan and de Roeck, Anna and Theisen-Kunde, Dirk and Birngruber, Reginald and Koinzer, Stefan and Brinkmann, Ralf: Retinal lesion formation during photocoagulation investigated by high-speed 1060 nm Doppler-OCT: first clinical results. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 57, pp. 5852-5852, 2016
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Hüttmann2016,
       author = {Huttmann, Gereon and Moltmann, Moritz and Spahr, Hendrik and Tode, Jan and de Roeck, Anna and Theisen-Kunde, Dirk and Birngruber, Reginald and Koinzer, Stefan and Brinkmann, Ralf},
       title = {Retinal lesion formation during photocoagulation investigated by high-speed 1060 nm Doppler-OCT: first clinical results},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {57},
       number = {12},
       pages = {5852-5852},
       abstract = {Abstract Purpose : The molecular processes during heating with a photocoagulation laser, particularly in sub-visible or mere thermal stimulation treatment, have only partly been understood, and different theories exist that try to explain its clinical efficacy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was successfully used to grade lesions with high accuracy 1 hour after the treatments and beyond. During the irradiation, changes in tissue scattering and, by use of the Doppler signal, tissue motion caused by thermal expansion and coagulation-induced tissue contraction were shown to correlate ex-vivo and in rabbits with the strength of photocoagulation lesions. Aim of this study was to validate feasibility and reproducibility of these results in humans. Methods : In an ongoing study more than 100 lesions of three patients have been imaged with a slitlamp-based OCT (1060 nm, 90,000 A-scans/s) with varying irradiance during laser exposure. Durations of the exposure were 50 ms and 200 ms; spot size was 300 µm. Eye movements and heart beat were corrected by cross-correlation of the images. Increased tissue scattering and movement of the neuronal retina due to thermal expansion were determined from the image sequences with 3 ms temporal resolution. Results : In the first treatments with this prototype device, we received acceptable image quality in 1/3 of the lesions. Changes in the neuronal retina were successful visualized during and after the laser irradiation, demonstrating the feasibility of a real-time assessment of initial effects of photocoagulation in humans. Lesion visibility in standard, reflection-based OCT was much weaker during treatment compared to 1 hour afterwards. Increased tissue scattering was observed in stronger lesions already during the laser irradiation. At reduced irradiance, scattering increase was only observed after the end of irradiation. However, tissue motion towards the vitreous was still observed in these cases. Conclusions : In conclusion, high-speed OCT recording during photocoagulation measures initial tissue changes during photocoagulation in humans. It may enhance our understanding of the tissue dynamics right after laser irradiation. It may provide useful information for a real-time dosage control as well. This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.},
       ISSN = {1552-5783},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/},
       year = {2016},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schlott, Kerstin and Koinzer, Stefan and Baade, Alexander and Birngruber, Reginald and Roider, Johann and Brinkmann, Ralf: Lesion strength control by automatic temperature guided retinal photocoagulation. Journal of Biomedical Optics, no. 21, pp. 098001-098001, 2016
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schlott2016,
       author = {Schlott, Kerstin and Koinzer, Stefan and Baade, Alexander and Birngruber, Reginald and Roider, Johann and Brinkmann, Ralf},
       title = {Lesion strength control by automatic temperature guided retinal photocoagulation},
       journal = {Journal of Biomedical Optics},
       volume = {21},
       number = {9},
       pages = {098001-098001},
       note = {10.1117/1.JBO.21.9.098001},
       abstract = {Abstract.  Laser photocoagulation is an established treatment for a variety of retinal diseases. However, when using the same irradiation parameter, the size and strength of the lesions are unpredictable due to unknown inter- and intraindividual optical properties of the fundus layers. The aim of this work is to investigate a feedback system to generate desired lesions of preselectable strengths by automatically controlling the irradiation time. Optoacoustics were used for retinal temperature monitoring. A 532-nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser was used for photocoagulation. A 75-ns/523-nm Q-switched Nd:YLF laser simultaneously excited temperature-dependent pressure transients, which were detected at the cornea by an ultrasonic transducer embedded in a contact lens. The temperature data were analyzed during the irradiation by a LabVIEW routine. The treatment laser was switched off automatically when the required lesion strength was achieved. Five different feedback control algorithms for different lesion sizes were developed and tested on rabbits in vivo. With a laser spot diameter of 133  μm, five different lesion types with ophthalmoscopically visible diameters ranging mostly between 100 and 200  μm, and different appearances were achieved by automatic exposure time control. The automatically controlled lesions were widely independent of the treatment laser power and the retinal pigmentation.},
       ISSN = {1083-3668},
       DOI = {10.1117/1.JBO.21.9.098001},
       year = {2016},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

2015

  • Niu, C. J. and Fisher, C. and Scheffler, K. and Wan, R. and Maleki, H. and Liu, H. and Sun, Y. and A. Simmons, C. and Birngruber, R. and Lilge, L.: Polyacrylamide gel substrates that simulate the mechanical stiffness of normal and malignant neuronal tissues increase protoporphyin IX synthesis in glioma cells. Journal of Biomedical Optics, no. 20,
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Niu2015,
       author = {Niu, C. J. and Fisher, C. and Scheffler, K. and Wan, R. and Maleki, H. and Liu, H. and Sun, Y. and A. Simmons, C. and Birngruber, R. and Lilge, L.},
       title = {Polyacrylamide gel substrates that simulate the mechanical stiffness of normal and malignant neuronal tissues increase protoporphyin IX synthesis in glioma cells},
       journal = {Journal of Biomedical Optics},
       volume = {20},
       number = {9},
       DOI = {10.1117/1.JBO.20.9.098002},
      
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela and Tearney, Guillermo J. and Birngruber, Reginald and Hasan, Tayyaba and Anderson, Richard Rox: Anatomy and physiology of translation: the academic research imperative. Clinical Investigation, no. 5, pp. 797-804, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Apiou-Sbirlea2015,
       author = {Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela and Tearney, Guillermo J. and Birngruber, Reginald and Hasan, Tayyaba and Anderson, Richard Rox},
       title = {Anatomy and physiology of translation: the academic research imperative},
       journal = {Clinical Investigation},
       volume = {5},
       number = {10},
       pages = {797-804},
       ISSN = {2041-6792},
       DOI = {10.4155/cli.15.46},
     ,
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wang, S. and Huttmann, G. and Zhang, Z. and Vogel, A. and Birngruber, R. and Tangutoori, S. and Hasan, T. and Rahmanzadeh, R.: Light-Controlled Delivery of Monoclonal Antibodies for Targeted Photoinactivation of Ki-67. Mol Pharm, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Wang2015,
       author = {Wang, S. and Huttmann, G. and Zhang, Z. and Vogel, A. and Birngruber, R. and Tangutoori, S. and Hasan, T. and Rahmanzadeh, R.},
       title = {Light-Controlled Delivery of Monoclonal Antibodies for Targeted Photoinactivation of Ki-67},
       journal = {Mol Pharm},
       note = {1543-8392
    Wang, Sijia
    Huttmann, Gereon
    Zhang, Zhenxi
    Vogel, Alfred
    Birngruber, Reginald
    Tangutoori, Shifalika
    Hasan, Tayyaba
    Rahmanzadeh, Ramtin
    Journal article
    Mol Pharm. 2015 Aug 13.},
       abstract = {The selective inhibition of intracellular and nuclear molecules such as Ki-67 holds great promise for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. However, the choice of the target protein and the intracellular delivery of the functional agent remain crucial challenges. Main hurdles are (a) an effective delivery into cells, (b) endosomal escape of the delivered agents, and (c) an effective, externally triggered destruction of cells. Here we show a light-controlled two-step approach for selective cellular delivery and cell elimination of proliferating cells. Three different cell-penetrating nano constructs, including liposomes, conjugates with the nuclear localization sequence (NLS), and conjugates with the cell penetrating peptide Pep-1, delivered the light activatable antibody conjugate TuBB-9-FITC, which targets the proliferation associated protein Ki-67. HeLa cells were treated with the photosensitizer benzoporphyrin monoacid derivative (BPD) and the antibody constructs. In the first optically controlled step, activation of BPD at 690 nm triggered a controlled endosomal escape of the TuBB-9-FITC constructs. In more than 75% of Ki-67 positive, irradiated cells TuBB-9-FITC antibodies relocated within 24 h from cytoplasmic organelles to the cell nucleus and bound to Ki-67. After a second light irradiation at 490 nm, which activated FITC, cell viability decreased to approximately 13%. Our study shows an effective targeting strategy, which uses light-controlled endosomal escape and the light inactivation of Ki-67 for cell elimination. The fact that liposomal or peptide-assisted delivery give similar results leads to the additional conclusion that an effective mechanism for endosomal escape leaves greater variability for the choice of the delivery agent.},
       keywords = {endosomal entrapment
    liposome
    nanotechnology
    nuclear localization sequence (NLS)
    photodynamic therapy},
       ISSN = {1543-8384},
       DOI = {10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.5b00260},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Baade, A and Schwarzer, W and Koinzer, S and Schlott, K and Birngruber, R and Brinkman, R: Power-controlled temperature guided retinal photocoagulation. in Photonic West BIOS,
    BibTeX
    @inproceedings{Baade2015,
       author = {Baade, A and Schwarzer, W and Koinzer, S and Schlott, K and Birngruber, R and Brinkman, R},
       title = {Power-controlled temperature guided retinal photocoagulation },
       booktitle = {Photonic West BIOS},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Huttmann, Gereon and Koinzer, Stefan Otto Johannes and Müller, Heike and Ellerkamp, Iris and Baade, Alex and Moltmann, Moritz and Theisen-Kunde, Dirk and Lange, Birgit and Brinkmann, Ralf and Birngruber, Reginald: Predicting ophthalmoscopic visibility of retinal photocoagulation lesions byhigh-speedOCT: an animal studyinrabbits. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 56, pp. 5980-5980, 2015
    BibTeX
    @article{Hüttmann2015,
       author = {Huttmann, Gereon and Koinzer, Stefan Otto Johannes and Müller, Heike and Ellerkamp, Iris and Baade, Alex and Moltmann, Moritz and Theisen-Kunde, Dirk and Lange, Birgit and Brinkmann, Ralf and Birngruber, Reginald},
       title = {Predicting ophthalmoscopic visibility of retinal photocoagulation lesions byhigh-speedOCT: an animal studyinrabbits},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {56},
       number = {7},
       pages = {5980-5980},
       ISSN = {1552-5783},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Niu, C. J. and Fisher, C. and Scheffler, K. and Wan, R. and Maleki, H. and Liu, H. and Sun, Y. and C, A. Simmons and Birngruber, R. and Lilge, L.: Polyacrylamide gel substrates that simulate the mechanical stiffness of normal and malignant neuronal tissues increase protoporphyin IX synthesis in glioma cells. J Biomed Opt, no. 20, pp. 098002, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Niu2015,
       author = {Niu, C. J. and Fisher, C. and Scheffler, K. and Wan, R. and Maleki, H. and Liu, H. and Sun, Y. and C, A. Simmons and Birngruber, R. and Lilge, L.},
       title = {Polyacrylamide gel substrates that simulate the mechanical stiffness of normal and malignant neuronal tissues increase protoporphyin IX synthesis in glioma cells},
       journal = {J Biomed Opt},
       volume = {20},
       number = {9},
       pages = {098002},
       note = {1560-2281
    Niu, Carolyn J
    Fisher, Carl
    Scheffler, Kira
    Wan, Rachel
    Maleki, Hoda
    Liu, Haijiao
    Sun, Yu
    A Simmons, Craig
    Birngruber, Reginald
    Lilge, Lothar
    Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    United States
    J Biomed Opt. 2015 Sep;20(9):098002. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.20.9.098002.},
       abstract = {Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) produced following the administration of exogenous 5d-aminolevulinic acid is clinically approved for photodynamic therapy and fluorescence-guided resection in various jurisdictions around the world. For both applications, quantification of PPIX forms the basis for accurate therapeutic dose calculation and identification of malignant tissues for resection. While it is well established that the PPIX synthesis and accumulation rates are subject to the cell's biochemical microenvironment, the effect of the physical microenvironment, such as matrix stiffness, has received little attention to date. Here we studied the proliferation rate and PPIX synthesis and accumulation in two glioma cell lines U373 and U118 cultured under five different substrate conditions, including the conventional tissue culture plastic and polyacrylamide gels that simulated tissue stiffness of normal brain (1 kPa) and glioblastoma tumors (12 kPa). We found that the proliferation rate increased with substrate stiffness for both cell lines, but not in a linear fashion. PPIX concentration was significantly higher in cells cultured on tissue-simulating gels than on the much stiffer tissue culture plastic for both cell lines. These findings, albeit preliminary, suggest that the physical microenvironment might be an important determinant of tumor aggressiveness and PPIX synthesis in glioma cells.},
       ISSN = {1083-3668},
       DOI = {10.1117/1.jbo.20.9.098002},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

2014

  • Evers, M. and Ha, L. and Welford, D. and Birngruber, R. and Manstein, D.: Wavelength-Dependence of Fractional Ablations in Biological Materials Using a Tunable Cr2+:Znse/S Infrared Laser. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, no. 46, pp. 38-39, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Evers2014,
       author = {Evers, M. and Ha, L. and Welford, D. and Birngruber, R. and Manstein, D.},
       title = {Wavelength-Dependence of Fractional Ablations in Biological Materials Using a Tunable Cr2+:Znse/S Infrared Laser},
       journal = {Lasers in Surgery and Medicine},
       volume = {46},
       pages = {38-39},
       note = {Suppl. 25
    Ad2hq
    119
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0196-8092},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000333055800109},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Li, Z. X. and Roussakis, E. and Koolen, P. G. L. and Ibrahim, A. M. S. and Kim, K. and Rose, L. F. and Wu, J. and Nichols, A. J. and Baek, Y. and Birngruber, R. and Apiou-Sbirlea, G. and Matyal, R. and Huang, T. and Chan, R. and Lin, S. J. and Evans, C. L.: Non-invasive transdermal two-dimensional mapping of cutaneous oxygenation with a rapid-drying liquid bandage. Biomedical Optics Express, no. 5, pp. 3748-3764, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Li2014,
       author = {Li, Z. X. and Roussakis, E. and Koolen, P. G. L. and Ibrahim, A. M. S. and Kim, K. and Rose, L. F. and Wu, J. and Nichols, A. J. and Baek, Y. and Birngruber, R. and Apiou-Sbirlea, G. and Matyal, R. and Huang, T. and Chan, R. and Lin, S. J. and Evans, C. L.},
       title = {Non-invasive transdermal two-dimensional mapping of cutaneous oxygenation with a rapid-drying liquid bandage},
       journal = {Biomedical Optics Express},
       volume = {5},
       number = {11},
       pages = {3748-3764},
       ISSN = {2156-7085},
       DOI = {10.1364/Boe.5.003748},
      
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Li, Z. and Roussakis, E. and Koolen, P. G. and Ibrahim, A. M. and Kim, K. and Rose, L. F. and Wu, J. and Nichols, A. J. and Baek, Y. and Birngruber, R. and Apiou-Sbirlea, G. and Matyal, R. and Huang, T. and Chan, R. and Lin, S. J. and Evans, C. L.: Non-invasive transdermal two-dimensional mapping of cutaneous oxygenation with a rapid-drying liquid bandage. Biomed Opt Express, no. 5, pp. 3748-64, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Li2014,
       author = {Li, Z. and Roussakis, E. and Koolen, P. G. and Ibrahim, A. M. and Kim, K. and Rose, L. F. and Wu, J. and Nichols, A. J. and Baek, Y. and Birngruber, R. and Apiou-Sbirlea, G. and Matyal, R. and Huang, T. and Chan, R. and Lin, S. J. and Evans, C. L.},
       title = {Non-invasive transdermal two-dimensional mapping of cutaneous oxygenation with a rapid-drying liquid bandage},
       journal = {Biomed Opt Express},
       volume = {5},
       number = {11},
       pages = {3748-64},
       note = {2156-7085
    Li, Zongxi
    Roussakis, Emmanuel
    Koolen, Pieter G L
    Ibrahim, Ahmed M S
    Kim, Kuylhee
    Rose, Lloyd F
    Wu, Jesse
    Nichols, Alexander J
    Baek, Yunjung
    Birngruber, Reginald
    Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela
    Matyal, Robina
    Huang, Thomas
    Chan, Rodney
    Lin, Samuel J
    Evans, Conor L
    Journal Article
    United States
    Biomed Opt Express. 2014 Oct 1;5(11):3748-64. doi: 10.1364/BOE.5.003748. eCollection 2014 Nov 1.},
       abstract = {Oxygen plays an important role in wound healing, as it is essential to biological functions such as cell proliferation, immune responses and collagen synthesis. Poor oxygenation is directly associated with the development of chronic ischemic wounds, which affect more than 6 million people each year in the United States alone at an estimated cost of $25 billion. Knowledge of oxygenation status is also important in the management of burns and skin grafts, as well as in a wide range of skin conditions. Despite the importance of the clinical determination of tissue oxygenation, there is a lack of rapid, user-friendly and quantitative diagnostic tools that allow for non-disruptive, continuous monitoring of oxygen content across large areas of skin and wounds to guide care and therapeutic decisions. In this work, we describe a sensitive, colorimetric, oxygen-sensing paint-on bandage for two-dimensional mapping of tissue oxygenation in skin, burns, and skin grafts. By embedding both an oxygen-sensing porphyrin-dendrimer phosphor and a reference dye in a liquid bandage matrix, we have created a liquid bandage that can be painted onto the skin surface and dries into a thin film that adheres tightly to the skin or wound topology. When captured by a camera-based imaging device, the oxygen-dependent phosphorescence emission of the bandage can be used to quantify and map both the pO2 and oxygen consumption of the underlying tissue. In this proof-of-principle study, we first demonstrate our system on a rat ischemic limb model to show its capabilities in sensing tissue ischemia. It is then tested on both ex vivo and in vivo porcine burn models to monitor the progression of burn injuries. Lastly, the bandage is applied to an in vivo porcine graft model for monitoring the integration of full- and partial-thickness skin grafts.},
       keywords = {(160.2540) Fluorescent and luminescent materials
    (170.2655) Functional monitoring and imaging
    (170.3880) Medical and biological imaging
    (170.6510) Spectroscopy, tissue diagnostics},
       ISSN = {2156-7085},
       DOI = {10.1364/boe.5.003748},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

2013

  • Theisen-Kunde, D; Wolken, H; Ellebrecht, D; Danicke, V; Wurster, L; Kleemann, M and Birngruber, R: Investigation of water spray to reduce collateral thermal damage during laser resection of soft tissue. no. 8803, pp. 88030F-88030F-4,
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Theisen-Kunde2013,
       author = {Theisen-Kunde, D; Wolken, H; Ellebrecht, D; Danicke, V; Wurster, L; Kleemann, M and Birngruber, R},
       title = {Investigation of water spray to reduce collateral thermal damage during laser resection of soft tissue},
       volume = {8803},
       pages = {88030F-88030F-4},
       note = {10.1117/12.2032384},
       abstract = {To reduce unwanted collateral thermal damage to surrounding tissue and organs during laparoscopic laser dissection (cw, wavelength: 1.9μm) of porcine liver water spray was used. Size and amount of the produced water droplets of the water spray were photographed by short time imaging and analyzed by imaging software. At in vivo measurements on fresh porcine liver the depth of thermal damage was reduced by 85 % with water spray and the lateral size of thermal damage at the tissue surface could be reduced by 67%. This results show that especially for laparoscopic laser surgery water spray application might be a useful tool to avoid unwanted collateral thermal damage.},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2032384},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Theisen-Kunde, D. and Wolken, H. and Ellebrecht, D. and Danicke, V. and Wurster, L. and Kleemann, M. and Birngruber, R.: Investigation of water spray to reduce collateral thermal damage during laser resection of soft tissue. no. 8803, pp. 88030F-88030F-4,
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Theisen-Kunde2013,
       author = {Theisen-Kunde, D. and Wolken, H. and Ellebrecht, D. and Danicke, V. and Wurster, L. and Kleemann, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Investigation of water spray to reduce collateral thermal damage during laser resection of soft tissue},
       volume = {8803},
       pages = {88030F-88030F-4},
       note = {10.1117/12.2032384},
       abstract = {To reduce unwanted collateral thermal damage to surrounding tissue and organs during laparoscopic laser dissection (cw, wavelength: 1.9μm) of porcine liver water spray was used. Size and amount of the produced water droplets of the water spray were photographed by short time imaging and analyzed by imaging software. At in vivo measurements on fresh porcine liver the depth of thermal damage was reduced by 85 % with water spray and the lateral size of thermal damage at the tissue surface could be reduced by 67%. This results show that especially for laparoscopic laser surgery water spray application might be a useful tool to avoid unwanted collateral thermal damage.},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2032384},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Wurster, Lara M and Warger, W C and Gora, M J and Carruth, R and Tearny, G J and Birngruber, Reginald: Design and development of a miniaturized scanning probe. in Studierendentagung, Universität zu Lübeck,
    BibTeX
    @inproceedings{Wurster2013,
       author = {Wurster, Lara M and Warger, W C and Gora, M J and Carruth, R and Tearny, G J and Birngruber, Reginald},
       title = {Design and development of a miniaturized scanning probe},
       booktitle = {Studierendentagung},
       publisher = {Universität zu Lübeck},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Evers, Michael and Welford, David and Mansteine, Dieter and Birngruber, Reginald: Mid-infrared laser spectroscopy using a tunable gain-switched Cr2+: ZnSe laser. in Studierendentagung, Unversität zu Lübeck,
    BibTeX
    @inproceedings{Ever2013,
       author = {Evers, Michael and Welford, David and Mansteine, Dieter and Birngruber, Reginald},
       title = {Mid-infrared laser spectroscopy using a tunable gain-switched Cr2+: ZnSe laser},
       booktitle = {Studierendentagung},
       publisher = {Unversität zu Lübeck},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Baade, Alexander and Schlott, Kerstin and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf: A numerical model for heat and pressure propagation for temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation. no. 8803, pp. 88030O-88030O-9,
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Baade2013,
       author = {Baade, Alexander and Schlott, Kerstin and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf},
       title = {A numerical model for heat and pressure propagation for temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation},
       volume = {8803},
       pages = {88030O-88030O-9},
       note = {10.1117/12.2033590},
       abstract = {Retinal photocoagulation is an established treatment for various retinal diseases. The temperature development during a treatment can be monitored by applying short laser pulses in addition to the treatment laser light. The laser pulses induce thermoelastic pressure waves that can be detected at the cornea. We present a numerical model to examine the temperature development during the treatment as well as the formation and propagation of the ultrasonic waves. Using the model, it is possible to determine the peak temperature during retinal photocoagulation from the measured signal, and investigate the behaviour of the temperature profile and the accuracy of the temperature determination under varying conditions such as inhomogeneous pigmentation or change in irradiation parameters. It was shown that there is an uncertainty of 2.5 -9% in the determination of the peak temperature when the absorption coefficient between the absorbing layers is varied by a factor of 2. Furthermore the model was extended in order to incorporate the photoacoustic pressure generation and wave propagation. It was shown that for an irradiation pulse duration of 75 ns the resulting pressure wave energy is attenuated by 76 % due to frequency dependent attenuation in water.},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2033590},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    

2012

  • Unglert, C. I. and Warger, W. C. and Hostens, J. and Namati, E. and Birngruber, R. and Bouma, B. E. and Tearney, G. J.: Validation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements of subpleural alveolar size parameters by optical coherence tomography. Journal of Biomedical Optics, no. 17, 2012
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Unglert2012,
       author = {Unglert, C. I. and Warger, W. C. and Hostens, J. and Namati, E. and Birngruber, R. and Bouma, B. E. and Tearney, G. J.},
       title = {Validation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements of subpleural alveolar size parameters by optical coherence tomography},
       journal = {Journal of Biomedical Optics},
       volume = {17},
       number = {12},
       note = {083ZB
    Times Cited:3
    Cited References Count:23},
       abstract = {Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been increasingly used for imaging pulmonary alveoli. Only a few studies, however, have quantified individual alveolar areas, and the validity of alveolar volumes represented within OCT images has not been shown. To validate quantitative measurements of alveoli from OCT images, we compared the cross-sectional area, perimeter, volume, and surface area of matched subpleural alveoli from microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and OCT images of fixed air-filled swine samples. The relative change in size between different alveoli was extremely well correlated (r > 0.9, P < 0.0001), but OCT images underestimated absolute sizes compared to micro-CT by 27% (area), 7% (perimeter), 46% (volume), and 25% (surface area) on average. We hypothesized that the differences resulted from refraction at the tissue-air interfaces and developed a ray-tracing model that approximates the reconstructed alveolar size within OCT images. Using this model and OCT measurements of the refractive index for lung tissue (1.41 for fresh, 1.53 for fixed), we derived equations to obtain absolute size measurements of superellipse and circular alveoli with the use of predictive correction factors. These methods and results should enable the quantification of alveolar sizes from OCT images in vivo. (c) 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). [DOI: 10.1117/1.JBO.17.12.126015]},
       keywords = {alveolar structure
    alveolar volume
    ray-tracing
    optical coherence tomography
    refractive-index
    tissue},
       ISSN = {1083-3668},
       DOI = {Artn 126015
    Doi 10.1117/1.Jbo.17.12.126015},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000314504400023},
       year = {2012},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Koinzer, S. and Schlott, K. and Ptaszynski, L. and Bever, M. and Kleemann, S. and Saeger, M. and Baade, A. and Caliebe, A. and Miura, Y. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R. and Roider, J.: Temperature-controlled retinal photocoagulation - a step toward automated laser treatment. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, no. 53, pp. 3605-14, 2012
    BibTeX
    @article{Koinzer2012,
       author = {Koinzer, S. and Schlott, K. and Ptaszynski, L. and Bever, M. and Kleemann, S. and Saeger, M. and Baade, A. and Caliebe, A. and Miura, Y. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R. and Roider, J.},
       title = {Temperature-controlled retinal photocoagulation - a step toward automated laser treatment},
       journal = {Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci},
       volume = {53},
       number = {7},
       pages = {3605-14},
       note = {Using Smart Source Parsing
    Jun 14; Print 2012 Jul},
       abstract = {Purpose. Retinal laser photocoagulation carries the risk of overtreatment due to effect variation of identically applied lesions. The degree of coagulation depends on the induced temperature increase and on exposure time. We introduce temperature controlled photocoagulation (TCP), which uses optoacoustics to determine individually exposure times necessary to create reproducible lesions. Methods. Optoacoustic temperature measurement relies on pressure waves that are excited in the retinal tissue by repetitive low-energy laser pulses. Signal amplitudes correlate with tissue temperature and are detected by a transducer in the laser contact lens. We used a continuous wave (CW) photocoagulator for treatment irradiation and superimposed probe laser pulses for simultaneous temperature measurement. Optoacoustic data of 1500 lesions (rabbit) were evaluated to develop an algorithm that controls exposure times automatically in TCP. Lesion diameters of 156 TCP lesions were compared to 156 non-controlled lesions. Histology was performed after 1 hour, and 1 and 4 weeks. Results. TCP resulted in exposure times from 4 to 800 ms depending on laser power chosen. Ophthalmoscopic and histologic lesion diameters were independent of power between 14 and 200 mW. TCP lesions barely were visible with a mean diameter equal to the treatment beam (130 mum). In contrast, standard lesion diameters increased linearly and statistically significantly with power. Histology confirmed sparing of the ganglion and nerve fiber layers in TCP. Conclusions. TCP facilitates uniform retinal lesions over a wide power range. In a clinical setting, it should generate soft and reproducible lesions independently of local tissue variation and improve safety, particularly at short exposure times.},
       year = {2012}
    }
  • Schlott, Kerstin and Koinzer, Stefan and Ptaszynski, Lars and Bever, Marco and Baade, Alex and Roider, Johann and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf: Automatic temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation. Journal of Biomedical Optics, no. 17, pp. 061223, 2012
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schlott2012,
       author = {Schlott, Kerstin and Koinzer, Stefan and Ptaszynski, Lars and Bever, Marco and Baade, Alex and Roider, Johann and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf},
       title = {Automatic temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation},
       journal = {Journal of Biomedical Optics},
       volume = {17},
       number = {6},
       pages = {061223},
       keywords = {AutoPhoN},
       year = {2012}
    }
    
  • Koinzer, Stefan and Schlott, Kerstin and Portz, Lea and Ptaszynski, Lars and Baade, Alexander and Bever, Marco and Saeger, Mark and Caliebe, Amke and Denner, Renè and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf and Roider, Johann: Correlation of temperature rise and optical coherence tomography characteristics in patient retinal photocoagulation. Journal of Biophotonics, pp. n/a-n/a, 2012
    BibTeX
    @article{Koinzer,
       author = {Koinzer, Stefan and Schlott, Kerstin and Portz, Lea and Ptaszynski, Lars and Baade, Alexander and Bever, Marco and Saeger, Mark and Caliebe, Amke and Denner, Renè and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf and Roider, Johann},
       title = {Correlation of temperature rise and optical coherence tomography characteristics in patient retinal photocoagulation},
       journal = {Journal of Biophotonics},
       pages = {n/a-n/a},
       abstract = {We conducted a study to correlate the retinal temperature rise during photocoagulation to the afterward detected tissue effect in optical coherence tomography (OCT). 504 photocoagulation lesions were examined in 20 patients. The retinal temperature increase was determined in real-time during treatment based on thermoelastic tissue expansion which was probed by repetitively applied ns laser pulses. The tissue effect was examined on fundus images and OCT images of individualized lesions. We discerned seven characteristic morphological OCT lesion classes. Their validity was confirmed by increasing visibility and diameters. Mean peak temperatures at the end of irradiation ranged from approx. 60 °C to beyond 100 °C, depending on burn intensity. (© 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)},
       keywords = {laser photocoagulation
    optoacoustics
    photocoagulation
    retinal temperature
    spectral domain optical coherence tomography
    OCT
    subthreshold
    classification},
       year = {2012}
    }
  • Brinkmann, Ralf and Koinzer, Stefan and Schlott, Kerstin and Ptaszynski, Lars and Bever, Marco and Baade, Alexander and Luft, Susanne and Miura, Yoko and Roider, Johann and Birngruber, Reginald: Real-time temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients. Journal of Biomedical Optics, no. 17, pp. 061219, 012
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann2012,
       author = {Brinkmann, Ralf and Koinzer, Stefan and Schlott, Kerstin and Ptaszynski, Lars and Bever, Marco and Baade, Alexander and Luft, Susanne and Miura, Yoko and Roider, Johann and Birngruber, Reginald},
       title = {Real-time temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients},
       journal = {Journal of Biomedical Optics},
       volume = {17},
       number = {6},
       pages = {061219},
       note = {Journal Article},
       year = {2012}
    }
  • Spahr, Hendrik and Rudolph, Linda and Muller, Heike and Birngruber, Reginald and Huttmann, Gereon: Imaging of photothermal tissue expansion via phase sensitive optical coherence tomography. no. 8213, pp. 82131S, SPIE,
    BibTeX
    @inproceedings{Spahr2012,
       author = {Spahr, Hendrik and Rudolph, Linda and Muller, Heike and Birngruber, Reginald and Huttmann, Gereon},
       title = {Imaging of photothermal tissue expansion via phase sensitive optical coherence tomography},
       editor = {Joseph, A. Izatt and James, G. Fujimoto and Valery, V. Tuchin},
       publisher = {SPIE},
       volume = {8213},
       pages = {82131S},
    
    }
  • Mueller, H. H. and Ptaszynski, L. and Schlott, K. and Debbeler, C. and Bever, M. and Koinzer, S. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R. and Huettmann, G.: Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high speed OCT. Biomedical Optics Express, no. 3, pp. 1025-1046, 2012
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Müller2012,
       author = {Mueller, H. H. and Ptaszynski, L. and Schlott, K. and Debbeler, C. and Bever, M. and Koinzer, S. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R. and Huettmann, G.},
       title = {Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high speed OCT},
       journal = {Biomedical Optics Express},
       volume = {3},
       number = {5},
       pages = {1025-1046},
       note = {935RH
    Times Cited:8
    Cited References Count:37},
       abstract = {Visualizing retinal photocoagulation by real-time OCT measurements may considerably improve the understanding of thermally induced tissue changes and might enable a better reproducibility of the ocular laser treatment. High speed Doppler OCT with 860 frames per second imaged tissue changes in the fundus of enucleated porcine eyes during laser irradiation. Tissue motion, measured by Doppler OCT with nanometer resolution, was correlated with the temperature increase, which was measured non-invasively by optoacoustics. In enucleated eyes, the increase of the OCT signal near the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) corresponded well to the macroscopically visible whitening of the tissue. At low irradiance, Doppler OCT revealed additionally a reversible thermal expansion of the retina. At higher irradiance additional movement due to irreversible tissue changes was observed. Measurements of the tissue expansion were also possible in vivo in a rabbit with submicrometer resolution when global tissue motion was compensated. Doppler OCT may be used for spatially resolved measurements of retinal temperature increases and thermally induced tissue changes. It can play an important role in understanding the mechanisms of photocoagulation and, eventually, lead to new strategies for retinal laser treatments. (c) 2012 Optical Society of America},
       keywords = {optical coherence tomography
    laser photocoagulation
    vein occlusion
    management
    diseases
    fundus
    blood},
       ISSN = {2156-7085},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000303537400018},
       year = {2012},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

2011

  • Brinkmann, R and Koinzer, S and Schlott, K and Ptaszynski, L and Bever, M and Baade, A and Miura, Y and Birngruber, R and Roider, J: Realtime temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients.. Proc SPIE, no. 7885, pp. 78850R, 2011
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann2011,
       author = {Brinkmann, R and Koinzer, S and Schlott, K and Ptaszynski, L and Bever, M and Baade, A and Miura, Y and Birngruber, R and Roider, J},
       title = {Realtime temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients.},
       journal = {Proc SPIE},
       volume = {7885},
       pages = {78850R},
       abstract = {Retinal photocoagulation is a long time established treatment for a variety of retinal diseases, most commonly applied for diabetic macular edema and diabetic retinopathy. The damage extent of the induced thermal coagulations depend on the temperature increase and the time of irradiation. So far, the induced temperature rise is unknown due to intraocular variations in light transmission and scattering and RPE/choroidal pigmentation, which can vary inter- and intraindividually by more than a factor of four. Thus in clinical practice, often stronger and deeper coagulations are applied than therapeutically needed, which lead to extended retinal damage and strong pain perception. The final goal of this project focuses on a dosimetry control, which automatically generates a desired temperature profile and thus coagulation strength for every individual coagulation spot, ideally unburden the ophthalmologist from any laser settings. In this paper we present the first realtime temperature measurements achieved on patients during retinal photocoagulation by means of an optoacoustic method, making use of the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient of retinal tissue. Therefore, nanosecond probe laser pulses are repetitively and simultaneously applied with the treatment radiation in order to excite acoustic waves, which are detected at the cornea with an ultrasonic transducer embedded in the contact lens and then are processed by PC.},
       url = {http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=732381},
       year = {2011},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Muller, Heike H. and Ptaszynski, Lars and Schlott, Kerstin and Bonin, Tim and Bever, Marco and Koinzer, Stefan and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf and Huttmann, Gereon: Imaging of temperature distribution and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high speed OCT. no. 7889, pp. 78890E, SPIE,
    BibTeX
    @inproceedings{Müller2011,
       author = {Muller, Heike H. and Ptaszynski, Lars and Schlott, Kerstin and Bonin, Tim and Bever, Marco and Koinzer, Stefan and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf and Huttmann, Gereon},
       title = {Imaging of temperature distribution and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high speed OCT},
       editor = {James, G. Fujimoto and Joseph, A. Izatt and Valery, V. Tuchin},
       publisher = {SPIE},
       volume = {7889},
       pages = {78890E},
    
    }
  • Klatt, C. and Saeger, M. and Oppermann, T. and Porksen, E. and Treumer, F. and Hillenkamp, J. and Fritzer, E. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R. and Roider, J.: Selective retina therapy for acute central serous chorioretinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol, no. 95, pp. 83-8, 2011
    BibTeX
    @article{Klatt,
       author = {Klatt, C. and Saeger, M. and Oppermann, T. and Porksen, E. and Treumer, F. and Hillenkamp, J. and Fritzer, E. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R. and Roider, J.},
       title = {Selective retina therapy for acute central serous chorioretinopathy},
       journal = {Br J Ophthalmol},
       volume = {95},
       number = {1},
       pages = {83-8},
       note = {Using Smart Source Parsing
    Jan; Epub 2010 Jun 15},
       abstract = {AIMS: To evaluate selective retina therapy (SRT) as a treatment of acute central serous chorioretinopathy. METHODS: 30 eyes of 30 patients with central serous chorioretinopathy of at least a 3 months' duration were recruited. 14 eyes were randomised to an SRT group (Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride (Nd:YLF) laser, wavelength 527 nm, t=1.7 mus, energy 100-370 muJ, spot diameter 200 mum, pulse repetition rate 100 Hz,) and 16 eyes to a control group. After 3 months of follow-up, patients in the control group with persistence of subretinal fluid (SRF) were allocated to a cross-over group, treated with SRT and followed up for further 3 months. The main outcome measures were change of best-corrected Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity (BCVA) and SRF. RESULTS: At 3 months of follow-up, the mean (SD) improvement of BCVA was significantly greater after SRT than in the control group: 12.7 (7.2) versus 6.3 (8.9) letters (p=0.04). SRF had decreased significantly more after SRT as compared with that the control group: 203 (136) mum versus 41 (150) mum (p=0.005). In eight eyes allocated to the cross-over group, the mean BCVA had increased during 3 months of follow up before SRT by 1.4 (5.2) letters and continued to increase during 3 months following SRT by 7.4 (6.3) letters, while SRF increased by 39.5 (160.2) mum before SRT and decreased by 151.5 (204.9) mum after SRT. In six of the eight eyes, SRF had completely resolved 3 months after SRT. CONCLUSIONS: SRT appears to expedite functional recovery and the re-absorption of SRF as compared with that in untreated controls. A larger prospective, randomised phase 3 confirmative patient study is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00987077.},
       year = {2011}
    }
  • Fritz, Andreas and Zegelin, Andrea and Ptaszynski, Lars and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf: Dynamics of laser induced micro bubble clusters on tissue phantoms. no. 7885, pp. 78850S-78850S-6,
    BibTeX
    @inproceedings{Fritz2011,
       author = {Fritz, Andreas and Zegelin, Andrea and Ptaszynski, Lars and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf},
       title = {Dynamics of laser induced micro bubble clusters on tissue phantoms},
       volume = {7885},
       pages = {78850S-78850S-6},
       note = {10.1117/12.875031},
       abstract = {Selective retina treatment (SRT) is a laser based method to treat retinal diseases associated with disorders of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) while preserving photoreceptors and choroid. Applying microsecond laser pulses to the 100- 200 strongly absorbing melanin granules inside the RPE cells induces transient micro bubbles which disrupt the cells. Aim of this work is to understand bubble dynamics in clusters with respect to the influence of the adjacent retina. Bubble dynamics were investigated in vitro on porcine RPE. An about 200 μm thick layer of agarose gel was applied to the RPE layer in order to simulate the mechanical properties of retina. Different laser pulse durations from 1 ns (532 nm, Nd:YAG) to 1.7 μs (527 nm, Nd:YLF) were used. The bubbles were investigated interferometrically (fiber interferometer @ 830 nm) and with fast flash photography (25 ns flash duration). Bubble lifetimes were measured. The results show that with retina phantoms the bubble formation threshold was reached at 2.5 times higher irradiation than without retina phantom for 1.7 μs laser pulses. The microbubbles generated with 1 ns laser pulses were almost not influenced by the agarose layer. Irradiation twofold over bubble formation threshold resulted in 3.5 times longer bubble lifetimes for μs and 2 times longer for ns pulse durations, respectively.},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.875031},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Schlott, Kerstin and Koinzer, Stefan and Ptaszynski, Lars and Luft, Susanne and Baade, Alex and Bever, Marco and Roider, Johann and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf: Optoacoustic temperature determination and automatic coagulation control in rabbits. in Ophthalmic Technologies XXI, no. 7885, Proc. SPIE,
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Schlott2011,
       author = {Schlott, Kerstin and Koinzer, Stefan and Ptaszynski, Lars and Luft, Susanne and Baade, Alex and Bever, Marco and Roider, Johann and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf},
       title = {Optoacoustic temperature determination and automatic coagulation control in rabbits},
       booktitle = {Ophthalmic Technologies XXI },
       editor = {Ho, Fabrice Manns; Per G. Söderberg; Arthur},
       publisher = {Proc. SPIE},
       volume = {7885},
       note = {10.1117/12.875104},
       abstract = {Retinal laser photocoagulation is an established treatment method for many retinal diseases like macula edema or diabetic retinopathy. The selection of the laser parameters is so far based on post treatment evaluation of the lesion size and strength. Due to local pigment variations in the fundus and individual transmission the same laser parameters often lead to an overtreatment. Optoacoustic allows a non invasive monitoring of the retinal temperature increase during retinal laser irradiation by measuring the temperature dependent pressure amplitudes, which are induced by short probe laser pulses. A 75 ns/ 523 nm Nd:YLF was used as a probe laser at a repetition rate of 1 kHz, and a cw / 532 nm treatment laser for heating. A contact lens was modified with a ring-shaped ultrasonic transducer to detect the pressure waves at the cornea. Temperatures were collected for irradiations leading to soft or invisible lesions. Based on this data the threshold for denaturation was found. By analyzing the initial temperature increase, the further temperature development during irradiation could be predicted. An algorithm was found to calculate the irradiation time, which is needed for a soft lesion formation, from the temperature curve. By this it was possible to provide a real-time dosimetry by automatically switching off the treatment laser after the calculated irradiation time. Automatically controlled coagulations appear softer and more uniformly.},
       keywords = {AutoPhoN},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.875104},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    

2010

  • Framme, C. and Panagakis, G. and Birngruber, R.: Effects on Choroidal Neovascularization after Anti-VEGF Upload Using Intravitreal Ranibizumab, as Determined by Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 51, pp. 1671-1676, 2010
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Framme2010,
       author = {Framme, C. and Panagakis, G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Effects on Choroidal Neovascularization after Anti-VEGF Upload Using Intravitreal Ranibizumab, as Determined by Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {51},
       number = {3},
       pages = {1671-1676},
       note = {563VW
    Times Cited:18
    Cited References Count:17},
       abstract = {PURPOSE. It is unclear whether anti-VEGF monotherapy in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) achieves morphologic CNV regression or only stops further CNV growth. In this study, spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to image CNV structure before and after anti-VEGF treatment.
    METHODS. Out of 107 consecutive patients, a prospective CNV evaluation was possible in 78 of them. Newly diagnosed CNV (classic CNV: n = 16; occult CNV: n = 54; minimal classic CNV: n = 8) due to AMD was imaged before and 4 weeks after anti-VEGF upload in three intravitreal injections of ranibizumab. Qualitative (structural changes) and quantitative measurements (diameter and thickness) of the CNV were obtained from the OCT images.
    RESULTS. Classic CNV components were observed above the RPE/photoreceptor complex, whereas occult CNVs stayed below. Of all postoperative OCTs, 59% revealed complete dry retinal structures, 27% showed reduced edema, and 14% showed edema remaining unchanged. Mean macular thickness decreased significantly from 427 to 303 mu m (P = 0.000). Qualitatively, overall CNV architecture appeared to be unchanged in 78%, was reduced in thickness in 18%, and became larger in 4%. Quantitatively, in all CNV subtypes, the diameter of the CNV lesions (preoperative, 2813 mu m; postoperative, 2804 mu m) did not change after treatment (classic CNV: P = 0.390; occult CNV: P = 0.405, minimal classic CNV: P = 0.092) independent of postoperative retinal edema. The overall thickness of the lesion, however, was reduced from 205 to 175 mu m (P = 0.000). Thickness reduction was significantly enhanced especially in CNV with classic components (n = 24; 252 to 197 mu m; P = 0.000; reduction, 22%), whereas reduction was smaller but also significant in occult CNV (183 to 164 mu m; P = 0.003; reduction, 10%).
    CONCLUSIONS. With SD-OCT, CNV size can be two-dimensionally determined and followed up after intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment. In only 4% of CNV was enlargement observed, whereas in 78%, CNV architecture appeared qualitatively unchanged, independent of retinal edema. Quantitative measurements underlined stable CNV diameters for all subtypes but revealed significant reduction of thickness especially for classic CNV components. In this series, ranibizumab monotherapy was able to morphologically stop further CNV growth but, in most patients, did not lead to a major regression of CNV, especially of its occult components. (Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:1671-1676) DOI:10.1167/iovs.09-4496},
       keywords = {macular degeneration
    therapy
    verteporfin
    oct},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1167/Iovs.09-4496},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000275164300060},
       year = {2010},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Mueller, M. and Schulz-Wackerbarth, C. and Steven, P. and Lankenau, E. and Bonin, T. and Mueller, H. and Brueggemann, A. and Birngruber, R. and Grisanti, S. and Huettmann, G.: Slit-lamp-adapted fourier-domain OCT for anterior and posterior segments: preliminary results and comparison to time-domain OCT. Curr Eye Res, no. 35, pp. 722-32, 2010
    BibTeX
    @article{Müller,
       author = {Mueller, M. and Schulz-Wackerbarth, C. and Steven, P. and Lankenau, E. and Bonin, T. and Mueller, H. and Brueggemann, A. and Birngruber, R. and Grisanti, S. and Huettmann, G.},
       title = {Slit-lamp-adapted fourier-domain OCT for anterior and posterior segments: preliminary results and comparison to time-domain OCT},
       journal = {Curr Eye Res},
       volume = {35},
       number = {8},
       pages = {722-32},
       note = {Using Smart Source Parsing
    Aug},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic potential of a slit-lamp (SL)-adapted Fourier-domain (= spectral radar, SR) optical coherence tomography (OCT)-SL-SR-OCT-instrument as an in vivo imaging device for use in examinations of the anterior and posterior segments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a pilot study, 88 eyes from 70 healthy volunteers and patients were examined using a prototype Fourier-domain SL-SR-OCT system. Results were compared to those from the following commercially available systems: the 1310-nm SL-OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) for anterior segment and the Stratus OCT (Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) for posterior segment imaging. Our SL-SR-OCT provides 1025 axial scans, 5000 Hz line-scan frequency, scan length of up to 8 mm, axial depth in air of 3.5 mm, and resolution of 9 mum. For posterior visualization, a hand-held 78-diopter ophthalmoscopic lens was used. RESULTS: Our SL-SR-OCT system allowed simultaneous scanning with direct biomicroscopic and SL imaging of anterior and posterior segment structures. Anatomical structures and pathological changes were displayed with high resolution and excellent contrast. Measurements of corneal and retinal thickness were possible. In comparison to images obtained by the SL-OCT, our SL-SR-OCT boasted a higher resolution, thus providing more clinically relevant details of the corneal epithelium, internal structure of filtering blebs, etc. Complete imaging of the chamber angle was limited, however, due to the backscattering properties of the sclera at 830 nm. For posterior segment imaging, excellent delineation of the macula and optic nerve head details, with a distinct portrayal of macular pathology and retinal edema, was possible with SL-SR-OCT. CONCLUSION: SL-SR-OCT enables detailed imaging of physiological and pathological anterior and posterior segment structures. As a multi-purpose device, it offers a wide spectrum of applications, with high-quality OCT-imaging, in a comfortable setting without the need to move the patient.},
       year = {2010}
    }
  • Roider, J. and Liew, S. H. and Klatt, C. and Elsner, H. and Poerksen, E. and Hillenkamp, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R.: Selective retina therapy (SRT) for clinically significant diabetic macular edema. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, no. 248, pp. 1263-72, 2010
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider,
       author = {Roider, J. and Liew, S. H. and Klatt, C. and Elsner, H. and Poerksen, E. and Hillenkamp, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Selective retina therapy (SRT) for clinically significant diabetic macular edema},
       journal = {Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol},
       volume = {248},
       number = {9},
       pages = {1263-72},
       note = {Using Smart Source Parsing
    Sep},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To test selective retina therapy (SRT) as a treatment of clinically significant diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS: Prospective two-center interventional uncontrolled phase II pilot study. Thirty-nine eyes of 39 patients with previously untreated non-ischemic DME were treated with focal laser treatment using a Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YLF laser which selectively affects the retinal pigment epithelium while sparing the photoreceptor layer. Optoacoustic measurements, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), and funduscopy were used to determine the individual threshold of RPE damage of each patient. The pulse energy was adjusted to apply angiographically visible but funduscopically invisible effects. Optoacoustic measurements were correlated with funduscopy and FFA. Follow-up examinations at 3 and 6 months post-treatment included best-corrected ETDRS visual acuity (BCVA), FFA, fundus photography, and retinal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography. The primary outcome measure was change of BCVA. Other outcome measures were change of retinal thickness, presence of hard exudates, leakage in FFA, accuracy of optoacoustic measurements, and correlation of BCVA with change of anatomical and systemic parameters. RESULTS: Mean BCVA improved from 43.7 letters (standard deviation, SD=9.1) at baseline to 46.1 letters (SD=10.5) at the 6-month follow-up (p=0.02). BCVA improved (>5 letters) or remained stable (+/-5 letters) in 84% of eyes. Thirteen percent of eyes improved by > or =10 letters, while 16% of eyes lost more than 5 letters. There was no severe loss of vision (> or =15 letters). Overall, retinal thickness, hard exudates, and leakage in FFA did not change significantly (p> 0.05), while improvement of BCVA correlated with a reduction of hard exudates (p=0.01) and central retinal thickness (p=0.01). Specificity and sensitivity of detecting the angiographic visible threshold of RPE damage by optoacoustic measurements were 86% and 70% respectively. No adverse effects or pain were noted during or after treatment. Conclusions Functional and anatomical improvement or stabilization was observed in most patients. SRT appears to be safe. Optoacoustic measurements accurately detect the individual threshold of RPE damage. A randomized trial is required to further test efficacy and safety of SRT as a treatment of clinically significant diabetic macular edema (DME).},
       year = {2010}
    }
    
  • Prahs, P. and Walter, A. and Regler, R. and Theisen-Kunde, D. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R. and Framme, C.: Selective retina therapy (SRT) in patients with geographic atrophy due to age-related macular degeneration. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, no. 248, pp. 651-8, 2010
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Prahs2010,
       author = {Prahs, P. and Walter, A. and Regler, R. and Theisen-Kunde, D. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R. and Framme, C.},
       title = {Selective retina therapy (SRT) in patients with geographic atrophy due to age-related macular degeneration},
       journal = {Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol},
       volume = {248},
       number = {5},
       pages = {651-8},
       note = {1435-702x
    Prahs, Philipp
    Walter, Andreas
    Regler, Roman
    Theisen-Kunde, Dirk
    Birngruber, Reginald
    Brinkmann, Ralf
    Framme, Carsten
    Journal Article
    Germany
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010 May;248(5):651-8. doi: 10.1007/s00417-009-1208-1. Epub 2009 Dec 22.},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND: For geographic atrophy (GA) due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) there is so far no approved treatment option. Usually, increased autofluorescence (AF) levels of different patterns adjacent to the atrophic area indicate lipofuscin-laden retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells at a high risk for apoptosis. Herein, SRT was used to selectively treat these cells to stimulate RPE proliferation, in order to reduce or ideally stop further growth of the atrophic area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six eyes of six patients with bilateral equally pronounced GA were treated by SRT, while the fellow eye served as control. Irradiation was performed using a prototype SRT laser (Medical Laser Center Lubeck, Nd:YLF laser; 527 nm; 200 ns/1.7 micros pulse duration; 30 repetitive pulses at 100 Hz). Test lesions with increasing energies were applied at the lower vessel arcade to determine the individual angiographic and ophthalmoscopic threshold radiant exposures. Treatment was then performed in the area of increased AF adjacent to the GA using energies between both thresholds. The GA progression rates of treated and fellow eyes were evaluated. RESULTS: After a 1-year follow-up, a progression of the atrophic area was observed in the treated eyes (0.7-8.0 mm(2)/yr, mean 3.0 mm(2)/yr; 46%/yr) whereas the progression rates of the fellow eyes were insignificantly lower (0.46-4.04 mm(2)/yr, mean 1.9 mm(2)/yr; 30%/yr; p = 0.134). The progression rate in the treated eyes of two patients increased significantly, while in the other four patients, the progression rates were nearly the same between both eyes. Moreover, one of these two eyes showed an unexpected RPE reaction after treatment, since all laser lesions led to RPE atrophy and thus an accelerated enlargement of the GA occurred. CONCLUSION: SRT in the hyperautofluorescent areas of GA was not able to stop or slow down the progression of GA. However, modified treatment strategies might be more promising, e.g. placing the spots outside the hyperautofluorescent areas where RPE apoptosis is postulated. Moreover, SRT studies on GA might be more successfully performed on specific subgroups of GA, based on autofluorescence and other findings.},
       keywords = {Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Disease Progression
    Fluorescein Angiography
    Fluorescence
    Follow-Up Studies
    Geographic Atrophy/etiology/physiopathology/*surgery
    Humans
    Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
    *Laser Coagulation
    Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use
    Lipofuscin/metabolism
    Macular Degeneration/complications/physiopathology/*surgery
    Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/*methods
    Pilot Projects
    Prognosis
    Retinal Pigment Epithelium/metabolism},
       ISSN = {0721-832x},
       DOI = {10.1007/s00417-009-1208-1},
       year = {2010},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

2009

  • Bever, M. and Schlott, K. and Ptaszynski, L. and Koinzer, S. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.: Automatische Dosimetrie bei der Laserphotokoagulation der Netzhaut. 3. Dresdner Medizintechnik-Symposium mit DFG Forschungsschwerpunkt Protektive Beatmungskonzepte, no. 10, 2009
    BibTeX
    @article{Bever2009,
       author = {Bever, M. and Schlott, K. and Ptaszynski, L. and Koinzer, S. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Automatische Dosimetrie bei der Laserphotokoagulation der Netzhaut},
       journal = {3. Dresdner Medizintechnik-Symposium mit DFG Forschungsschwerpunkt Protektive Beatmungskonzepte},
       volume = {10},
       year = {2009},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Huttmann, G. and Lankenau, E. and Schulz-Wackerbarth, C. and Muller, M. and Steven, P. and Birngruber, R.: Optical Coherence Tomography: from Retina Imaging to Intraoperative Use - a Review. Klinische Monatsblatter Fur Augenheilkunde, no. 226, pp. 958-964, 2009
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Hüttmann2009,
       author = {Huttmann, G. and Lankenau, E. and Schulz-Wackerbarth, C. and Muller, M. and Steven, P. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Optical Coherence Tomography: from Retina Imaging to Intraoperative Use - a Review},
       journal = {Klinische Monatsblatter Fur Augenheilkunde},
       volume = {226},
       number = {12},
       pages = {958-964},
       note = {542VT
    Times Cited:6
    Cited References Count:48},
       abstract = {Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is new diagnostic procedure that has rapidly evolved in the last years. The recently developed spectral domain OCT allows one to increase the imaging speed by a hundred times compared to the first generation time domain OCT and enables three-dimensional imaging as well as real-time imaging of fast moving structures. Volumetric imaging improves the quantitative measurement of morphology and the evaluation of temporal changes. In addition, an exact correlation with images acquired with other imaging modalities is possible. Real-time imaging enables also the use of OCT during examinations with the slit-lamp and during ophthalmological surgery.
    Methods: A spectral domain OCT was adapted to a slit lamp. 70 patients (91 eyes) were examined at the anterior or posterior segment of the eye. Images of healthy structures and different pathologies were compared to OCT images obtained with Stratus 3, Spectralis, and the SL-OCT. To demonstrate the feasibility of OCT during surgery, spectral domain OCT devices working with 20000 and 210000 A scans per second were coupled by specially developed optics to the camera port of a surgical microscope. The device was tested with phantoms and enucleated pig eyes.
    Results and Conclusions: A5 kHz spectral domain OCT can image the retina during slit lamp-based indirect ophthalmoscopy with a quality similar to that of the Stratus 3. In addition, relevant structures of the anterior segment were imaged. Here, compared to commercially available devices, the imaged field was smaller and the angle of the anterior chamber was not directly visible due to the 830 nm wavelength, which had to be used for retinal imaging. Through the surgical microscope, a volumetric imaging of epithelium, Bowman's, Descemet's membranes, limbus, iris, lens, conjunctiva and sclera was demonstra-ted with several tens of centimetre working distance. Instruments and incisions in the cornea were visualised with 20 mu m precision. Real-time imaging and visualisation of volumetric OCT data were also demonstrated. In principle, all technical problems of an intraoperative use of OCT have been solved and a clinical trial will start in the near future. OCT has the potential to improve the precision of surgical interventions and may even enable new interventions.},
       keywords = {physiological optics
    cornea
    anatomy
    in-vivo
    ultrahigh-resolution
    anterior segment
    time-domain
    blood-flow
    eye
    surgery
    oct
    cyclophotocoagulation
    cornea},
       ISSN = {0023-2165},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1055/s-0028-1109939},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000273527800005},
       year = {2009},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Framme, C. and Panagakis, G. and Birngruber, R.: Effects on Choroidal Neovascularizations after Anti-VEGF Upload Using Intravitreal Ranibizumab as Determined by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2009
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Framme2009,
       author = {Framme, C. and Panagakis, G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Effects on Choroidal Neovascularizations after Anti-VEGF Upload Using Intravitreal Ranibizumab as Determined by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography},
       journal = {Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci},
       note = {Journal article
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Oct 29.},
       abstract = {Purpose: To image CNV structure before and after anti-VEGF treatment using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Material and methods: In 78 patients newly diagnosed CNVs (classic CNV: n=16; occult CNV: n=54; minimal classic CNV: n=8) due to AMD were imaged before and 4 weeks after anti-VEGF upload with 3 intravitreal injections of Ranibizumab. Qualitative (structural changes) and quantitative measurements (diameter and thickness) of the CNVs were obtained from the OCT images using the Heidelberg Eye Explorer software. Results: Classic CNV components were observed above the RPE/photoreceptor complex, whereas occult CNVs stayed below. Qualitatively, overall CNV architecture appeared to be unchanged in 78%, reduced in thickness in 18%, and became larger in 4%. Quantitatively, for all CNV subtypes the diameter of CNVs (preoperatively: 2813mum; postoperatively: 2804mum) did not change after treatment (classic CNVs: p=0.390; occult CNVs: p=0.405, minimal classic CNVs: p=0.092) independently of postoperative retinal edema. The overall thickness of the CNV; however, reduced from 205mum to 175mum (p=0,000). Thickness reduction was significantly enhanced especially in CNVs with classic components (n=24; 252mum to 197mum (p=0.000); reduction: 22%), whereas reduction was smaller but also significant in occult CNVs (183mum to 164mum (p=0.003); reduction: 10%). Conclusion: Using SD-OCT CNV size can be two-dimensionally determined and followed up after intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment. Quantitative measurements underlined stable CNV diameters for all subtypes but revealed significant reduction of thickness especially for classic CNV components. Thus, Ranibizumab monotherapy is able to morphologically stop further CNV growth but does not lead to a major regression of CNVs especially of its occult components.},
       ISSN = {1552-5783 (Electronic)
    0146-0404 (Linking)},
       DOI = {iovs.09-4496 [pii]
    10.1167/iovs.09-4496},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19875667},
       year = {2009},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Langejürgen, J and Schlott, K and Bever, M and Hausmann, K and Koinzer, S and Ptaszynski, L and Roider, J and Birngruber, R and Brinkmann, R: Dependence of optoacoustic transients on exciting laser parameters for real-time monitoring of retinal photocoagulation. pp. 73730K-73730K,
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Langejürgen2009,
       author = {Langejürgen, J and Schlott, K and Bever, M and Hausmann, K and Koinzer, S and Ptaszynski, L and Roider, J and Birngruber, R and Brinkmann, R},
       title = {Dependence of optoacoustic transients on exciting laser parameters for real-time monitoring of retinal photocoagulation},
       pages = {73730K-73730K},
       note = {10.1117/12.831913},
       abstract = {The extent of retinal laser coagulations depends on the temperature increase at the fundus and the time of irradiation. Due to light scattering within the eye and variable fundus pigmentation the induced temperature increase and therefore the extent of the coagulations cannot be predicted solely from the laser parameters. We use optoacoustics to monitor the temperature rise in real-time in vivo (rabbit) and ex vivo (porcine eye) and to automatically control the coagulation strength. Continuous wave treatment laser radiation and pulsed probe laser light (1-1100 ns) are coupled into the same fibre and are imaged onto the retina by a laser slit lamp. The temperature dependent pressure waves are detected by an ultrasonic transducer embedded in a customary contact lens. Below the coagulation threshold the increase in acoustic amplitude due to thermal tissue expansion is up to 40 %. Best signal to noise ratios &gt; 10 are achieved with probe pulse durations of 1 to 75 ns. Further a time critical algorithm is developed which automatically ceases laser treatment when a certain preset coagulation strength is achieved. Coagulations with similar extent are obtained with this method in vitro and in vivo even when varying the power of the treatment laser by 50 %. These preliminary results are very promising, thus this method might be suitable for an automatic feedback controlled photocoagulation with adjustable coagulation strength.},
    url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.831913},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Schlott, Kerstin and Langejürgen, Jens and Bever, Marco and Koinzer, Stefan and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf: Time resolved detection of tissue denaturation during retinal photocoagulation. pp. 73730E-73730E,
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Schlott2009,
       author = {Schlott, Kerstin and Langejürgen, Jens and Bever, Marco and Koinzer, Stefan and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf},
       title = {Time resolved detection of tissue denaturation during retinal photocoagulation},
       editor = {7373, Proc. SPIE},
       pages = {73730E-73730E},
       note = {10.1117/12.831877},
       abstract = {The retinal photocoagulation is an established treatment method for different retinal diseases. The extent of the thermal coagulations depends strongly on the generated temperature increase. Until now the dosage is based on a pool of experience of the treating physicians as well as the appearance of the whitish lesions on the retina. The temperature course during photocoagulation can be measured in real-time by optoacoustics. A frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd:YLF laser (523nm, 75 ns) is used for optoacoustic excitation and a continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser (532nm) with adjustable irradiation time and power for heating of the fundus tissue. The onset of coagulation is determined by a photodiode that is placed directly behind enucleated porcine eyes, which served as a model. The onset of coagulation is observed clearly when scattering sets in. The required power for coagulation increases exponentially with decreasing irradiation time. The first results on rabbit eyes in vivo indicate that the onset of coagulation defined by just barely visibile lesions at a slit lamp sets in at an ED50 threshold temperature of 63°C for an irradiation time of 400 ms. In conclusion, optoacoustics can be used to determine temperatures during retinal laser treatments in real-time. This allows evaluating the time-temperature-dependence of retinal coagulation in vivo.},
       keywords = {AutoPhoN},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.831877},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    

2008

  • Framme, C. and Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.: Basic principles and clinical application of retinal laser therapy. Klinische Monatsblatter Fur Augenheilkunde, no. 225, pp. 259-268, 2008
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Framme2008,
       author = {Framme, C. and Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {Basic principles and clinical application of retinal laser therapy},
       journal = {Klinische Monatsblatter Fur Augenheilkunde},
       volume = {225},
       number = {4},
       pages = {259-268},
       note = {301AZ
    Times Cited:3
    Cited References Count:39},
       abstract = {The scientific background of laser photocoagulation of the ocular fundus was studied extensively by several investigators in the 1970 s and 1980 s. The basic principles were succesfully resolved during that time and clinical consequences for proper application of the laser photocoagulation for various diseases were deduced. The present paper gives an overview about the physical basics of laser-tissue interactions during and after retinal laser treatment and the particular laser strategies in the treatment of different retinal diseases. Thus, it addresses the issue of the impact on tissue of laser parameters as wavelength, spot size, pulse duration and laser power. Additionally, the different biological tissue reactions after laser treatment are presented, such as, e.g., for retinopexia or macular treatments as well as for diabetic retinopathies. Specific laser strategies such as the selective laser treatment of the RPE (SRT) or the transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) are presented and discussed.},
       keywords = {retina
    anatomy
    vitreous
    subfoveal choroidal neovascularization
    central vein occlusion
    transpupillary thermotherapy
    macular degeneration
    pigment epithelium
    photocoagulation
    argon
    trial
    rpe
    diseases},
       ISSN = {0023-2165},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1055/s-2008-1027202},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000255870100001},
       year = {2008},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Framme, C. and Sachs, H. G. and Kobuch, K. and Flucke, B. and Birngruber, R.: Clinical evaluation of experimentally induced choroidal neovascularizations in Pigmented rabbits by subretinal injection of lipid hydroperoxide and consecutive preliminary photodynamic treatment with tookad. Ophthalmologica, no. 222, pp. 254-264, 2008
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Framme2008,
       author = {Framme, C. and Sachs, H. G. and Kobuch, K. and Flucke, B. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Clinical evaluation of experimentally induced choroidal neovascularizations in Pigmented rabbits by subretinal injection of lipid hydroperoxide and consecutive preliminary photodynamic treatment with tookad},
       journal = {Ophthalmologica},
       volume = {222},
       number = {4},
       pages = {254-264},
       note = {338UZ
    Times Cited:3
    Cited References Count:27},
       abstract = {Purpose: Up to date several approaches have been undertaken to achieve an 'easy-to-handle' animal model of choroidal neovascularizations (CNVs) in rabbits; however, so far in none of the studies could healthy retinal tissue be maintained, which is mandatory to further investigate the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) or anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor treatments. It was our aim to reevaluate and verify the method of inducing experimental CNVs in rabbits using subretinally injected linoleic acid hydroperoxicle (LHP) as proposed by Tamai et al. and to use it for experimental PDT. Material and Methods: In 33 eyes of Chinchilla breed rabbits LHP of two different concentrations (25 and 100 mu g/50 mu l) was injected into the subretinal space via a transvitreal approach under guidance of an operation microscope. Ophthalmoscopic and angiographic examinations were performed on days 3, 7, 14 and 28 after surgery. Preliminary PDT with different experimental parameter sets was performed in 3 eyes using the new photosensitizer Tookad. Results: Using LHP in the higher concentration, an angiographically determined CNV induction was observed in 27% of all injection sites (n = 34) on days 14 and 28 revealing early well-demarcated and progressive leakage. No CNV was detected at the lower LHP concentration (60 injection sites). Subretinal CNV was verified histologically revealing vessel formation above the retinal pigment epithelium level. Herein, a significant damage to the outer retinal layers was always observed; however, the general structure of the choriocapillary layer was maintained. Tookad PDT was clinically able to completely stop leakage in I case and reduce leakage in 2 cases. Histologically the choriocapillary layer was occluded. Conclusion: Subretinal injection of LHP induces angiographically well-demarcated classic CNVs in rabbits; however, the CNV rate was low, and histology revealed severe damage of the outer retinal layers but not of the choriocapillary layer, which is important for studying PDT interactions. Preliminary experimental PDT could clinically stop or reduce leakage from angiographic CNV. Due to the small CNV rate and the significant collateral retinal tissue damage, this model seems to be only of partial suitability for investigating new treatment modalities in CNV. Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.},
       keywords = {age-related macular degeneration
    animal model
    choroidal neovascularization
    retinal pigment epithelium
    linoleic acid hydroperoxide
    senile macular degeneration
    bruchs membrane
    ranibizumab
    verteporfin
    therapy
    growth
    model},
       ISSN = {0030-3755},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1159/000136903},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000258536200008},
       year = {2008},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Sandeau, J. and Caillibotte, G. and Kandulla, J. and Elsner, H. and Brinkmann, R and Birngruber, R. and Apiou-Sbirlea, G.: Numerical Modelling of Conductive and Convective Heat Transfers in Retinal Laser Applications. no. 1, pp. 43-52, 2008
    BibTeX
    @misc{Sandeau,
       author = {Sandeau, J. and Caillibotte, G. and Kandulla, J. and Elsner, H. and Brinkmann, R and Birngruber, R. and Apiou-Sbirlea, G.},
       title = {Numerical Modelling of Conductive and Convective Heat Transfers in Retinal  Laser Applications},
       volume = {1},
       number = {1},
       pages = {43-52},
       year = {2008}
    }
  • Framme, C and Roider, J and Brinkmann, R and Birngruber, R and Gabel, V-P: Grundlagen und klinische Anwendung der Lasertherapie an der Netzhaut. no. 225, pp. 259-268, 2008
    BibTeX
    @misc{Framme,
       author = {Framme, C and Roider, J and Brinkmann, R and Birngruber, R and Gabel, V-P},
       title = {Grundlagen und klinische Anwendung der Lasertherapie an der Netzhaut},
       volume = {225},
       number = {4},
       pages = {259-268},
       year = {2008}
    }
  • Framme, C and Schüle, G and Kobuch, K and Flucke, B and Birngruber, R and Brinkmann, R: Investigation of Selective Retina Treatment (SRT) by Means of 8 ns Laser Pulses in a Rabbit Model. no. 40, pp. 20-27, 2008
    BibTeX
    @misc{Framme,
       author = {Framme, C and Schüle, G and Kobuch, K and Flucke, B and Birngruber, R and Brinkmann, R},
       title = {Investigation of Selective Retina Treatment (SRT) by Means of 8 ns Laser Pulses in a Rabbit Model},
       volume = {40},
       pages = {20-27},
       year = {2008}
    }
  • Koinzer, S and Elsner, H and Klatt, C and Brinkmann, R and Birngruber, R and Roider, J: Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) of chronic subfoveal fluid after surgery of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: three case reports. no. 246, pp. 1373-8, 2008
    BibTeX
    @misc{Koinzer,
       author = {Koinzer, S and Elsner, H and Klatt, C and Brinkmann, R and Birngruber, R and Roider, J},
       title = {Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) of chronic subfoveal fluid after surgery of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: three case reports},
       volume = {246},
       number = {10},
       pages = {1373-8},
       year = {2008}
    }

2007

  • Herrmann, Katharina and Flöhr, Christian and Stalljohann, Jens and Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela and Kandulla, Jochen and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf: Influence of choroidal perfusion on retinal temperature increase during retinal laser treatments. no. 6632, pp. 66321D-66321D-7,
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Herrmann2007,
       author = {Herrmann, Katharina and Flöhr, Christian and Stalljohann, Jens and Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela and Kandulla, Jochen and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf},
       title = {Influence of choroidal perfusion on retinal temperature increase during retinal laser treatments},
       volume = {6632},
       pages = {66321D-66321D-7},
       note = {10.1117/12.728222},
       abstract = {In most retinal laser treatments the therapeutic effect is initiated by a transient temperature increase at and around the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Especially in long exposure time treatments like Transpupillary Thermotherapy (TTT) choroidal perfusion has a strong influence on the realized temperature at the fundus. The fundus blood circulation and therefore the heat dissipation is influenced by the intraocular pressure (IOP), which is investigated in the study presented here. In order to reduce the choroidal perfusion, the IOP is increased by injection of physiological saline solution into the eye of anaesthetized rabbits. The fundus is irradiated with 3.64 W/cm2 by means of a TTT-laser (λ = 810 nm) for t = 20 s causing a retinal temperature increase. Realtime temperature determination at the irradiated spot is achieved by a non invasive optoacoustic technique. Perfusion can be reduced by increasing IOP, which leads to different temperature increases when irradiating the retina. This should be considered for long time laser treatments.},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.728222},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R.: Selektive Retina-Therapie (SRT). Zeitschrift für Medizinische Physik, no. 17, pp. 6-22, 2007
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Brinkmann2007,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Selektive Retina-Therapie (SRT)},
       journal = {Zeitschrift für Medizinische Physik},
       volume = {17},
       number = {1},
       pages = {6-22},
       note = {276HP
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:42},
       abstract = {Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) is a new and very gentle laser method developed at the Medical Laser Center Lubeck. It is currently investigated clinically in order to treat retinal disorders associated with a decreased function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). SRT is designed to selectively effect the RPE while sparing the neural retina and the photoreceptors as well as the chorioidea. Aim of the therapy is the rejuvenation of the RPE in the treated areas, which should ideally lead to a long term metabolic increase at the chorio- retinal junction. In contrast to conventional laser photocoagulation, which is associated with a complete thermal necrosis of the treated site, SRT completely retains full vision. This paper reviews the methods and mechanisms behind selective RPE effects and reports the first clinical results. An online dosimetry technique to visualize the ophthalmoscopically invisible effects is introduced.},
       keywords = {selective cellular effects
    optoacoustics
    online dosimetry
    rpe
    mu s-laser pulses
    macula oedema
    rcs
    pigment epithelium
    diabetic maculopathy
    laser irradiation
    time regimen
    damage
    rpe
    photocoagulation
    absorption
    mechanisms
    radiation},
       ISSN = {0939-3889},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1016/j.zemedi.2006.11.002},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000254132200002},
       year = {2007},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schlott, Kerstin and Stalljohann, Jens and Weber, Benjamin and Kandulla, Jochen and Herrmann, Katharina and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf: Optoacoustic online temperature determination during retinal laser photocoagulation. no. 6632, pp. 66321B-66321B-8,
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Schlott2007,
       author = {Schlott, Kerstin and Stalljohann, Jens and Weber, Benjamin and Kandulla, Jochen and Herrmann, Katharina and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf},
       title = {Optoacoustic online temperature determination during retinal laser photocoagulation},
       volume = {6632},
       pages = {66321B-66321B-8},
       note = {10.1117/12.728291},
       abstract = {Retinal photocoagulation is an established treatment of different retinal diseases. The treatment relies on a short, local heating of the tissue which induces a denaturation. The resulting scar formation may for example prevent the further detachment of the retina. The extent of the coagulation is besides other parameters mostly dependent on the induced temperature increase. However, until today a temperature based dosimetry for photocoagulation does not exist. The dosage is rather based on the experience of the treating physicians to achieve visible whitish lesions on the retina. In this work a technique is presented, which allows an online temperature monitoring during photocoagulation. If an absorbing material is irradiated with short laser pulses, a thermoelastic expansion of the absorber induces an acoustic wave. Its amplitude is dependent on the temperature of the absorber. For analyzing the applicability of the optoacoustic temperature determination for dosimetry, measurements were performed on enucleated porcine eye globes. The pressure transients are detected by an ultrasonic transducer, which is embedded in an ophthalmologic contact lens. As long as no strong lesions occur, the determined temperatures are almost proportional to the power of the treatment laser. Using a spot diameter of 200 μm and different laser powers, the temperature rise at the end of the 400 ms irradiation was found to be approximately 0.16 °C/mW. The onset of the denaturation was observed around 50°C. The far aim of this project is an automatic regulation of the treatment laser onto a desired temperature course.},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.728291},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R.: [Selective Retina Therapy (SRT)]. Z Med Phys, no. 17, pp. 6-22, 007
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann2007,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[Selective Retina Therapy (SRT)]},
       journal = {Z Med Phys},
       volume = {17},
       number = {1},
       pages = {6-22},
       note = {Brinkmann, Ralf
    Birngruber, Reginald
    English Abstract
    Review
    Germany
    Z Med Phys. 2007;17(1):6-22.},
       abstract = {Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) is a new and very gentle laser method developed at the Medical Laser Center Lubeck. It is currently investigated clinically in order to treat retinal disorders associated with a decreased function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). SRT is designed to selectively effect the RPE while sparing the neural retina and the photoreceptors as well as the chorioidea. Aim of the therapy is the rejuvenation of the RPE in the treated areas, which should ideally lead to a long term metabolic increase at the chorio-retinal junction. In contrast to conventional laser photocoagulation, which is associated with a complete thermal necrosis of the treated site, SRT completely retains full vision. This paper reviews the methods and mechanisms behind selective RPE effects and reports the first clinical results. An online dosimetry technique to visualize the ophthalmoscopically invisible effects is introduced.},
       keywords = {Humans
    Laser Therapy
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/pathology
    Regeneration
    Retinal Diseases/pathology/surgery/ therapy},
       year = {2007}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R and Stalljohann, J and Weber, B and Schlott, K and Kandulla, J and Birngruber, R: Retinal Temperature Determination During Laser Photocoagulation. Proc SPIE, no. 6632, pp. 8, 2007
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann2007,
       author = {Brinkmann, R and Stalljohann, J and Weber, B  and Schlott, K and Kandulla, J and Birngruber, R},
       title = {Retinal Temperature Determination During Laser Photocoagulation},
       journal = {Proc SPIE},
       volume = {6632},
       pages = {8},
       year = {2007},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

2006

  • Sandeau, Julien and Caillibotte, Georges and Kandulla, Jochen and Birngruber, Reginald and Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela: Modeling of conductive and convective heat transfers in retinal laser treatments. no. 6138, pp. 61381A-61381A-9,
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Saneau2006,
       author = {Sandeau, Julien and Caillibotte, Georges and Kandulla, Jochen and Birngruber, Reginald and Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela},
       title = {Modeling of conductive and convective heat transfers in retinal laser treatments},
       volume = {6138},
       pages = {61381A-61381A-9},
       note = {10.1117/12.673494},
       abstract = {Tumor thermo treatment such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) or transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) deal with long term and large laser spot exposures. The induced temperature increase is not exactly known [1]. Under these conditions convective heat transfers due to the blood flow in the choroid and the choriocapillaris must be considered in addition to the usually calculated heat conduction. From an existing analytical model defining a unique convective term for the whole fundus irradiated with Gaussian irradiance distribution lasers [2], we developed a numerical one allowing a precise modelling of convection and calculating heating evolution and temperature profiles of the fundus of the eye. The aim of this study is to present the modelling and several comparisons between experimental results [3] and numerical ones concerning the convective heat transfers inside the fundus of the eye.},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.673494},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Muller, M. and Hoerauf, H. and Geerling, G. and Pape, S. and Winter, C. and Hüttmann, G. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.: Filtring Bleb Evaluation with Slit-Lamp-Adapted 1310-nm Optical Coherence Tomography. Curr Eye Res, no. 31, pp. 909-915, 2006
    BibTeX
    @article{Müller2006,
       author = {Muller, M. and Hoerauf, H. and Geerling, G. and Pape, S. and Winter, C. and Hüttmann, G. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.},
       title = {Filtring Bleb Evaluation with Slit-Lamp-Adapted 1310-nm Optical Coherence Tomography},
       journal = {Curr Eye Res},
       volume = {31},
       number = {11},
       pages = {909-915},
       year = {2006},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Elsner, H and Pörksen, E and Klatt, C and Bunse, A and Theisen-Kunde, D and Brinkmann, R and Birngruber, R and Laqua, H and Roider, J: Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Graefes Arch Ophthalmol, in print., no. on-line: DOI 10.1007/s00417-006-0368-5, 2006
    BibTeX
    @article{Elsner2006,
       author = {Elsner, H and Pörksen, E and Klatt, C and Bunse, A and Theisen-Kunde, D and Brinkmann, R and Birngruber, R and Laqua, H and Roider, J},
       title = {Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC)},
       journal = {Graefes Arch Ophthalmol, in print.},
       volume = {on-line: DOI 10.1007/s00417-006-0368-5},
       year = {2006},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Muller, M. and Hoerauf, H. and Geerling, G. and Pape, S. and Winter, C. and Huttmann, G. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.: Filtering bleb evaluation with slit-lamp-adapted 1310-nm optical coherence tomography. Current Eye Research, no. 31, pp. 909-915, 2006
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Müller2006,
       author = {Muller, M. and Hoerauf, H. and Geerling, G. and Pape, S. and Winter, C. and Huttmann, G. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.},
       title = {Filtering bleb evaluation with slit-lamp-adapted 1310-nm optical coherence tomography},
       journal = {Current Eye Research},
       volume = {31},
       number = {11},
       pages = {909-915},
       note = {107AB
    Times Cited:24
    Cited References Count:27},
       abstract = {Purpose: Investigation of slit-lamp-adapted 1310-nm optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an in vivo imaging device in the postoperative course of glaucoma surgery. Methods: Postoperative images of filtering blebs and deep sclerectomies and their healing processes were qualitatively evaluated with a slit-lamp-adapted anterior segment OCT (AS-OCT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) in 28 patients. Ophthalmologic examinations included slit-lamp examination, applanation tonometry, and slit-lamp photography. The OCT scans were qualitatively correlated with the morphologic and functional outcome of the filtering bleb. Results: 1310-nm OCT was able to demonstrate the internal structure and the dimensions of filtering blebs, as well as the scleral flap and the deep sclerectomy location including Descemet membrane. Functioning filtering blebs showed a low OCT signal, small fluid-filled cysts, superficial microcystic layer, and a slack internal texture. High internal reflectivity indicated an earlier scarring of the filtering bleb. Nonfunctioning filtering blebs delivered a high OCT signal, no or few cysts, and a dense internal texture. These different OCT patterns correlated with the clinical outcome. Conclusions: Slit-lamp-adapted 1310-nm OCT allowed the noncontact observation and documentation of the postoperative healing course of filtering blebs after glaucoma surgery. Internal structures of the filtering bleb and deep sclerectomies could be visualized. Functioning and dysfunctioning filtering blebs delivered different OCT pattern and correlated with the clinical outcome. This could be a new way to assess the postoperative healing process with the possibility of earlier intervention in cases of impending scarring.},
       keywords = {deep sclerectomy
    filtering bleb
    oct
    scarring
    anterior segment
    mitomycin-c
    follow-up
    trabeculectomy
    surgery
    cornea
    eye},
       ISSN = {0271-3683},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1080/02713680600910528},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000242142000003},
       year = {2006},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Klatt, C. and Elsner, H. and Porksen, E. and Brinkmann, R. and Bunse, A. and Birngruber, R. and Roider, J.: Selective retina therapy in central serous chorioretinopathy with detachment of the pigmentary epithelium. Ophthalmologe, no. 103, pp. 850-5, 2006
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Klatt2006,
       author = {Klatt, C. and Elsner, H. and Porksen, E. and Brinkmann, R. and Bunse, A. and Birngruber, R. and Roider, J.},
       title = {Selective retina therapy in central serous chorioretinopathy with detachment of the pigmentary epithelium},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {103},
       number = {10},
       pages = {850-5},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    Case Reports
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND: Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) is a new and innovative laser treatment modality that selectively treats the retinal pigmentary epithelium while sparing the photoreceptors. This therapeutic concept appears to be particularly suitable for treating patients with acute or chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). We present preliminary results obtained in five patients who had CSC associated with pigmentary epithelium detachment (PED) and serous subretinal fluid (SRF) and who were treated with SRT. METHODS: This case series was made up of five male patients (mean age 47 years) with chronic CSC and SRF resulting from PED. Examinations performed before and at 1 month and 3 months after the treatment were: BCVA, FLA, OCT (Zeiss OCT III). For SRT, confluent treatment of the PED (area of leakage) was carried out using a pulsed frequency-doubled, Q-switched Nd-YLF prototype laser (lambda=527 nm, t= 1.7 s, 100 Hz, energy = 150-250 J). RESULTS: Best corrected visual acuity at baseline was 0.53, while after 4 weeks it was 0.56 and after 12 weeks, 0.5. At baseline leakage was seen at the PED on fluorescein angiography in all patients. After 4 weeks leakage activity was no longer noted on angiography in 4 of 5 patients. OCT at baseline showed SRF at the edge of the PED in all patients, but in 4 of the 5 patients this was no longer detectable after 4 weeks. CONCLUSION: SRT is a safe and effective treatment for patients with CSC in which PED has caused SRF. Not a single case of rip syndrome was observed in this study, even though the PED was treated confluently. Since SRT spares the photoreceptors it is particularly suitable for the treatment of CSC, especially when the origin of leakage is located close to the fovea. The results indicate that SRT leads to reconstruction of the outer blood-retina barrier.},
       keywords = {Adult
    Chorioretinitis/complications/*surgery
    Humans
    Laser Surgery/*methods
    Lasers/*therapeutic use
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/*methods
    Preoperative Care/methods
    Retinal Detachment/etiology/*surgery
    Treatment Outcome},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=16937094},
       year = {2006},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Kandulla, J. and Elsner, H. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.: Noninvasive optoacoustic online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation. Journal of Biomedical Optics, no. 11, 2006
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Kandulla2006,
       author = {Kandulla, J. and Elsner, H. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Noninvasive optoacoustic online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation},
       journal = {Journal of Biomedical Optics},
       volume = {11},
       number = {4},
       note = {093IM
    Times Cited:30
    Cited References Count:40},
       abstract = {The therapeutic effect of most retinal laser treatments is initiated by a transient temperature increase. Although crucial to the effectiveness of the treatment, the temperature course is not exactly known due to individually different tissue properties. We develop an optoacoustic method to determine the retinal temperature increase in real time during continuous-wave (cw) laser irradiation, and perform temperature calculations to interpret the results exemplary for transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT). Porcine globes ex vivo and rabbit eyes in vivo are irradiated with a diode laser (lambda=810 nm, P <= 3 W, phi = 2 mm) for 60 s. Simultaneously, pulses from a N-2-laser pumped dye laser (lambda= 500 nm, tau= 3.5 ns, E approximate to 5 mu J) are applied on the retina. Following its absorption, an ultrasonic pressure wave is emitted, which is detected by a transducer embedded in a contact lens. Using the previously measured temperature-dependent Gruneisen coefficient of chorioretinal tissue, a temperature raise in porcine eyes of 5.8 degrees C/ (W/cm(2)) after 60 s is observed and confirmed by simultaneous measurements with an inserted thermocouple. In a rabbit, we find 1.4 degrees C/(W/cm(2)) with, and 2.2 degrees C/(W/cm(2)) without perfusion at the same location. Coagulation of the rabbit's retina occurs at Delta T = 21 degrees C after 40 s. In conclusion, this optoacoustic method seems feasible for an in vivo real-time determination of temperature, opening the possibility for feedback control retinal laser treatments. (c) 2006 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.},
       keywords = {temperature
    optoacoustics
    transpupillary thermotherapy
    ultrasonic transducer
    laser
    heat diffusion calculations
    retinal laser treatment
    subfoveal choroidal neovascularization
    transpupillary thermotherapy
    macular degeneration
    ocular media
    blood flow
    eye
    fundus
    light
    photocoagulation
    transmission},
       ISSN = {1083-3668},
       DOI = {Artn 041111
    Doi 10.1117/1.2236301},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000241162000016},
       year = {2006},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Hoerauf, H. and Brix, A. and Winkler, J. and Droege, G. and Winter, C. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H. and Vogel, A.: Photoablation of inner limiting membrane and inner retinal layers using the erbium : YAG-laser: An in vitro study. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, no. 38, pp. 52-61, 2006
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Hoerauf2006,
       author = {Hoerauf, H. and Brix, A. and Winkler, J. and Droege, G. and Winter, C. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H. and Vogel, A.},
       title = {Photoablation of inner limiting membrane and inner retinal layers using the erbium : YAG-laser: An in vitro study},
       journal = {Lasers in Surgery and Medicine},
       volume = {38},
       number = {1},
       pages = {52-61},
       note = {009YN
    Times Cited:4
    Cited References Count:51},
       abstract = {Background and Objectives: To explore the potential of Er:YAG-laser irradiation for precise and tractionless retinal tissue and inner limiting membrane ablation.
    Materials and Methods: We used free-running Er:YAG-laser irradiation (lambda = 2.94 mu m) transmitted either through a 10 em long low-OH-quartz fiber or a 2 m long sapphire fiber that produced a more homogenous light distribution at the fiber tip. Retinal ablation in porcine retinal explants was performed under air or perfluorodecaline (PFD). Ablation depth was evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and from histologic sections.
    Results: A radiant exposure of 5.0 J/cm(2) delivered through a low-OH-quartz fiber and PFD caused a complete transsection of the neurosensory retina. Radiant exposures between 3.5 and 2.0 J/cm(2) resulted in marked variations of ablation depth and adjacent thermal damage. By contrast, laser pulses of 4.0 and 3.0 J/cm(2) transmitted through the sapphire fiber produced more homogenous defect patterns and less thermal damage. Close to the ablation threshold, with 1.0-2.0 J/cm(2), ablation was limited to a 10-20 mu m thin layer of the neural retina.
    Conclusions: We achieved in vitro ablation of inner retinal layers, but could not produce selective and reproducible ILM removal.},
       keywords = {macular surgery
    optical coherence tomography
    perfluorocarbon liquid
    retina
    retinal explant
    optical coherence tomography
    macular hole surgery
    experimental vitreous membranes
    er-yag
    vitreoretinal surgery
    clinical-experience
    indocyanine green
    excimer-laser
    pig eyes
    ablation},
       ISSN = {0196-8092},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1002/Lsm.20269},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000235149600007},
       year = {2006},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Framme, C. and Flucke, B. and Birngruber, R.: Comparison of reduced and standard light application in photodynamic therapy of the eye in two rabbit models. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, no. 244, pp. 773-81, 2006
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Famme2006,
       author = {Framme, C. and Flucke, B. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Comparison of reduced and standard light application in photodynamic therapy of the eye in two rabbit models},
       journal = {Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol},
       volume = {244},
       number = {7},
       pages = {773-81},
       note = {0721-832X (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND: Current PDT treatment for age-related macular degeneration uses a standard radiant exposure of 50 J/cm(2) at an irradiance of 600 mW/cm(2). However; there is a general problem with the unusually high irradiance; in fact, the rate of photochemical production of singlet oxygen may be limited by insufficiently oxygenized neovascular tissue. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the efficacy of verteporfin (Visudyne) photoactivation to induce thrombosis of choriocapillaries and in experimentally induced corneal neovascularizations in rabbits by varying irradiance and retinal radiant exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The light-dose threshold to induce micro-thrombosis in the choriocapillaries (seven eyes) and in corneal neovascularizations (eight eyes) of Chinchilla-Bastard rabbits using different retinal irradiances (100 and 600 mW/cm(2)) at different radiant exposures (20, 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.62, and 0.3 J/cm(2)) was evaluated. Induction of neovascularizations was performed 7 days prior to PDT treatment using intracorneal silk sutures. A dose of 2 mg/kg verteporfin was intravenously infused 10 min before standard PDT. The criterion for vascular thrombosis was vessel closure as determined by fluorescein angiography 1 h and 1 day post exposure. RESULTS: Experiments on the choroid revealed vessel closure 1 h after irradiation at ED(50) = 10.8 J/cm(2) (both 600 and 100 mW/cm(2)) and after 24 h at ED(50) = 2.4 J/cm(2) (600 mW/cm(2)) versus 1.8 J/cm(2) (100 mW/cm(2)). Vessel closure was enhanced at irradiation with 100 mW/cm(2). Regarding corneal neovascularizations, vessel thrombosis was observable by dark appearance of irradiated clotted neovascular tissue and angiographically by a lack of leakage at ED(50) thresholds of 0.62 J/cm(2) (1 h) and 0.41 J/cm(2) (1 day) for 100 mW/cm(2) and of 0.99 J/cm(2) (1 h), and 0.67 J/cm(2) (1 day) for 600 mW/cm(2). Thus in both experiments thresholds for vessel closure were reduced by a factor of 1.5 for the lower intensity. Histology revealed more selective vessel occlusion without RPE and photoreceptor damage for 100 mW/cm(2) rather than 600 mW/cm(2) intensity at threshold irradiation. CONCLUSION: Low-intensity PDT with verteporfin for neovascular tissue seems to be more effective than regular high-intensity PDT. Future preclinical trials should address the issue of proper dosimetry for effective PDT in age-related macular degeneration.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Choroidal Neovascularization/*drug therapy
    Corneal Neovascularization/*drug therapy
    *Disease Models, Animal
    Fluorescein Angiography
    Photochemotherapy/*methods
    Photosensitizing Agents/*therapeutic use
    Porphyrins/*therapeutic use
    Rabbits
    Radiation Dosage},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=16440207},
       year = {2006},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Framme, C. and Sachs, H. G. and Flucke, B. and Theisen-Kunde, D. and Birngruber, R.: Evaluation of the new photosensitizer Tookad (WST09) for photodynamic vessel occlusion of the choroidal tissue in rabbits. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, no. 47, pp. 5437-46, 2006
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Framme2006,
       author = {Framme, C. and Sachs, H. G. and Flucke, B. and Theisen-Kunde, D. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Evaluation of the new photosensitizer Tookad (WST09) for photodynamic vessel occlusion of the choroidal tissue in rabbits},
       journal = {Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci},
       volume = {47},
       number = {12},
       pages = {5437-46},
       note = {0146-0404 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of Tookad (WST09; Negma-Lerads, Magny-Les-Hameaux, France) photodynamic therapy (T-PDT) by evaluating the angiographic and histologic closure of choroidal vessels at different radiance exposures, drug dosages, and intervals between photosensitizer injection and laser application in a rabbit model. METHODS: Chinchilla Bastard rabbits were injected intravenously with three different dye concentrations (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) before application of light. In every group T-PDT was performed at four different times after injection: 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes with different radiance exposures ranging from 200 to 3 J/cm2. Fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms were obtained 90 minutes after injection. Follow-up angiographies were performed at days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after initial treatment. Histology was performed in selected cases immediately after treatment and on days 1, 3, and 7. RESULTS: Immediately after irradiation, most of the visible lesions were angiographically hyperfluorescent due to damaged vessel endothelium and associated RPE damage. Lesions from high-radiance exposures revealed immediate hypofluorescence, indicating vessel closure. Hypofluorescent lesions appeared mainly during day 1 (all lesions angiographically visible, some hypofluorescent) to day 3 (all lesions hypofluorescent) after treatment. At day 7, ophthalmoscopically visible hyperpigmentation took place in all lesions. ED50 thresholds for angiographic hypofluorescence determined at day 3 after treatment with 2.5 mg/kg were 18.8 J/cm2 (5 minutes), 62.0 J/cm2 (15 minutes), and >100 J/cm2 (30 minutes); with 5 mg/kg, 8.4 J/cm2 (5 minutes), 22.8 J/cm2 (15 minutes), 54.5 J/cm2 (30 minutes), and >100 J/cm2 (60 minutes); and with 10 mg/kg, 11.7 J/cm2 (30 minutes) and 54.1 J/cm2 (60 minutes). Histology of the angiographically hypofluorescent lesions revealed vessel thrombosis in all groups 1 hour after PDT up to 7 days after treatment. Sparing of photoreceptors indicated selectivity of T-PDT; however, slight damage was partly observable. After 7 days, localized proliferation of the RPE cells was noted and was enhanced 14 days after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: T-PDT has the potential to achieve selective choroidal vessel occlusion with proper parameter selection, such as (1) 2.5 mg/kg, 5 minutes, 100 J/cm2; (2) 5 mg/kg, 5 minutes, 25 J/cm2; or (3) 5 mg/kg, 15 minutes, 50 J/cm2; however, slight damage to the photoreceptors cannot be ruled out. RPE proliferation indicates primary RPE damage due to PDT, also described with the use of all other photosensitizers.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Bacteriochlorophylls/*administration & dosage
    Choroid/*blood supply/drug effects/pathology
    Choroidal Neovascularization/diagnosis/*drug therapy
    Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
    Fluorescein Angiography
    *Photochemotherapy
    Photosensitizing Agents/*administration & dosage
    Rabbits},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=17122134},
       year = {2006},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Giese, A. and Böhringer, H.J. and Leppert, J. and Kandelhardt, S.R. and Lankenau, E. and Koch, P. and Birngruber, R. and Hüttmann, G.: Non-invasive intraoperative optical coherence tomography of the resection cavity during surgery of intrinsic brain tumors.. Proc SPIE, no. 6078, pp. 495-502, 2006
    BibTeX
    @article{Giese2006,
       author = {Giese, A. and Böhringer, H.J. and Leppert, J. and Kandelhardt, S.R. and Lankenau, E. and Koch, P. and Birngruber, R. and Hüttmann, G.},
       title = {Non-invasive intraoperative optical coherence tomography of the resection cavity during surgery of intrinsic brain tumors.},
       journal = {Proc SPIE},
       volume = {6078},
       pages = {495-502},
       year = {2006},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Giese, A; Böhringer, H J; Leppert, J; Kandelhardt, S R; Lankenau, E; Koch, P; Birngruber, R and Hüttmann, G: Non-invasive intraoperative optical coherence tomography of the resection cavity during surgery of intrinsic brain tumors.. Proc SPIE 6078, pp. 495-502, 006
    BibTeX
    @article{Giese,
       author = {Giese, A; Böhringer, H J; Leppert, J; Kandelhardt, S R; Lankenau, E; Koch, P; Birngruber, R and Hüttmann, G},
       title = {Non-invasive intraoperative optical coherence tomography of the resection cavity during surgery of intrinsic brain tumors.},
       journal = {Proc SPIE} {6078},
      
       pages = {495-502},
       year = {2006}
    }
  • Brinkmann, Ralf and Birngruber, Reginald: Selektive Retina-Therapie (SRT). Zeitschrift für Medizinische Physik, no. 17, pp. 6-22, 006
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann2006,
       author = {Brinkmann, Ralf and Birngruber, Reginald},
       title = {Selektive Retina-Therapie (SRT)},
       journal = {Zeitschrift für Medizinische Physik},
       volume = {17},
       number = {1},
       pages = {6-22},
       abstract = {Zusammenfassung Die am Medizinischen Laserzentrum Lübeck entwickelte selektive Retina-Therapie (SRT) wird zur Zeit als neue, schonende Laser-Behandlungsmethode für verschiedene Erkrankungen des Augenhintergrunds evaluiert, deren Ursachen einer Degradation des Retinalen Pigmentepithels (RPE) zugeschrieben werden. Mit der SRT lässt sich selektiv das RPE behandeln, ohne die angrenzende neurosensorische Netzhaut mit den Photorezeptoren und die unter dem RPE liegende Aderhaut (Choroidea) zu beeinträchtigen. Die Therapie führt idealerweise zu einer Regeneration des RPEs und einem gesteigerten Metabolismus am chorio-retinalen Übergang. Im Gegensatz zur etablierten Laserphotokoagulation, bei der die Netzhaut in und um die bestrahlten Areale komplett verödet wird, bleibt bei der SRT die Sehfähigkeit der Patienten in den bestrahlten Arealen erhalten. Der Artikel gibt einen Überblick über die Idee und die physikalischen Mechanismen selektiver RPE-Behandlung, die online Dosimetrie der optisch nicht sichtbaren Effekte und fasst die ersten klinischen Ergebnisse zusammen. Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) is a new and very gentle laser method developed at the Medical Laser Center Lübeck. It is currently investigated clinically in order to treat retinal disorders associated with a decreased function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). SRT is designed to selectively effect the RPE while sparing the neural retina and the photoreceptors as well as the chorioidea. Aim of the therapy is the rejuvenation of the RPE in the treated areas, which should ideally lead to a long term metabolic increase at the chorio-retinal junction. In contrast to conventional laser photocoagulation, which is associated with a complete thermal necrosis of the treated site, SRT completely retains full vision. This paper reviews the methods and mechanisms behind selective RPE effects and reports the first clinical results. An online dosimetry technique to visualize the ophthalmoscopically invisible effects is introduced.},
       keywords = {Selektive Zelleffekte, Optoakustik, Mikroblasen, Online-Dosimetrie, RPE, ?s-Laserpulse, Makulaödeme, RCS
    Selective cellular effects, optoacoustics, online dosimetry, RPE, ?s-laser pulses, macula oedema, RCS},
       year = {2006}
    }
  • Ahlers, C. and Michels, S. and Beckendorf, A. and Birngruber, R. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.: Three-dimensional imaging of pigment epithelial detachment in age-related macular degeneration using optical coherence tomography, retinal thickness analysis and topographic angiography. Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, no. 244, pp. 1233-1239, 2006
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Ahlers2006,
    
       author = {Ahlers, C. and Michels, S. and Beckendorf, A. and Birngruber, R. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.},
       title = {Three-dimensional imaging of pigment epithelial detachment in age-related macular degeneration using optical coherence tomography, retinal thickness analysis and topographic angiography},
       journal = {Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology},
       volume = {244},
       number = {10},
       pages = {1233-1239},
       note = {087FX
    Times Cited:16
    Cited References Count:19},
       abstract = {Introduction: New diagnostic tools such as the retinal thickness analyzer (RTA), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and topographic angiography (TAG) were introduced into clinical ophthalmology during the last years giving the examiner new insights into anatomical and functional aspects of macular disease. In this study, advantages and disadvantages of the new imaging methods have been evaluated in patients with serous (sPED) and fibrovascular pigment epithelial detachments (fPED) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: TAG, using fluorescein angiography (FA), provides a three-dimensional profile of the fluorescein pattern based on the analysis of a set of 32 confocal images over a depth of 4 mm. RTA and OCT provide cross-sectional images of the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium-choriocapillary complex as well as retinal thickness data encoded in a false color map. We compared and evaluated these modalities in 15 patients with fPED and 15 patients with sPED secondary to AMD. Results: In patients with classic fPED, TAG detected neovascular structures and delineated their configuration. In sPEDs, pooling of extravascular fluid was detected in a dome-shaped configuration. OCT provided detailed information on the neurosensory retina's structures but failed to detect the neovascular membrane in fPED. Mapping the retinal thickness, RTA and OCT both failed to detect the PED and showed typical algorithm error-based patterns. Conclusions: TAG OCT and RTA are useful imaging modalities in the evaluation of AMD cases. TAG visualizes the vascular configuration, dynamic perfusion, and leakage changes. OCT and RTA are able to complementarily document intra-, subretinal, and sub-RPE fluid accumulation secondary to CNV. However, OCT seems to be more efficient in imaging AMD-related pathologies than RTA, as this modality is often compromised by intra- or subretinal structural abnormalities. Nevertheless, all modalities may provide further valuable insight into AMD pathogenesis, enhance diagnostic quality, and improve the assessment of therapeutic effects.},
       keywords = {choroidal neovascularization
    pigment epithelial detachment (ped)
    topographic angiography
    retinal thickness analyzer
    age-related macular degeneration (amd)
    optical coherence tomography
    imaging
    choroidal neovascularization
    verteporfin therapy
    disease
    repeatability
    eyes
    oct
    tap},
       ISSN = {0721-832X},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1007/s00417-006-0418-z},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000240729400003},
       year = {2006},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, Ralf and Birngruber, Reginald: Selektive Retina-Therapie (SRT). Zeitschrift für Medizinische Physik, no. 17, pp. 6-22, 006
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann2006,
       author = {Brinkmann, Ralf and Birngruber, Reginald},
       title = {Selektive Retina-Therapie (SRT)},
       journal = {Zeitschrift für Medizinische Physik},
       volume = {17},
       number = {1},
       pages = {6-22},
       abstract = {Zusammenfassung Die am Medizinischen Laserzentrum Lübeck entwickelte selektive Retina-Therapie (SRT) wird zur Zeit als neue, schonende Laser-Behandlungsmethode für verschiedene Erkrankungen des Augenhintergrunds evaluiert, deren Ursachen einer Degradation des Retinalen Pigmentepithels (RPE) zugeschrieben werden. Mit der SRT lässt sich selektiv das RPE behandeln, ohne die angrenzende neurosensorische Netzhaut mit den Photorezeptoren und die unter dem RPE liegende Aderhaut (Choroidea) zu beeinträchtigen. Die Therapie führt idealerweise zu einer Regeneration des RPEs und einem gesteigerten Metabolismus am chorio-retinalen Übergang. Im Gegensatz zur etablierten Laserphotokoagulation, bei der die Netzhaut in und um die bestrahlten Areale komplett verödet wird, bleibt bei der SRT die Sehfähigkeit der Patienten in den bestrahlten Arealen erhalten. Der Artikel gibt einen Überblick über die Idee und die physikalischen Mechanismen selektiver RPE-Behandlung, die online Dosimetrie der optisch nicht sichtbaren Effekte und fasst die ersten klinischen Ergebnisse zusammen. Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) is a new and very gentle laser method developed at the Medical Laser Center Lübeck. It is currently investigated clinically in order to treat retinal disorders associated with a decreased function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). SRT is designed to selectively effect the RPE while sparing the neural retina and the photoreceptors as well as the chorioidea. Aim of the therapy is the rejuvenation of the RPE in the treated areas, which should ideally lead to a long term metabolic increase at the chorio-retinal junction. In contrast to conventional laser photocoagulation, which is associated with a complete thermal necrosis of the treated site, SRT completely retains full vision. This paper reviews the methods and mechanisms behind selective RPE effects and reports the first clinical results. An online dosimetry technique to visualize the ophthalmoscopically invisible effects is introduced.},
       keywords = {Selektive Zelleffekte, Optoakustik, Mikroblasen, Online-Dosimetrie, RPE, ?s-Laserpulse, Makulaödeme, RCS
    Selective cellular effects, optoacoustics, online dosimetry, RPE, ?s-laser pulses, macula oedema, RCS},
       year = {2006}
    }
  • Elsner, H. and Klatt, C. and Liew, S. H. and Porksen, E. and Bunse, A. and Rudolf, M. and Brinkmann, R. and Hamilton, R. P. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H. and Roider, J.: Selektive Retina Therapiey (SRT) bei Patienten mit diabetischer Makulopathie. Ophthalmologe, no. 103, pp. 856-860, 2006
    BibTeX
    @article{Elsner2006,
       author = {Elsner, H. and Klatt, C. and Liew, S. H. and Porksen, E. and Bunse, A. and Rudolf, M. and Brinkmann, R. and Hamilton, R. P. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H. and Roider, J.},
       title = {Selektive Retina Therapiey (SRT) bei Patienten mit diabetischer Makulopathie},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {103},
       number = {10},
       pages = {856-860},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    Journal article},
       abstract = {Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) is a new laser treatment that selectively targets the retinal pigmen epithelium (RPE). In this study, we treated 39 patients presenting with nonischemic, focal and focal-diffuse diabetic maculopathy with SRT. In the main. the results indicate that SRT had stabilizing effects on visual acuity, angiographic leakage, lipid exudation, and foveal retinal thickness. SRT is safe and is especially useful for treating pathologies that are located close to the fovea, which cannot be treated with conventional argon laser photocoagulation.},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=16937095},
       year = {2006},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Kandulla, J and Elsner, H and Sandeau, J and Birngruber, R and Brinkmann, R: Non-invasive optoacoustic temperature determination during retinal cw-laser treatments. in Proc SPIE, no. 6138, pp. 336-343,
    BibTeX
    @inproceedings{Kandulla2006,
       author = {Kandulla, J and Elsner, H and Sandeau, J and Birngruber, R and Brinkmann, R},
       title = {Non-invasive optoacoustic temperature determination during retinal cw-laser treatments},
       booktitle = {Proc SPIE},
       volume = {6138},
       pages = {336-343},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R.: Selective retina therapy (SRT): a review on methods, techniques, preclinical and first clinical results. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol, pp. 51-69, 006
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann2006,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Selective retina therapy (SRT): a review on methods, techniques, preclinical and first clinical results},
       journal = {Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol},
       number = {302},
       pages = {51-69},
       note = {0081-0746 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Review},
       abstract = {Selective retina therapy (SRT) is a new laser procedure for retinal diseases that are thought to be associated with a degradation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The aim of the irradiation is to selectively damage the RPE without affecting the neural retina, the photoreceptors and the choroid. Goal of the treatment is to stimulate RPE cell migration and proliferation into the irradiated areas in order to improve the metabolism at the diseased retinal sites. In a pilot study more than 150 patients with soft drusen, retinopathia centralis serosa (RCS) and macular edema were treated. The first 3-center international trial targets diabetic macular edema and branch vein occlusion. In this review, selective RPE effects are motivated and two modalities to achieve selective RPE effects will be introduced: a pulsed and a continuous wave scanning mode. The mechanism behind selective RPE-effects will be discussed reviewing in vitro results and temperature calculations. So far clinical SRT is performed by applying trains of 30 laser pulses from a Nd:YLF-Laser (527 nm, 1.7 micros, 100 Hz) to the diseased fundus areas. In the range of 450-800 mJ/cm(2) per pulse, RPE-defects in patients were proved angiographically by fluorescein or ICG-leakage. The selectivity with respect to surrounding highly sensitive tissue and the safety range of the treatment will be reviewed. With the laser parameters used neither bleeding nor scotoma, proved by microperimetry, were observed thus demonstrating no adverse effects to the choroid and the photoreceptors, respectively. During and after irradiation, it shows that the irradiated locations are ophthalmoscopically invisible, since the effects are very limited and confined to the RPE, thus a dosimetry control is demanded. We report on a non-invasive opto-acoustic on-line technique to monitor successful RPE-irradiation and compare the data to those achieved with standard angiography one-hour post treatment.},
       keywords = {Fluorescein Angiography
    Humans
    Laser Coagulation/adverse effects/*methods
    Multicenter Studies
    Perimetry
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/pathology/surgery
    Retinal Diseases/diagnosis/pathology/*surgery
    Scotoma/etiology/prevention & control},
       year = {2006}
    }
  • Brinkmann, R. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R.: Selective retina therapy (SRT): a review on methods, techniques, preclinical and first clinical results. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol, pp. 51-69, 006
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann2006,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Selective retina therapy (SRT): a review on methods, techniques, preclinical and first clinical results},
       journal = {Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol},
       number = {302},
       pages = {51-69},
       note = {0081-0746 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Review},
       abstract = {Selective retina therapy (SRT) is a new laser procedure for retinal diseases that are thought to be associated with a degradation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The aim of the irradiation is to selectively damage the RPE without affecting the neural retina, the photoreceptors and the choroid. Goal of the treatment is to stimulate RPE cell migration and proliferation into the irradiated areas in order to improve the metabolism at the diseased retinal sites. In a pilot study more than 150 patients with soft drusen, retinopathia centralis serosa (RCS) and macular edema were treated. The first 3-center international trial targets diabetic macular edema and branch vein occlusion. In this review, selective RPE effects are motivated and two modalities to achieve selective RPE effects will be introduced: a pulsed and a continuous wave scanning mode. The mechanism behind selective RPE-effects will be discussed reviewing in vitro results and temperature calculations. So far clinical SRT is performed by applying trains of 30 laser pulses from a Nd:YLF-Laser (527 nm, 1.7 micros, 100 Hz) to the diseased fundus areas. In the range of 450-800 mJ/cm(2) per pulse, RPE-defects in patients were proved angiographically by fluorescein or ICG-leakage. The selectivity with respect to surrounding highly sensitive tissue and the safety range of the treatment will be reviewed. With the laser parameters used neither bleeding nor scotoma, proved by microperimetry, were observed thus demonstrating no adverse effects to the choroid and the photoreceptors, respectively. During and after irradiation, it shows that the irradiated locations are ophthalmoscopically invisible, since the effects are very limited and confined to the RPE, thus a dosimetry control is demanded. We report on a non-invasive opto-acoustic on-line technique to monitor successful RPE-irradiation and compare the data to those achieved with standard angiography one-hour post treatment.},
       keywords = {Fluorescein Angiography
    Humans
    Laser Coagulation/adverse effects/*methods
    Multicenter Studies
    Perimetry
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/pathology/surgery
    Retinal Diseases/diagnosis/pathology/*surgery
    Scotoma/etiology/prevention & control},
       year = {2006}
    }
  • Brinkmann, R and Schuele, G. and Neumann, J. and Framme, C. and Pörkensen, E. and Elsner, H. and Theisen-Kunde, D and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R.: Selektive Retina Therapie - Methodik, Technik und Online-Dosimetrie. Ophthalmologe, no. 103, pp. 839-849, 006
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann2006,
       author = {Brinkmann, R and Schuele, G. and Neumann, J. and Framme, C. and Pörkensen, E. and Elsner, H. and Theisen-Kunde, D and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Selektive Retina Therapie - Methodik, Technik und Online-Dosimetrie},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {103},
       pages = {839-849},
       year = {2006}
    }
  • Giese, A. and Böhringer, H.J. and Leppert, J. and Kandelhardt, S.R. and Lankenau, E. and Koch, P. and Birngruber, R. and Hüttmann, G.: Non-invasive intraoperative optical coherence tomography of the resection cavity during surgery of intrinsic brain tumors.. Proc SPIE, no. 6078, pp. 495-502, 2006
    BibTeX
    @article{Giese,
       author = {Giese, A. and Böhringer, H.J. and Leppert, J. and Kandelhardt, S.R. and Lankenau, E. and Koch, P. and Birngruber, R. and Hüttmann, G.},
       title = {Non-invasive intraoperative optical coherence tomography of the resection cavity during surgery of intrinsic brain tumors.},
       journal = {Proc SPIE},
       volume = {6078},
       pages = {495-502},
       year = {2006}
    }
  • Klatt, C. and Elsner, H. and Porksen, E. and Brinkmann, R. and Bunse, A. and Birngruber, R. and Roider, J.: Selektive Retina-Therapie bei Retinopathia centralis serosa mit Pigmentepithelabhebung. Ophthalmologe, no. 103, pp. 850-855, Aug, 2006
    BibTeX
    @article{Klatt,
       author = {Klatt, C. and Elsner, H. and Porksen, E. and Brinkmann, R. and Bunse, A. and Birngruber, R. and Roider, J.},
       title = {Selektive Retina-Therapie bei Retinopathia centralis serosa mit Pigmentepithelabhebung},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {103},
       number = {10},
       pages = {850-855},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    Clinical Trial
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       month = {Aug},
       abstract = {Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) is a new laser treatment that selectively targets the retinal pigmen epithelium (RPE). In this study, we treated 39 patients presenting with nonischemic, focal and focal-diffuse diabetic maculopathy with SRT. In the main. the results indicate that SRT had stabilizing effects on visual acuity, angiographic leakage, lipid exudation, and foveal retinal thickness. SRT is safe and is especially useful for treating pathologies that are located close to the fovea, which cannot be treated with conventional argon laser photocoagulation.},
       keywords = {Aged
    Diabetic Retinopathy/*surgery
    Female
    Humans
    Laser Surgery/*methods
    Lasers/*therapeutic use
    Macular Degeneration/*surgery
    Male
    Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/*methods
    Preoperative Care/methods
    Treatment Outcome},
       year = {2006}
    }
  • Kandulla, J. and Elsner, H. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.: Noninvasive optoacoustic online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation. J Biomed Opt, no. 11, pp. 041111, 2006
    BibTeX
    @article{Kandulla,
       author = {Kandulla, J. and Elsner, H. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Noninvasive optoacoustic online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation},
       journal = {J Biomed Opt},
       volume = {11},
       number = {4},
       pages = {041111},
       note = {1083-3668 (Print)
    In Vitro
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {The therapeutic effect of most retinal laser treatments is initiated by a transient temperature increase. Although crucial to the effectiveness of the treatment, the temperature course is not exactly known due to individually different tissue properties. We develop an optoacoustic method to determine the retinal temperature increase in real time during continuous-wave (cw) laser irradiation, and perform temperature calculations to interpret the results exemplary for transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT). Porcine globes ex vivo and rabbit eyes in vivo are irradiated with a diode laser (lambda=810 nm, P< or =3 W, phi=2 mm) for 60 s. Simultaneously, pulses from a N2-laser pumped dye laser (lambda=500 nm, tau=3.5 ns, E approximately 5 microJ) are applied on the retina. Following its absorption, an ultrasonic pressure wave is emitted, which is detected by a transducer embedded in a contact lens. Using the previously measured temperature-dependent Gruneisen coefficient of chorioretinal tissue, a temperature raise in porcine eyes of 5.8 degrees C(Wcm2) after 60 s is observed and confirmed by simultaneous measurements with an inserted thermocouple. In a rabbit, we find 1.4 degrees C(Wcm2) with, and 2.2 degrees C(Wcm2) without perfusion at the same location. Coagulation of the rabbit's retina occurs at DeltaT=21 degrees C after 40 s. In conclusion, this optoacoustic method seems feasible for an in vivo real-time determination of temperature, opening the possibility for feedback control retinal laser treatments.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Body Temperature/physiology/radiation effects
    Equipment Design
    Equipment Failure Analysis
    Feasibility Studies
    Hyperthermia, Induced/*instrumentation
    Lasers/*therapeutic use
    Online Systems
    Rabbits
    Reproducibility of Results
    Retina/*physiology/*radiation effects/ultrasonography
    Sensitivity and Specificity
    Swine
    Thermography/*instrumentation/methods
    Ultrasonography/*instrumentation/methods},
       year = {2006}
    }
  • Elsner, H and Pörksen, E and Klatt, C and Bunse, A and Theisen-Kunde, D and Brinkmann, R and Birngruber, R and Laqua, H and Roider, J: Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Graefes Arch Ophthalmol, in print., no. on-line: DOI 10.1007/s00417-006-0368-5, 2006
    BibTeX
    @article{Elsner,
       author = {Elsner, H and Pörksen, E and Klatt, C and Bunse, A and Theisen-Kunde, D and Brinkmann, R and Birngruber, R and Laqua, H and Roider, J},
       title = {Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC)},
       journal = {Graefes Arch Ophthalmol, in print.},
       volume = {on-line: DOI 10.1007/s00417-006-0368-5},
       year = {2006}
    }

2005

  • Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Michels, S. and Indorf, L. and Eggers, R. and Birngruber, R.: Mechanism of photodynamic occlusion using liposomal Zn(II)-phtalocyanine. Current Eye Research, no. 30, pp. 601-612, 2005
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth2005,
       author = {Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Michels, S. and Indorf, L. and Eggers, R. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Mechanism of photodynamic occlusion using liposomal Zn(II)-phtalocyanine},
       journal = {Current Eye Research},
       volume = {30},
       number = {7},
       pages = {601-612},
       note = {953LO
    Times Cited:2
    Cited References Count:30},
       abstract = {Purpose: To evaluate the potential of liposomal Zinc(II)phthalocyanine (ZnPc) to selectively target subretinal vasculature. Methods: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with liposomal Zinc(II)-phtalocyanine was used to induce choroidal occlusion in eyes of pigmented rabbits. Drug doses of 0.16, 0.24, 0.32, and 0.4 mg/kg body weight were administered. Photosensitization was performed at a wavelength of 671 nm and an irradiance of 100 mW/cm(2) applying fluences of 5, 10, 20, and 50 J/cm(2). Results: Using liposomal ZnPc, occlusion of choroidal vessels was achieved without damage to the overlying neurosensory retina. A tight dose correlation was found with a drug dose of 0.32 mg/kg and a light dose of 10 J/cm(2) inducing a selective thrombosis of the subretinal capillary layer. Histology revealed a selective intravascular alteration of the endothelial cells. Conclusions: PDT using liposomal ZnPc allows occlusion of subretinal vasculature with maintenance of neuroretina and RPE. The destructive effect on choroidal vascular endothelium is intensive.},
       keywords = {choroidal vasculature
    liposomes
    photodynamic therapy
    zinc(ii)-phtalocyanine
    low-density-lipoprotein
    receptor-mediated uptake
    choroidal neovascularization
    macular degeneration
    endothelial-cells
    therapy
    verteporfin
    angiography
    model},
       ISSN = {0271-3683},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1080/02713680590968286},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000231078000012},
       year = {2005},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Poerksen, E. and Elsner, H. and Theisen-Kunde, D. and Schuele, G. and Hamilton, P. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R. and Roider, J.: Selective retina treatment (SRT): Clinical investigation of an optoacoustic on-line dosimetry control. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 46, 2005
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Poerksen2005,
       author = {Poerksen, E. and Elsner, H. and Theisen-Kunde, D. and Schuele, G. and Hamilton, P. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R. and Roider, J.},
       title = {Selective retina treatment (SRT): Clinical investigation of an optoacoustic on-line dosimetry control},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {46},
       note = {Suppl. S
    911CZ
    294
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000227980400286},
       year = {2005},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Herrmann, K and Birngruber, R. and Pauleikhoff, D.: Photodynamische Therapie in der Praxis immer breiter eingesetzt.. Beilage für Der Ophthalmologe, no. 102, 2005
    BibTeX
    @article{Herrmann2005,
       author = {Herrmann, K and Birngruber, R. and Pauleikhoff, D.},
       title = {Photodynamische Therapie in der Praxis immer breiter eingesetzt.},
       journal = {Beilage für "Der Ophthalmologe"},
       volume = {102},
       number = {6},
       year = {2005},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Geerling, G. and Muller, M. and Winter, C. and Hoerauf, H. and Oelckers, S. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Intraoperative 2-dimensional optical coherence tomography as a new tool for anterior segment surgery. Arch Ophthalmol, no. 123, pp. 253-7, 2005
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Geerling2005,
       author = {Geerling, G. and Muller, M. and Winter, C. and Hoerauf, H. and Oelckers, S. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Intraoperative 2-dimensional optical coherence tomography as a new tool for anterior segment surgery},
       journal = {Arch Ophthalmol},
       volume = {123},
       number = {2},
       pages = {253-7},
       note = {0003-9950 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {We tested a 1310-nm optical coherence tomograph coupled with a beam splitter on the front lens of an operating microscope for intraoperative, noncontact visualization of anterior segment procedures. This new modification of optical coherence tomography technology allows intraoperative, high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging and pachymetry of the cornea and sclera during anterior segment surgery. It is particularly helpful for lamellar dissection techniques such as deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and trabeculectomy.},
       keywords = {Anterior Eye Segment/*surgery
    Cornea/pathology
    Corneal Transplantation/methods
    Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological/*instrumentation
    Humans
    Monitoring, Intraoperative/*instrumentation
    *Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures
    Sclera/pathology
    Tomography, Optical Coherence/*instrumentation
    Trabecular Meshwork/pathology
    Trabeculectomy/methods},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=15710824},
       year = {2005},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Framme, C. and Schuele, G. and Roider, J. and Holz, F. G. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.: Temperature dependence of A2-E fluorescence in vitro and detection of fundus autofluorescence during selective RPE laser treatment (SRT). Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 46, 2005
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Framme2005,
       author = {Framme, C. and Schuele, G. and Roider, J. and Holz, F. G. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Temperature dependence of A2-E fluorescence in vitro and detection of fundus autofluorescence during selective RPE laser treatment (SRT)},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {46},
       note = {Suppl. S
    911CZ
    266
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000227980400260},
       year = {2005},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R; Kandulla, J; Elsner, H; Hilmes, M; Hartert, C and Birngruber, R: Non-invasive real-time retinal temperature determination during TTT. Invest Ophthal & VisScie 46, 2005
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Brinkmann2005,
       author = {Brinkmann, R; Kandulla, J; Elsner, H; Hilmes, M; Hartert, C and Birngruber, R},
       title = {Non-invasive real-time retinal temperature determination during TTT},
       journal = {Invest Ophthal & VisScie} {46},
       
       note = {Suppl. S
    911CZ
    1406
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000227980401431},
       year = {2005},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schuele, G; Elsner, H; Framme, C; Roider, J; Birngruber, R and Brinkmann, R: Optoacoustic real-time dosimetry for selective retina treatment. J Biomed Opt 10(6), 2005
    BibTeX Link Link
    @article{Schuele2005,
       author = {Schuele, G; Elsner, H; Framme, C; Roider, J; Birngruber, R and Brinkmann, R},
       title = {Optoacoustic real-time dosimetry for selective retina treatment},
       journal = {J Biomed Opt} {10(6)},
       
       note = {005XJ
    Times Cited:17
    Cited References Count:37},
       abstract = {The selective retina treatment ( SRT ) targets retinal diseases associated with disorders in the retinal pigment epithelium ( RPE ). Due to the ophthalmoscopic invisibility of the laser- induced RPE effects, we investigate a noninvasive optoacoustic real- time dosimetry system. In vitro porcine RPE is irradiated with a Nd: YLF laser ( 527 nm, 1.7- mu s pulse duration, 5 to 40 mu J, 30 pulses, 100- Hz repetition rate). Generated acoustic transients are measured with a piezoelectric transducer. During 27 patient treatments, the acoustic transients are measured with a transducer embedded in an ophthalmic contact lens. After treatment, RPE damage is visualized by fluorescein angiographic leakage. Below the RPE damage threshold, the optoacoustic transients show no pulse- to- pulse fluctuations within a laser pulse train. Above threshold, fluctuations of the individual transients among each other are observed. If optoacoustic pulse- to- pulse fluctuations are present, RPE leakage is observed in fluorescein angiography. In 96% of the irradiated areas, RPE leakage correlated with the optoacoustic defined threshold value. A noninvasive optoacoustic real- time dosimetry for SRT is developed and proved in vitro and during patient treatment. It detects the ophthalmoscopically invisible laser- induced damage of RPE cells and overcomes practical limitations of SRT for use in private practice. (C) 2005 Society of Photo- Optical Instrumentation Engineers.},
       keywords = {selective retina treatment
    optoacoustic dosimetry
    real-time dosimetry
    laser
    retina
    randomized clinical-trial
    macular degeneration
    diabetic-retinopathy
    photocoagulation
    nanosecond
    eye
    temperature
    generation
    liquids
    regimen},
       ISSN = {1083-3668},
       DOI = {Artn 064022
    Doi 10.1117/1.2136327},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000234859400024},
       year = {2005},
    
  • Schuele, G. and Elsner, H. and Framme, C. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.: Optoacoustic real-time dosimetry for selective retina treatment. J Biomed Opt, no. 10, pp. 064022, 2005
    BibTeX
    @article{Schuele,
       author = {Schuele, G. and Elsner, H. and Framme, C. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Optoacoustic real-time dosimetry for selective retina treatment},
       journal = {J Biomed Opt},
       volume = {10},
       number = {6},
       pages = {064022},
       note = {1083-3668 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The selective retina treatment (SRT) targets retinal diseases associated with disorders in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Due to the ophthalmoscopic invisibility of the laser-induced RPE effects, we investigate a noninvasive optoacoustic real-time dosimetry system. In vitro porcine RPE is irradiated with a Nd:YLF laser (527 nm, 1.7-micros pulse duration, 5 to 40 microJ, 30 pulses, 100-Hz repetition rate). Generated acoustic transients are measured with a piezoelectric transducer. During 27 patient treatments, the acoustic transients are measured with a transducer embedded in an ophthalmic contact lens. After treatment, RPE damage is visualized by fluorescein angiographic leakage. Below the RPE damage threshold, the optoacoustic transients show no pulse-to-pulse fluctuations within a laser pulse train. Above threshold, fluctuations of the individual transients among each other are observed. If optoacoustic pulse-to-pulse fluctuations are present, RPE leakage is observed in fluorescein angiography. In 96% of the irradiated areas, RPE leakage correlated with the optoacoustic defined threshold value. A noninvasive optoacoustic real-time dosimetry for SRT is developed and proved in vitro and during patient treatment. It detects the ophthalmoscopically invisible laser-induced damage of RPE cells and overcomes practical limitations of SRT for use in private practice.},
       keywords = {Acoustics/*instrumentation
    Animals
    Computer Systems
    Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
    Equipment Design
    Equipment Failure Analysis
    Humans
    Laser Coagulation/*methods
    Lasers/*therapeutic use
    Optics/*instrumentation
    Radiation Dosage
    Radiometry/*instrumentation/methods
    Reproducibility of Results
    Retina/pathology/*radiation effects/*surgery
    Sensitivity and Specificity
    Swine},
       year = {2005}
    }
  • Elsner, H. and Liew, S. H. M. and Klatt, C. and Hamilton, P. and Marshall, J. and Porksen, E. and Laqua, H. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R. and Roider, J.: Selective-retina-therapy (SRT) multicenter clinical trial: 6 month results in patients with diabetic maculopathy. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 46, 2005
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Elsner2005,
       author = {Elsner, H. and Liew, S. H. M. and Klatt, C. and Hamilton, P. and Marshall, J. and Porksen, E. and Laqua, H. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R. and Roider, J.},
       title = {Selective-retina-therapy (SRT) multicenter clinical trial: 6 month results in patients with diabetic maculopathy},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {46},
       note = {Suppl. S
    911CZ
    1463
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000227980401487},
       year = {2005},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Ahlers, C. and Michels, S. and Elsner, H. and Birngruber, R. and Pruente, C. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.: Topographic angiography and optical coherence tomography: A correlation of imaging characteristics. European Journal of Ophthalmology, no. 15, pp. 774-781, 2005
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Ahlers2005,
       author = {Ahlers, C. and Michels, S. and Elsner, H. and Birngruber, R. and Pruente, C. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.},
       title = {Topographic angiography and optical coherence tomography: A correlation of imaging characteristics},
       journal = {European Journal of Ophthalmology},
       volume = {15},
       number = {6},
       pages = {774-781},
       note = {990KX
    Times Cited:8
    Cited References Count:8},
       abstract = {PURPOSE. Topographic angiography (TAG) using confocal scanning laser angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are new imaging modalities that have been introduced during recent years. OCT and TAG imaging were compared to specify the characteristics of each imaging modality.
    METHODS. TAG using fluorescein angiography (FA) provides a three-dimensional pro file of the vascular structures based on the analysis of a set of 32 confocal images over a depth of 4 mm. OCT provides cross-sectional images of the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium-choriocapillary complex (RPE-CC). The authors compared and evaluated both modalities in 10 patients with predominantly classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV), 10 patients with serous pigment epithelial detachment (PED), and 10 patients with geographic RPE atrophy, all secondary to age-related macular degeneration (ARMD).
    RESULTS. In patients with classic CNV, TAG detected neovascular structures and delineated their configuration. In PEDs pooling of extravascular fluid is demonstrated, and in geographic RPE atrophy TAG showed reduced choroidal perfusion. Classic CNV was demonstrated by OCT as a hyperreflective band at the level of the RPE-CC, and PED showed a dome-shaped RPE detachment. In geographic RPE atrophy, OCT imaged loss of the RPE band and had an increased depth resolution.
    CONCLUSIONS. TAG and OCT are useful imaging modalities in the evaluation of ARMD cases. TAG visualizes the vascular configuration and dynamic perfusion and leakage changes. OCT is able to document intra-, subretinal, and sub-RPE fluid accumulation secondary to CNV Both modalities may provide further valuable insight into ARMD pathogenesis, enhance diagnostic quality, and improve the assessment of therapeutic effects.},
       keywords = {age-related macular degeneration
    choroidal neovascularization
    geographic atrophy
    imaging
    optical coherence tomography
    pigment epithelial detachment
    topographic angiography
    macular degeneration
    choroidal neovascularization
    disease},
       ISSN = {1120-6721},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000233742900019},
       year = {2005},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

2004

  • Ahlers, C; Michels, S; Birngruber, R and Schmidt-Erfurth, U: Differentiation of lesion types in exsudative age-related macular degeneration using current imaging methods. Invest Ophthal & VisScie 45, pp. U61-U61, 2004
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Ahlers2004,
       author = {Ahlers, C; Michels, S; Birngruber, R and Schmidt-Erfurth, U},
       title = {Differentiation of lesion types in exsudative age-related macular degeneration using current imaging methods},
       journal = {Invest Ophthal & VisScie} {45},
       
       pages = {U61-U61},
       note = {Suppl. 2
    846TC
    3071
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000223338200273},
       year = {2004},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R; Poerksen, E; Elsner, H; Schuele, G; Theisen-Kunde, D, Roider, J. and Birngruber, R.: On-line dosimetry for selective retina treatment (SRT). Invest Ophthal & VisScie 45, pp. U763-U763, 2004
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Brinkmann2004,
       author = {Brinkmann, R; Poerksen, E; Elsner, H; Schuele, G; Theisen-Kunde, D, Roider, J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {On-line dosimetry for selective retina treatment (SRT)},
       journal = {Invest Ophthal & VisScie} {45},
      
       pages = {U763-U763},
       note = {Suppl. 1
    846TA
    2032
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000223338001991},
       year = {2004},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Ahlswede, W; Michels, S; Birngruber, R and Schmidt-Erfurth, U: Three-dimensional imaging of photodynamic effects and spontaneous course in choroidal neovascularization. Ophthal 101(7), pp. 675-681, 2004
    BibTeX Link Link
    @article{Ahlswede2004,
       author = {Ahlswede, W; Michels, S; Birngruber, R and Schmidt-Erfurth, U},
       title = {Three-dimensional imaging of photodynamic effects and spontaneous course in choroidal neovascularization},
       journal = {Ophthal} {101(7)},
       
       pages = {675-681},
       note = {842AB
    Times Cited:2
    Cited References Count:18},
       abstract = {Purpose. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces occlusive and regenerative effects in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and physiological choroid. The process of vascular alteration is documented quantitatively and qualitatively by three-dimensional angiography.
    Method. In a prospective, randomized trial 30 patients with subfoveal CNV due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were treated with PDT or placebo. Fluorescence series with 32 tomographic images over a 4-mm depth were analyzed topographically and reproduced in a three-dimensional display.
    Results. At initial presentation CNV lesions were documented as a well-defined prominence in all patients, In the verteporfin group CNV height continuously decreased with each interval. In the placebo group CNV slightly increased in height during the first 6 months and remained stable at about 90% of the initial prominence at long-term follow-up. After 12 months 44% of the patients in the verteporfin group developed an additional choroidal defect.
    Conclusion. Three-dimensional angiography offers a reliable documentation of CNV progression and regression during PDT. A decrease in CNV size is associated with an increase in choroidal perfusion defects.},
       keywords = {photodynamic therapy
    age-related macular degeneration
    choroidal neovascularization
    three-dimensional topographic angiography
    green angiography
    human eyes
    therapy},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1007/s00347-003-0943-7},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000222973300003},
       year = {2004},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Porksen, E. and Elsner, H. and Theisen-Kunde, D. and Brinkmann, R. and Klatt, C. and Bunse, A. and Hamilton, P. and Birngruber, R. and Lagua, H. and Roider, J.: Clinical application of optoacoustic on-line dosimetry in Selective-RPE-laser-treatment (SRT). Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 45, pp. U363-U363, 2004
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Porksen2004,
       author = {Porksen, E. and Elsner, H. and Theisen-Kunde, D. and Brinkmann, R. and Klatt, C. and Bunse, A. and Hamilton, P. and Birngruber, R. and Lagua, H. and Roider, J.},
       title = {Clinical application of optoacoustic on-line dosimetry in Selective-RPE-laser-treatment (SRT)},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {45},
       pages = {U363-U363},
       note = {Suppl. 2
    846TC
    4074
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000223338201270},
       year = {2004},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Framme, C. and Schuele, G. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.: Influence of pulse duration and pulse number in selective RPE laser treatment. Lasers Surg Med, no. 34, pp. 206-15, 2004
    BibTeX
    @article{Framme,
       author = {Framme, C. and Schuele, G. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Influence of pulse duration and pulse number in selective RPE laser treatment},
       journal = {Lasers Surg Med},
       volume = {34},
       number = {3},
       pages = {206-15},
       note = {0196-8092 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The therapeutic effect of laser treatment for macular diseases is related to the damage to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the subsequent restoration of the defect due to RPE proliferation. In contrast to conventional laser treatment, it is possible to damage the RPE selectively and to spare the photoreceptors by using repetitive microsecond laser pulses. It was the aim of the study to investigate the influence of pulse duration and number of pulses on angiographically and ophthalmoscopically visible retinal damage thresholds in order to optimize treatment modalities. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 625 laser lesions with various parameters were applied to the retina in 11 eyes of 6 Chinchilla breed rabbits using an experimental laser system (Nd:YLF at 527 nm). Pulse duration (1.7 microseconds and 200 nanoseconds) and number of pulses (100, 10, and 1 pulses) were varied at a constant repetition rate of 100 Hz. Damage thresholds were determined in terms of ophthalmoscopic and fluorescein angiographic visibility, and the therapeutic window (TW; angiographic ED(50) vs. ophthalmoscopic ED(50)) as well as the safety range (SR; angiographic ED(84) vs. ophthalmoscopic ED(16)) between both thresholds were calculated. Selected laser lesions were evaluated by histology. RESULTS: Generally, the ED(50) radiant exposure for angiographic visibility decreases for shorter laser pulses and with an increase in the number of pulses. The TW for both pulse durations (1.7 microseconds and 200 nanoseconds) was wider with 100 pulses than with single pulses. The widest TW was found for 100 pulses at 200 nanoseconds pulse duration (5.9-fold above the angiographic threshold), and the smallest TW with a factor of 1.6 was found for 1.7 microseconds single pulses. In terms of SR, only irradiation with 100 pulses at 200 nanoseconds pulse duration was associated with a ratio >2. Independently of pulse duration, histological examination of laser sites 1 hour after irradiation revealed widely intact photoreceptors, while the underlying RPE was damaged. CONCLUSIONS: Pulse duration and number of pulses have a significant influence on RPE damage thresholds and consecutively on TW and SR. Because fundus pigmentation in humans may vary intra- and interindividually by a factor of 2, a large TW and ideally also a large SR should be ensured in a clinical treatment context. In rabbits, the safety range with 200 nanoseconds pulses is higher than with the pulse duration of 1.7 microseconds currently in clinical use. These findings suggest the need for clinical pilot studies to prove whether these results can be transposed to the situation in humans.},
       keywords = {Animals
    *Laser Coagulation/adverse effects
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/*injuries
    Rabbits
    Time Factors},
       year = {2004}
    }
  • Framme, C. and Schule, G. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.: Online autofluorescence measurements during selective RPE laser treatment. no. 242, pp. 863-9, Oct, 2004
    BibTeX
    @misc{Framme,
       author = {Framme, C. and Schule, G. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Online autofluorescence measurements during selective RPE laser treatment},
       volume = {242},
       number = {10},
       pages = {863-9},
       month = {Oct},
       note = {0721-832X (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND: Fundus autofluorescence (AF) is derived from the lipofuscin contained by the retinal pigment epithelial cells. Using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope, two-dimensional AF measurements of the ocular fundus can be achieved. Directly after conventional photocoagulation and also after selective RPE laser treatment (SRT) with ophthalmoscopically non-visible laser lesions, irradiated areas reveal reduced AF, indicating RPE damage. Since the green treatment laser beam could also be used for AF excitation, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether absolute measurements of AF can be performed, and also possible changes in AF detected, online during SRT. METHODS: SRT was carried out by use of a frequency-doubled Nd:YLF laser (wavelength 527 nm, pulse duration 1.7 micros, repetition rate 500 and 100 Hz, number of pulses 100 and 30, single pulse energy 50-130 microJ) in vitro (porcine RPE; retinal spot size 160 microm) and during patient treatment (retinal spot size 176 microm). During irradiation, fluorescence light from the RPE was decoupled from the laser light inside the slit lamp and detected by a photomultiplier or photodiode at wavelengths above 550 nm. Additionally, temperature-dependent fluorescence intensity measurements of A2-E, the main fluorescent component of lipofuscin, were performed in a different in-vitro setup. RESULTS: The intensity of AF decreased over the number of applied pulses during laser irradiation, and this trend was more pronounced in porcine RPE samples than during human treatment. In vitro, the AF intensity decreased by about 22%; however, only a weak signal was detected. When treating patients, the AF intensity was strong and the rate of decay of fluorescence intensity with number of pulses was greater when irradiating at 500 Hz than at the 100 Hz repetition rate. However, for both repetition rates the AF decay was merely up to 6-8% over the number of pulses per laser spot. Fluorescence intensity of A2-E decreased linearly with increasing temperature at about 1% per 1 degrees C and was completely reversible. CONCLUSIONS: Online measurements of AF during selective RPE laser treatment are possible and reveal a decay in AF as a function of the number of laser pulses applied to the RPE. If A2-E results can be transferred to RPE fluorescence, the AF decay could be related to the temperature increase within the tissue during treatment. Further clinical studies-in SRT as well as in conventional laser photocoagulation-might be able to show online AF changes on different areas of the retina and on different pathologies. Due to the temperature dependence of the fluorescence, on-line AF measurements during laser treatments such as photocoagulation or TTT may be able to be used as a real-time method for temperature monitoring.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Diabetic Retinopathy/*surgery
    *Fluorescence
    Humans
    *Laser Coagulation
    Lasers/diagnostic use
    Lipofuscin/*metabolism
    Ophthalmoscopy/methods
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/*metabolism/surgery
    Swine},
       year = {2004}
    }
  • Framme, C and Schüle, G and Birngruber, R and Roider, J and Schütt, F and Kopitz, J and Holz, F and Brinkmann, R: Temperature dependent fluorescence of A2-E, the main fluorescent lipofuscin component in the RPE. no. 29, pp. 287-291, 2004
    BibTeX
    @article{Framme,
       author = {Framme, C and Schüle, G and Birngruber, R and Roider, J and Schütt, F and Kopitz, J and Holz, F and Brinkmann, R},
       title = {Temperature dependent fluorescence of A2-E, the main fluorescent lipofuscin component in the RPE},
       journal = {Curr Eye Res},
       volume = {29},
       number = {4-5},
       pages = {287-291},
       year = {2004}
    }
  • Klatt, C. and Bunse, A. and Elsner, H. and Poerksen, E. and Theisen, D. and Brinkman, R. and Hamilton, P. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H. and Roider, J.: OCT-findings in patients treated with Selective-RPE-laser-treatment (SRT). Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 45, pp. U366-U366, 2004
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Klatt2004,
       author = {Klatt, C. and Bunse, A. and Elsner, H. and Poerksen, E. and Theisen, D. and Brinkman, R. and Hamilton, P. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H. and Roider, J.},
       title = {OCT-findings in patients treated with Selective-RPE-laser-treatment (SRT)},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {45},
       pages = {U366-U366},
       note = {Suppl. 2
    846TC
    4091
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000223338201285},
       year = {2004},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Kirsch, C. and Schneider-Brachert, W. and Grossmann, D. and Ebert, S. and Schlichting, S. and Birngruber, R. and Morgner, A. and Madisch, A. and Stolte, M. and Lehn, N. and Miehlke, S.: The efficacy of omeprazole/esomeprazole-based first-line and rescue therapies for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection is not affected by polymorphisms of cytochrome P450-2C19. Gastroenterology, no. 126, pp. A189-A189, 2004
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Kirsch2004,
       author = {Kirsch, C. and Schneider-Brachert, W. and Grossmann, D. and Ebert, S. and Schlichting, S. and Birngruber, R. and Morgner, A. and Madisch, A. and Stolte, M. and Lehn, N. and Miehlke, S.},
       title = {The efficacy of omeprazole/esomeprazole-based first-line and rescue therapies for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection is not affected by polymorphisms of cytochrome P450-2C19},
       journal = {Gastroenterology},
       volume = {126},
       number = {4},
       pages = {A189-A189},
       note = {Suppl. 2
    813EK
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0016-5085},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000220890200944},
       year = {2004},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Framme, C. and Flucke, B. and Birngruber, R.: Comparison of reduced and standard light application in photodynamic treatment in two rabbit models. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 45, pp. U81-U81, 2004
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Framme2004,
       author = {Framme, C. and Flucke, B. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Comparison of reduced and standard light application in photodynamic treatment in two rabbit models},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {45},
       pages = {U81-U81},
       note = {Suppl. 2
    846TC
    3189
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000223338200390},
       year = {2004},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roach, W. P. and Cain, C. P. and Narayan, D. G. and Noojin, G. D. and Boppart, S. A. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Toth, C. A.: Retinal response of Macaca mulatta to picosecond laser pulses of varying energy and spot size. Journal of Biomedical Optics, no. 9, pp. 1288-1296, 2004
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roach2004,
       author = {Roach, W. P. and Cain, C. P. and Narayan, D. G. and Noojin, G. D. and Boppart, S. A. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Toth, C. A.},
       title = {Retinal response of Macaca mulatta to picosecond laser pulses of varying energy and spot size},
       journal = {Journal of Biomedical Optics},
       volume = {9},
       number = {6},
       pages = {1288-1296},
       note = {879DU
    Times Cited:2
    Cited References Count:19},
       abstract = {We investigate the relationship between the laser beam at the retina (spot size) and the extent of retinal injury from single ultrashort laser pulses. From previous studies it is believed that the retinal effect of single 3-ps laser pulses should vary in extent and location, depending on the occurrence of laser-induced breakdown (LIB) at the site of laser delivery. Single 3-ps pulses of 580-nm laser energy are delivered over a range of spot sizes to the retina of Macaca mulatta. The retinal response is captured sequentially with optical coherence tomography (OCT). The in vivo OCT images and the extent of pathology on final microscopic sections of the laser site are compared. With delivery of a laser pulse with peak irradiance greater than that required for LIB, OCT and light micrographs demonstrate inner retinal injury with many intraretinal and/or vitreous hemorrhages. In contrast, broad outer retinal injury with minimal to no choriocapillaris effect is seen after delivery of laser pulses to a larger retinal area (60 to 300 mum diam) when peak irradiance is less than that required for LIB. The broader lesions extend into the inner retina when higher energy delivery produces intraretinal injury. Microscopic examination of stained fixed tissues provide better resolution of retinal morphology than OCT. OCT provides less resolution but could be guided over an in vivo, visible retinal lesion for repeated sampling over time during the evolution of the lesion formation. For 3-ps visible wavelength laser pulses, varying the spot size and laser energy directly affects the extent of retinal injury. This again is believed to be partly due to the onset of LIB, as seen in previous studies. Spot-size dependence should be considered when comparing studies of retinal effects or when pursuing a specific retinal effect from ultrashort laser pulses. (C) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.},
       keywords = {histopathology
    laser
    laser-tissue interaction
    ophthalmology
    optical coherence tomography
    retina
    ultrashort laser pulses
    wound healing
    induced breakdown thresholds
    optical coherence tomography
    aqueous-media
    1st-order model
    lesions
    damage
    computation
    injury},
       ISSN = {1083-3668},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1117/1.1805554},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000225697400023},
       year = {2004},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Ahlers, C. and Michels, S. and Birngruber, R. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.: Differentiation of lesion types in exsudative age-related macular degeneration using current imaging methods. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 45, pp. U61-U61, 2004
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Ahlers2004,
       author = {Ahlers, C. and Michels, S. and Birngruber, R. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.},
       title = {Differentiation of lesion types in exsudative age-related macular degeneration using current imaging methods},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {45},
       pages = {U61-U61},
       note = {Suppl. 2
    846TC
    3071
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000223338200273},
       year = {2004},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

2003

  • Huettmann, Gereon and Radt, Benno and Serbin, Jesper and Birngruber, Reginald: Inactivation of proteins by irradiation of gold nanoparticles with nano- and picosecond laser pulses. no. 5142, pp. 88-95, SPIE,
    BibTeX
    @inproceedings{Hüttmann2003,
       author = {Huettmann, Gereon and Radt, Benno and Serbin, Jesper and Birngruber, Reginald},
       title = {Inactivation of proteins by irradiation of gold nanoparticles with nano- and picosecond laser pulses},
       editor = {Rudolf, W. Steiner},
       publisher = {SPIE},
       volume = {5142},
       pages = {88-95},
    }
    
    
    
    
  • Niemeyer, M. and Michels, S. and Birngruber, R. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.: Three-dimensional imaging of photodynamic effects in choroidal neovascularization and collateral choroid. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 44, pp. U297-U297, 2003
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Niemeyer2003,
       author = {Niemeyer, M. and Michels, S. and Birngruber, R. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.},
       title = {Three-dimensional imaging of photodynamic effects in choroidal neovascularization and collateral choroid},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {44},
       pages = {U297-U297},
       note = {Suppl. 1
    709CH
    1098
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000184606801048},
       year = {2003},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Hoerauf, H. and Brix, A. and Scholz, C. and Winkler, J. and Droge, G. and Birngruber, R. and Vogel, A. and Laqua, H.: [Retinal photoablation with the Erbium:YAG laser. Initial experimental results for traction-free removal of tissue]. Ophthalmologe, no. 100, pp. 115-21, Feb,
    BibTeX
    @article{Hoerauf,
       author = {Hoerauf, H. and Brix, A. and Scholz, C. and Winkler, J. and Droge, G. and Birngruber, R. and Vogel, A. and Laqua, H.},
       title = {[Retinal photoablation with the Erbium:YAG laser. Initial experimental results for traction-free removal of tissue]},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {100},
       number = {2},
       pages = {115-21},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    Comparative Study
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       month = {Feb},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND: To investigate the potential of an Er:YAG laser for precise and traction-free removal of retinal layers in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retinal ablation in porcine retinal explants was performed using a free running Er:YAG laser focused either into a low-OH quartz fiber or a sapphire fiber. The explants were treated under air or perfluorodecaline (PFD). The ablation depth was evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histology sections. RESULTS: A radiant exposure of 5.0 J/cm(2) under air and PFD resulted in complete transsection of the neurosensory retina.Between 3.5 and 2.0 J/cm(2) the ablation depth and the defect patterns varied markedly and adjacent thermal zones areas were seen. Below 2.0 J/cm(2) no defects could be created in air, whereas under PFD the ablation extended into the ganglion cell layer. Ablations using a sapphire fiber and 2.0 J/cm(2) showed a significantly higher reproducibility of ablation depth, and homogeneous defect patterns limited to the nerve fiber layer could be produced without thermal damage. CONCLUSIONS: The Er:YAG laser system with a low-OH quartz fiber allowed ablation of inner retinal layers in vitro, but revealed a variable ablation depth and low reproducibility.However, a sapphire fiber showed markedly improved results. Therefore its use during vitreoretinal surgery seems possible not only as a cutting device but also as a tool for the ablation of fine retinal structures.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Erbium
    Fluorocarbons
    Laser Surgery/*methods
    *Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures
    Retina/anatomy & histology/*surgery
    Swine
    
  • Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R.: Selective retinal pigment epithelium laser treatment - Theoretical and clinical aspects. in Lasers in Ophthalmology - Basic, Diagnostic and Surgical Aspects, pp. 119-129, Kugler Publications, The Hague, The Netherlands, 2003
    BibTeX
    @inbook{Roider,
       author = {Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Selective retinal pigment epithelium laser treatment -   Theoretical and clinical aspects},
       booktitle = {Lasers in Ophthalmology - Basic, Diagnostic and Surgical Aspects},
       editor = {Fankhauser, F. and Kwasniewska, S.},
       publisher = {Kugler Publications, The Hague, The Netherlands},
       pages = {119-129},
       year = {2003}
    }
    
  • Framme, C. and Alt, C. and Schuele, G. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R. and Lin, C.: Threshold determinations for selective RPE laser treatment with a laser scanner in rabbits with different scan times in the microsecond regime. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 44, pp. U663-U663, 2003
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Framme2003,
       author = {Framme, C. and Alt, C. and Schuele, G. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R. and Lin, C.},
       title = {Threshold determinations for selective RPE laser treatment with a laser scanner in rabbits with different scan times in the microsecond regime},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {44},
       pages = {U663-U663},
       note = {Suppl. 2
    709CK
    4865
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000184607002325},
       year = {2003},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Ozdemir, M. and Alt, C. and Schule, G. and Lin, C. P. and Birngruber, R.: Targeting of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by means of a rapidly scanned continuous wave (CW) laser beam. Lasers Surg Med, no. 32, pp. 252-64,
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann2003,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Ozdemir, M. and Alt, C. and Schule, G. and Lin, C. P. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Targeting of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by means of a rapidly scanned continuous wave (CW) laser beam},
       journal = {Lasers Surg Med},
       volume = {32},
       number = {4},
       pages = {252-64},
       note = {0196-8092 (Print)
    In Vitro
    
  • Teschner, S. and Noack, J. and Birngruber, R. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.: Characterization of leakage activity in exudative chorioretinal disease with three-dimensional confocal angiography. Ophthalmology, no. 110, pp. 687-697, 2003
    BibTeX Link Link
    @article{Teschner2003,
       author = {Teschner, S. and Noack, J. and Birngruber, R. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.},
       title = {Characterization of leakage activity in exudative chorioretinal disease with three-dimensional confocal angiography},
       journal = {Ophthalmology},
       volume = {110},
       number = {4},
       pages = {687-697},
       note = {673EE
    Times Cited:8
    Cited References Count:30},
       abstract = {Purpose: A novel angiographic technique providing topographic imaging of chorioretinal fluorescence is applied to the characterization of leakage dynamics in exudative chorioretinopathy. The three-dimensional imaging is evaluated with respect to results with conventional two-dimensional fluorescence angiography.
    Design: Prospective observational case series.
    Participants: Thirty eyes of 30 patients with different exudative maculopathies (pigment epithelium detachment, branch retinal vein occlusion, central serous chorioretinopathy, each n = 10) and 11 eyes of 10 patients with clinically normal appearance.
    Methods: Depth-resolved fluorescence angiography using a confocal scanning laser system was performed after complete ophthalmologic examination. The axial distribution of fluorescein and indocyanine green fluorescence at each x/y position within a tomographic scan of 32 images was analyzed. The chorioretinal fluorescence topography was reconstructed by localizing a defined threshold value of fluorescence and displayed as topographic relief. Qualitative description and quantitative measurements of exudation or structural alterations were performed topographically and conventionally.
    Main Outcome Measures. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of structural or exudative changes in time course in topographic illustration compared with conventional angiography.
    Results: Clinically physiologic eyes were presented topographically as a smooth concave surface of fluorescence with defined illustration of retinal vascular structures and the optic disc. Retinal vascular pathologic conditions induce a precisely demarcated pattern of intraretinal edema with a characteristic temporal evolution. In central serous retinopathy the underlying pathologic condition was identified as a perfusion defect, which was subsequently filled with a peak of exudation with differences in the time of maximum in fluorescein/indocyanine green angiography. Pigment epithelium detachment appeared as a high and well defined elevation, with the origin of exudation within the base of the detachment. Differences in the time of maximum prominence were found in indocyanine green angiography within the pigment epithelium detachment group.
    Conclusions: Confocal topographic angiography allows for the first time precise three-dimensional functional imaging of fundus alterations caused by leakage or barrier dysfunction. Compared with conventional angiography, depth-resolved angiographic imaging is less impaired by masking phenomena or low fluorescence intensity, which improves the diagnostic yield of angiography. The characterization and quantification of leakage activity is a promising tool in the assessment of exudative maculopathy. (C) 2003 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.},
       keywords = {indocyanine green angiography
    scanning laser ophthalmoscope
    central serous chorioretinopathy
    choroidal neovascularization
    macular degeneration
    topographic angiography
    retinal thickness
    fluorescein
    videoangiography
    tomography},
       ISSN = {0161-6420},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1016/S6420(02)01972-3},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000182566600026},
       year = {2003},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

2002

  • Muller-Velten, R. and Hillmann, K. and Birngruber, R. and Noack, J. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.: Topographic imaging and quantification of retinal vascular leakage in venous branch occlusion. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 43, pp. U805-U805, 2002
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Müller-Velten2002,
       author = {Muller-Velten, R. and Hillmann, K. and Birngruber, R. and Noack, J. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.},
       title = {Topographic imaging and quantification of retinal vascular leakage in venous branch occlusion},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {43},
       pages = {U805-U805},
       note = {Suppl. 2
    709CG
    2859
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000184606700021},
       year = {2002},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R and Koop, N and Özdemir, M and Alt, C and Schüle, G and Lin, C P and Birngruber, R: Selective damage of pigmented cells by means of a rapidly scanned cw laser beam. Proc SPIE, no. 4617, pp. 134-140, 2002
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann2002,
       author = {Brinkmann, R  and Koop, N and Özdemir, M  and Alt, C and Schüle, G and Lin, C P and Birngruber, R},
       title = {Selective damage of pigmented cells by means of a rapidly scanned cw laser beam},
       journal = {Proc SPIE},
       volume = {4617},
       pages = {134-140},
       year = {2002},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Hüttmann, G. and Radt, B. and Serbin, J. and Lange, B.I. and Birngruber, R.: High Precision Cell Surgery with Nanoparticles?. Med Laser Appl, no. 17, pp. 9-14, 2002
    BibTeX
    @article{Hüttmann2002,
       author = {Hüttmann, G. and Radt, B. and Serbin, J. and Lange, B.I. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {High Precision Cell Surgery with Nanoparticles?},
       journal = {Med Laser Appl},
       volume = {17},
       pages = {9-14},
       year = {2002},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Framme, C and Brinkmann, R and Birngruber, R and Roider, J: Autofluorescence imaging after selective RPE treatment in macular diseases and clinical outcome: a pilot study. Br J Ophthalmol, no. 86, pp. 1099-1106, 2002
    BibTeX
    @article{Framme2002,
       author = {Framme, C and Brinkmann, R and Birngruber, R and Roider, J},
       title = {Autofluorescence imaging after selective RPE treatment in macular diseases and clinical outcome: a pilot study},
       journal = {Br J Ophthalmol},
       volume = {86},
       pages = {1099-1106},
       year = {2002},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Hoerauf, H. and Scholz, C. and Koch, P. and Engelhardt, R. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Transscleral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging method for the anterior segment of the eye. Arch Ophthalmol, no. 120, pp. 816-9, 2002
    BibTeX
    @article{Hoerauf2002,
       author = {Hoerauf, H. and Scholz, C. and Koch, P. and Engelhardt, R. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Transscleral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging method for the anterior segment of the eye},
       journal = {Arch Ophthalmol},
       volume = {120},
       number = {6},
       pages = {816-9},
       note = {0003-9950 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To present a new imaging method for the anterior segment of the eye. METHODS: Transscleral optical coherence tomographic images were generated in healthy volunteers using a slitlamp-adapted prototype equipped with a superluminescence diode with an infrared wavelength of 1310 nm. RESULTS: The optical coherence tomographic system used allowed penetration of human sclera in vivo and high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging of the anterior chamber angle and the ciliary body. CONCLUSION: The 1310-nm optical coherence tomographic image shows a significant potential as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for the anterior segment of the eye.},
       keywords = {Anatomy, Cross-Sectional/*methods
    Anterior Eye Segment/*anatomy & histology
    *Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological
    Humans
    Interferometry
    Light
    Sclera
    Tomography/methods},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=12049589},
       year = {2002},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Framme, C. and Schuele, G. and Roider, J. and Kracht, D. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.: Threshold determinations for selective retinal pigment epithelium damage with repetitive pulsed microsecond laser systems in rabbits. Ophthalmic Surgery and Lasers, no. 33, pp. 400-409, 2002
    BibTeX
    @article{Framme2002,
       author = {Framme, C. and Schuele, G. and Roider, J. and Kracht, D. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Threshold determinations for selective retinal pigment epithelium damage with repetitive pulsed microsecond laser systems in rabbits},
       journal = {Ophthalmic Surgery and Lasers},
       volume = {33},
       number = {5},
       pages = {400-409},
       note = {596HY
    Times Cited:18
    Cited References Count:28},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In both clinical and animal studies, it has been shown that repetitive short laser pulses can cause selective retinal pigment epithelium damage (RPE) with sparing of photoreceptors. Our purpose was to determine the ophthalmoscopic and angiographic damage thresholds as a function of pulse durations by using different pulsed laser systems to optimize treatment modalities.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chinchilla-breed rabbits were narcotized and placed in a special holding system. Laser lesions were applied using a commercial laser slit lamp, contact lens, and irradiation with a frequency-doubled Nd:YLF laser (wavelength: 527 nm; repetition rate: 500 Hz; number of pulses: 100; pulse duration: 5 mus, 1.7 mus, 200 ns) and an argon-ion laser (514 nm, 500 Hz, 100 pulses, 5 mus and 200 ins). In all eyes, spots with different energies were placed into the regio macularis with a diameter of 102 mum (tophat profile). After treatment, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography were performed and radiant exposure for ED50 damage determined. Speckle measurements at the fiber tips were performed to determine intensity peaks in the beam profile.
    RESULTS: Using the Nd:YLF laser system, the ophthalmoscopic ED50 threshold energies were 25.4 lJ (5 mus), 32 muJ (1.7 mus), and 30 muJ (200 ns). The angiographic ED50 thresholds were 13.4 muJ (5 mus), 9.2 muJ (1.7 mus), and 6.7 muJ (200 ns). With the argon laser, the angiographic threshold for 5 mus pulses was 5.5 muJ. The ophthalmoscopic threshold could not be determined because of a lack of power; however, it was > 12 muJ. For 200 ms, the ED50 radiant exposures were 20.4 mW ophthalmoscopically and 19.2 mW angiographically. Speckle factors were found to be 1.225 for the Nd:YLF and 3.180 for the argon laser. Thus, the maximal ED50-threshold radiant exposures for the Nd:YLF were calculated to be 362 mJ/cm(2) (5 mus), 478 mJ/cm(2) (1.7 mus), and 438 mJ/cm(2) (200 ns) ophthalmoscopically. Angiographically, the thresholds were 189 mJ/cm(2) (5 mus), 143 mJ/cm(2) (1.7 mus), and 97 mJ/cm(2) (200 ns). For the argon laser, the maximal ED50 radiant exposure threshold was 170 mJ/cm(2) angiographically.
    CONCLUSION: The gap between the angiographic and the ophthalmoscopic thresholds for the 200 ns regime (4.5 times above angiographic ED50) was wider than for the 1.7 mus regime (3.3 times above the angiographic ED50). This would suggest the appropriate treatment would be 200 ns pulses. However, histologies have yet to prove that nonvisible mechanical effects increase with shorter pulse durations and could reduce the "therapeutic window." When comparing the thresholds with 5 mus pulses from the argon and Nd:YLF laser, it demonstrates that intensity modulations in the beam profile must be considered.},
       keywords = {primate eye
    photocoagulation
    neovascularization
    nanosecond
    lesions
    model},
       ISSN = {0022-023X},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000178160100008},
       year = {2002},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Oezdemir, M. and Alt, C. and Schuele, G. and Lin, C. P. and Birngruber, R.: Selective RPE damage by means of a rapidly scanned cw laser beam. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 43, pp. U595-U595, 2002
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Brinkmann2002,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Oezdemir, M. and Alt, C. and Schuele, G. and Lin, C. P. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Selective RPE damage by means of a rapidly scanned cw laser beam},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {43},
       pages = {U595-U595},
       note = {Suppl. 1
    709CF
    2535
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000184606602467},
       year = {2002},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, Alfred . and Schweiger, P. and Frieser, A. and Asiyo, M. and Birngruber, R.: Intraocular Nd: YAG Laser Surgery: Light-Tissue Interaction, Damage Range, and Reduction of Collateral Effects. IEEE J Quant Electr, no. 26, pp. 2241-2260, 2002
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel2002,
       author = {Vogel, Alfred . and Schweiger, P. and Frieser, A. and Asiyo, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Intraocular Nd: YAG Laser Surgery: Light-Tissue Interaction, Damage Range, and Reduction of Collateral Effects},
       journal = {IEEE J Quant Electr},
       volume = {26},
       pages = {2241-2260},
       year = {2002},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Hüttmann, G. and Radt, B. and Serbin, J. and Lange, B.I. and Birngruber, R.: High Precision Cell Surgery with Nanoparticles?. Med Laser Appl, no. 17, pp. 9-14, 2002
    BibTeX
    @article{Hüttmann,
       author = {Hüttmann, G. and Radt, B. and Serbin, J. and Lange, B.I. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {High Precision Cell Surgery with Nanoparticles?},
       journal = {Med Laser Appl},
       volume = {17},
       pages = {9-14},
       year = {2002}
    }
    
  • Schmidt-Erfurth, U. M. and Ahlswede, W. and Michels, S. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.: Three-dimensional analysis of photodynamic therapy (PDT)-induced vascular effects in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and choroid: A two year follow-up. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 43, pp. U1143-U1143, 2002
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth2002,
       author = {Schmidt-Erfurth, U. M. and Ahlswede, W. and Michels, S. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.},
       title = {Three-dimensional analysis of photodynamic therapy (PDT)-induced vascular effects in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and choroid: A two year follow-up},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {43},
       pages = {U1143-U1143},
       note = {Suppl. 2
    709CG
    3978
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000184606701132},
       year = {2002},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Framme, C. and Schuele, G. and Roider, J. and Kracht, D. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.: Threshold determinations for selective retinal pigment epithelium damage with repetitive pulsed microsecond laser systems in rabbits. no. 33, pp. 400-9, Sep-Oct, 2002
    BibTeX
    @misc{Framme,
       author = {Framme, C. and Schuele, G. and Roider, J. and Kracht, D. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Threshold determinations for selective retinal pigment epithelium damage with repetitive pulsed microsecond laser systems in rabbits},
       volume = {33},
       number = {5},
       pages = {400-9},
       month = {Sep-Oct},
       note = {1082-3069 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In both clinical and animal studies, it has been shown that repetitive short laser pulses can cause selective retinal pigment epithelium damage (RPE) with sparing of photoreceptors. Our purpose was to determine the ophthalmoscopic and angiographic damage thresholds as a function of pulse durations by using different pulsed laser systems to optimize treatment modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chinchilla-breed rabbits were narcotized and placed in a special holding system. Laser lesions were applied using a commercial laser slit lamp, contact lens, and irradiation with a frequency-doubled Nd:YLF laser (wave-length: 527 nm; repetition rate: 500 Hz; number of pulses: 100; pulse duration: 5 micros, 1.7 micros, 200 ns) and an argon-ion laser (514 nm, 500 Hz, 100 pulses, 5 micros and 200 ms). In all eyes, spots with different energies were placed into the regio macularis with a diameter of 102 microm (tophat profile). After treatment, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography were performed and radiant exposure for ED50 damage determined. Speckle measurements at the fiber tips were performed to determine intensity peaks in the beam profile. RESULTS: Using the Nd:YLF laser system, the ophthalmoscopic ED50 threshold energies were 25.4 microJ (5 micros), 32 microJ (1.7 micros), and 30 microJ (200 ns). The angiographic ED50 thresholds were 13.4 microJ (5 micros), 9.2 microJ (1.7 micros), and 6.7 microJ (200 ns). With the argon laser, the angiographic threshold for 5 micros pulses was 5.5 microJ. The ophthalmoscopic threshold could not be determined because of a lack of power; however, it was > 12 microJ. For 200 ms, the ED50 radiant exposures were 20.4 mW ophthalmoscopically and 19.2 mW angiographically. Speckle factors were found to be 1.225 for the Nd:YLF and 3.180 for the argon laser. Thus, the maximal ED50 -threshold radiant exposures for the Nd:YLF were calculated to be 362 mJ/cM2 (5 micros), 478 mJ/cm2 (1.7 micros), and 438 mJ/cm2 (200 ns) ophthalmoscopically. Angiographically, the thresholds were 189 mJ/cm2 (5 micros), 143 mJ/cm2 (1.7 micros), and 97 mJ/cm2 (200 ns). For the argon laser, the maximal ED50 radiant exposure threshold was 170 mJ/cm2 angiographically. CONCLUSION: The gap between the angiographic and the ophthalmoscopic thresholds for the 200 ns regime (4.5 times above angiographic ED50) was wider than for the 1.7 micros regime (3.3 times above the angiographic ED50). This would suggest the appropriate treatment would be 200 ns pulses. However, histologies have yet to prove that nonvisible mechanical effects increase with shorter pulse durations and could reduce the "therapeutic window." When comparing the thresholds with 5 micros pulses from the argon and Nd:YLF laser, it demonstrates that intensity modulations in the beam profile must be considered.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Eye Injuries/diagnosis/*etiology
    Fluorescein Angiography
    Laser Coagulation/*adverse effects
    Ophthalmoscopy
    Photography
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/*injuries
    Rabbits
    Retina/*surgery
    Threshold Limit Values
    Time Factors},
       year = {2002}
    }
    
  • Hoerauf, H. and Winkler, J. and Scholz, C. and Wirbelauer, C. and Gordes, R. S. and Koch, P. and Engelhardt, R. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Transscleral optical coherence tomography-an experimental study in ex-vivo human eyes. Lasers Surg Med, no. 30, pp. 209-15, 2002
    BibTeX
    @article{Hoerauf2002,
       author = {Hoerauf, H. and Winkler, J. and Scholz, C. and Wirbelauer, C. and Gordes, R. S. and Koch, P. and Engelhardt, R. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Transscleral optical coherence tomography--an experimental study in ex-vivo human eyes},
       journal = {Lasers Surg Med},
       volume = {30},
       number = {3},
       pages = {209-15},
       note = {0196-8092 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potentials of a 1310-nm optical coherence tomography (OCT) system to penetrate the highly backscattering sclera in enucleated human eyes and provide visualization of intraocular structures by transscleral imaging. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: OCT-images were generated by an experimental prototype (Medical Laser Center, Lubeck, Germany) using a superluminescence diode with a wavelength of 1310 nm. OCT-images were taken from two enucleated human eyes using 100-200 axial scans with 60 Hz line scan frequency and compared to subsequent histologic sections. RESULTS: Transscleral OCT allowed penetration of the sclera and the anterior chamber angle could be completely identified. Some change within the anterior eye segment could be demonstrated with high accuracy. Additionally, limited demonstration of the ciliary body region was achieved. Due to limited signal intensity no detailed imaging of the pars plana and pars plicata region was possible. However, more posterior measurements allowed transscleral visualization of a retinal detachment. CONCLUSIONS: OCT using lightsources with a wavelength longer than that used in conventional OCT provides a promising imaging technique at high resolution allowing transscleral imaging of the anterior eye segment.},
       keywords = {Anterior Chamber/cytology
    Anterior Eye Segment/cytology
    Ciliary Body/cytology
    Equipment Design
    Eye/*cytology
    Humans
    Tomography/instrumentation/*methods},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=11891740},
       year = {2002},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Framme, C. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R. and Roider, J.: Autofluorescence imaging after selective RPE laser treatment in macular diseases and clinical outcome: a pilot study. British Journal of Ophthalmology, no. 86, pp. 1099-1106, 2002
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Framme2002,
       author = {Framme, C. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R. and Roider, J.},
       title = {Autofluorescence imaging after selective RPE laser treatment in macular diseases and clinical outcome: a pilot study},
       journal = {British Journal of Ophthalmology},
       volume = {86},
       number = {10},
       pages = {1099-1106},
       note = {595YE
    Times Cited:47
    Cited References Count:35},
       abstract = {Aim: Selective retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) laser treatment is a new technique which selectively damages the RPE while sparing the neural retina. One difficulty is the inability to visualise the laser lesions, The aim of the study was to investigate whether fundus autofluorescence (AF) is changed because of the RPE damage, and thus might be used for treatment control. Additionally, the clinical course of patients with various macular diseases was evaluated.
    Methods: 26 patients with macular diseases (diabetic maculopathy (DMP), soft drusen maculopathy (AMD), and central serous retinopathy (CSR)) were treated and followed up for at least 6 months. Treatment was performed with a train of repetitive short laser pulses (800 ns) of a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (parameters: 532 nm, 50 and 500 pulses at 100 and 500 Hz, retinal spot diameter 200 pm, pulse energies 75-175 muJ). AF was excited by 488 nm and detected by a barrier filter at 500 nm (HRA, Heidelberg Engineering, Germany). Patients were examined by ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and autofluorescence measurements at various times after treatment (10 minutes, 1 hour, 1 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months).
    Results: Fluorescein angiography showed leakage from the irradiated areas for about I week after treatment. None of the laser lesions was ophthalmoscopically visible during treatment. Identification of the lesions was possible by AF imaging showing an intensity decay in the irradiated area in 22 out of 26 patients, predominantly in patients with CSR and AMD. Lesions could be identified 10 minutes after treatment as hypoautofluorescent spots, which were more pronounced I hour later. During follow up the laser spots became hyperautofluorescent. In patients with DMP some AF images were less helpful because of diffuse oedema and larger retinal thickness. In these cases ICG angiography was able to confirm therapeutic success very well. Most of the patients have had benefit from the treatment, with best results obtained for CSR patients.
    Conclusion: Imaging of non-visible selective RPE laser effects can be achieved by AF measurements predominantly in patients without retinal oedema. Therefore, AF may replace invasive fluorescein angiography in many cases to verify therapeutic laser success, Selective laser treatment has the potential to improve the prognosis of macular diseases without the risk of laser scotomas.},
       keywords = {retinal-pigment epithelium
    primate retina
    fundus autofluorescence
    scanning ophthalmoscope
    photocoagulation
    lipofuscin
    krypton
    fluorescence
    melanin
    lesions},
       ISSN = {0007-1161},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1136/bjo.86.10.1099},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000178135200010},
       year = {2002},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Framme, C and Brinkmann, R and Birngruber, R and Roider, J: Autofluorescence imaging after selective RPE treatment in macular diseases and clinical outcome: a pilot study. Br J Ophthalmol, no. 86, pp. 1099-1106, 2002
    BibTeX
    @article{Framme,
       author = {Framme, C and Brinkmann, R and Birngruber, R and Roider, J},
       title = {Autofluorescence imaging after selective RPE treatment in macular diseases and clinical outcome: a pilot study},
       journal = {Br J Ophthalmol},
       volume = {86},
       pages = {1099-1106},
       year = {2002}
    }
    
    
  • Wirbelauer, C. and Scholz, C. and Hoerauf, H. and Pham, D. T. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Noncontact corneal pachymetry with slit lamp-adapted optical coherence tomography. American Journal of Ophthalmology, no. 133, pp. 444-450, 2002
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Wirbelauer2002,
       author = {Wirbelauer, C. and Scholz, C. and Hoerauf, H. and Pham, D. T. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Noncontact corneal pachymetry with slit lamp-adapted optical coherence tomography},
       journal = {American Journal of Ophthalmology},
       volume = {133},
       number = {4},
       pages = {444-450},
       note = {538DE
    Times Cited:73
    Cited References Count:35},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy, the reproducibility, and the limits of agreement of noncontact central corneal thickness measurement with slit lamp adapted optical coherence tomography (OCT). DESIGN: Nonrandomized comparative clinical trial.
    METHODS: In a prospective comparative observational study, a total of 108 consecutive patients ( 108 eyes) with normal corneas (92 eyes) and different corneal alters ations (16 eyes) participated. Six sequential measure. ments of the central corneal thickness with slit lamp-adapted OCT and with ultrasound (US) pachymetry at 1640 ms(-1) were performed. The main outcome measures were accuracy, reproducibility assessed with precision and coefficient of variation (CV), and limits of agreement of central corneal thickness measurement.
    RESULTS: The mean central corneal thickness values were 541 +/- 43 mum (OCT) and 549 +/- 44 mum (US) with a mean precision of +/- 5.8 mum (CV 1.08%) and of +/- 4.0 mum (CV 0.73%), respectively. The method comparison revealed equivalence (+/- 2SD) in the 5% range with a mean difference between both methods of 7.9 mum (1-45%). The relative error was 8.7 mum (1.6%), which corresponded to limits of agreement (+/- 2SD) ranging from -9.5 mum to 25.3 mum.
    CONCLUSIONS: Central corneal pachymetry with slit lamp,adapted OCT revealed, for clinical purposes, an excellent accuracy and reproducibility with a high degree of agreement compared with US pachymetry. Thus, the presented OCT system seems to be a promising diagnostic modality to objectively measure corneal thickness in a convenient noncontact mode. (C) 2002 by Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.},
       keywords = {in-situ keratomileusis
    anterior segment
    human-eye
    thickness
    interferometry
    regression
    precision},
       ISSN = {0002-9394},
       DOI = {Pii S0002-9394(01)01425-8
    Doi 10.1016/S0002-9394(01)01425-8},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000174798200002},
       year = {2002},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Framme, C. and Schuele, G. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.: Threshold determinations for selective RPE damage with repetitively pulsed microsecond laser systems in rabbits. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 43, pp. U595-U595, 2002
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Framme2002,
       author = {Framme, C. and Schuele, G. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Threshold determinations for selective RPE damage with repetitively pulsed microsecond laser systems in rabbits},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {43},
       pages = {U595-U595},
       note = {Suppl. 1
    709CF
    2530
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000184606602462},
       year = {2002},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brix, A and Vogel, A and Winkler, J and Dröge, G and Birngruber, R and Laqua, H and Hoerauf, H: Photoablation innerer Netzhautschichten mit dem Erbium: YAG-Laser in vitro. Focus Mul / Medizinische Universität <Lübeck>, no. 19, pp. 35, 2002
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Brix2002,
       author = {Brix, A and Vogel, A and Winkler, J and Dröge, G and Birngruber, R and Laqua, H and Hoerauf, H},
       title = {Photoablation innerer Netzhautschichten mit dem Erbium: YAG-Laser in vitro},
       journal = {Focus Mul / Medizinische Universität <Lübeck>},
       volume = {19},
       number = {1},
       pages = {35},
       ISSN = {0940-9998},
       url = {http://www.zbmed.de/ccmedimages/2002/24278.pdf},
       year = {2002},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

2001

  • Roider, J; Brinkmann, R, Framme, C; Schule, G, Joachimeyer, E; Wirbelauer, C; Kracht, D, Laqua, H and Birngruber, R: Selective RPE laser treatment in macular diseases: Clinical results.. Invest Ophthal & VisScie 42(4), pp. S695-S695, 2001
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roider2001,
       author = {Roider, J; Brinkmann, R, Framme, C; Schule, G, Joachimeyer, E; Wirbelauer, C; Kracht, D, Laqua, H and Birngruber, R},
       title = {Selective RPE laser treatment in macular diseases: Clinical results.},
       journal = {Invest Ophthal & VisScie} {42(4)},
       
       pages = {S695-S695},
       note = {Suppl. S
    427EP
    3741
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000168392103704},
       year = {2001},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schuele, Georg and Joachimmeyer, Elke and Framme, Carsten and Roider, Johann and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf: Optoacoustic detection of selective RPE cell damage during μs-laser irradiation. no. 4433, pp. 92-96,
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Schuele2001,
       author = {Schuele, Georg and Joachimmeyer, Elke and Framme, Carsten and Roider, Johann and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf},
       title = {Optoacoustic detection of selective RPE cell damage during μs-laser irradiation},
       volume = {4433},
       pages = {92-96},
       note = {10.1117/12.446507},
       abstract = {Objective: The selective damage of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with repetitive microsecond(s) laser pulses is a new technique for the treatment of several retinal diseases. RPE can selectively be damaged by simultaneously sparing off the adjacent photoreceptor tissue. Objective of this study is to investigate whether optoacoustic (OA) transients occurring during irradiation might be used to control the invisible treatment effect. Setup: A train of frequency doubled Nd:YLF laser pulses (527 nm, 1.7microsecond(s) pulse length, 500Hz rep. rate) were applied via a laser slit lamp on porcine RPE samples. The acoustic transients were recorded with a broadband transducer. Results: At low radiant exposures (&lt;100 mJ/cm2) we found a bipolar pressure transient due to thermo-elastic expansion of the RPE. The pressure waves from the individual pulses of one pulse train show nearly identical transients. The transients differ slightly from different sites on the sample. At higher radiant exposures (&gt;150 mJ/cm2), the OA transients differ from pulse to pulse within a pulse train, which can be attributed to microbubble formation around the strong absorbing melanosomes inside the RPE cells. FFT spectra of the OA transients show slight differences in the frequency spectrum with the different radiant exposures.},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.446507},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Schuele, Georg and Joachimmeyer, Elke and Framme, Carsten and Roider, Johann and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf: Optoacoustic control system for selective treatment of the retinal pigment epithelium. no. 4256, pp. 71-76,
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Schuele2001,
       author = {Schuele, Georg and Joachimmeyer, Elke and Framme, Carsten and Roider, Johann and Birngruber, Reginald and Brinkmann, Ralf},
       title = {Optoacoustic control system for selective treatment of the retinal pigment epithelium},
       volume = {4256},
       pages = {71-76},
       note = {10.1117/12.429323},
       abstract = {The selective damage of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a new treatment method for several retinal diseases. By applying a train of microsecond(s) laser pulses it is possible to selectively damage these cells and simultaneously spare the adjacent photoreceptor and neural tissue. Due to the ophthalmologic invisibility of the RPE cell damage we investigate an optoacoustic (OA) control system to monitor the RPE cell damage. Setup: The irradiation was performed with a frequency doubled Nd:YLF laser by applying a train of +s laser pulses. In vitro, the OA transients were received by an ultrasonic broadband transducer. During treatment an OA contact lens with embedded transducer was used. In vitro: Freshly enucleated porcine RPE samples with CalceinAM as life/death staining were used. Below RPE cell damage threshold a classic thermoelastic transient was found. Above cell damage threshold the OA transient differs form pulse to pulse. This can be explained by microbubble formation around the strong absorbing melanosomes inside the RPE cells. In vivo: We found the same pulse to pulse deviations of the OA transient above the fluoresceine angiographic detectable RPE damage threshold during treatment. This system give us a new approach to non-invasively monitor the selective RPE treatment.},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.429323},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Schmidt-Erfurth, U. M. and Niemeyer, M. and Michels, S. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.: Three-dimensional imaging of dynamic and structural vascular changes induced by photodynamic therapy.. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 42, pp. S512-S512, 2001
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt-erfurth2001,
       author = {Schmidt-Erfurth, U. M. and Niemeyer, M. and Michels, S. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.},
       title = {Three-dimensional imaging of dynamic and structural vascular changes induced by photodynamic therapy.},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {42},
       number = {4},
       pages = {S512-S512},
       note = {Suppl. S
    427EP
    2760
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000168392102729},
       year = {2001},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Framme, C. and Schuele, G. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R. and Roider, J.: Autofluorescence imaging after selective RPE laser treatment in macular diseases: A pilot study.. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 42, pp. S703-S703, 2001
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Framme2001,
       author = {Framme, C. and Schuele, G. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R. and Roider, J.},
       title = {Autofluorescence imaging after selective RPE laser treatment in macular diseases: A pilot study.},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {42},
       number = {4},
       pages = {S703-S703},
       note = {Suppl. S
    427EP
    3785
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000168392103748},
       year = {2001},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Radt, Benno and Serbin, Jesper and Lange, Bjoern I. and Birngruber, Reginald and Huettmann, Gereon: Laser-generated micro- and nanoeffects: inactivation of proteins coupled to gold nanoparticles with nano- and picosecond pulses. no. 4433, pp. 16-24, SPIE,
    BibTeX
    @inproceedings{Radt,
       author = {Radt, Benno and Serbin, Jesper and Lange, Bjoern I. and Birngruber, Reginald and Huettmann, Gereon},
       title = {Laser-generated micro- and nanoeffects: inactivation of proteins coupled to gold nanoparticles with nano- and picosecond pulses},
       editor = {Reginald, Birngruber and Hubert van den, Bergh},
       publisher = {SPIE},
       volume = {4433},
       pages = {16-24},
    
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Schuele, G. and Joachimmeyer, E. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R.: Determination of absolute fundus temperatures during retinal laser photocoagulation and selective RPE treatment.. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 42, pp. S696-S696, 2001
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Brinkmann2001,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Schuele, G. and Joachimmeyer, E. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Determination of absolute fundus temperatures during retinal laser photocoagulation and selective RPE treatment.},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {42},
       number = {4},
       pages = {S696-S696},
       note = {Suppl. S
    427EP
    3749
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000168392103712},
       year = {2001},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Hüttmann, G. and Serbin, J. and Radt, B. and Lange, B.I. and Birngruber, R.: Model system for investigating laser-induced subcellular microeffects.. Proc SPIE, no. 4257, pp. 398-409, 2001
    BibTeX
    @article{Hüttmann,
       author = {Hüttmann, G. and Serbin, J. and Radt, B. and Lange, B.I. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Model system for investigating laser-induced subcellular microeffects.},
       journal = {Proc SPIE},
       volume = {4257},
       pages = {398-409},
       year = {2001}
    }
    
  • Arnold, J. and Kilmartin, D. and Olson, J. and Neville, S. and Robinson, K. and Birngruber, R. and Laird, A. and Richmond, C. and Farrow, A. and McKay, S. and Saperstein, D. A. and Aaberg, T. M. and Johnson, J. B. and Waldron, R. and Loupe, D. and Gillman, J. and Myles, B. and Schachat, A. P. and Bressler, N. M. and Bressler, S. B. and Nesbitt, P. and Porter, T. and Hawse, P. and Hartnett, M. and Eager, A. and Belt, J. and Cain, D. and Emmert, D. and George, T. and Herring, M. and McDonald, J. and Mones, J. and Corcostegui, B. and Gilbert, M. and Duran, N. and Sisquella, M. and Nolla, A. and Margalef, A. and Miller, J. W. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Lane, A. M. and Emmanuel, N. and Holbrook, A. and Evans, C. and Lord, U. S. and Walsh, D. K. and Callahan, C. D. and DuBois, J. L. and Lewis, H. and Kaiser, P. K. and Holody, L. J. and Lesak, E. and Lichterman, S. and Siegel, H. and Fattori, A. and Ambrose, G. and Fecko, T. and Ross, D. and Burke, S. and Singerman, L. and Zegarra, H. and Novak, M. and Bartel, M. and Tilocco-DuBois, K. and Iic, M. and Schura, S. and Mayes, S. J. and Tanner, V. and Rowe, P. and Smith-Brewer, S. and Kukula, D. and Greanoff, G. and Daley, G. and DuBois, J. and Lehnhardt, D. and Fish, G. E. and Jost, B. F. and Anand, R. and Callanan, D. and Arceneaux, S. and Arnwine, J. and Ellenich, P. and King, J. and Aguado, H. and Rollins, R. and Jurklies, B. and Pauleikhoff, D. and Hintzmann, A. and Fischer, M. and Sowa, C. and Behne, E. and Pournaras, C. J. and Donati, G. and Kapetanios, A. D. and Cavaliere, K. and Guney-Wagner, S. and Gerber, N. and Sickenberg, M. and Sickenberg, V. and Gans, A. and Hosner, B. and others: Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in pathologic myopia with verteporfin - 1-year results of a randomized clinical trial - VIP report no. 1. Ophthalmology, no. 108, pp. 841-852, 2001
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Birngruber2001,
       author = {Arnold, J. and Kilmartin, D. and Olson, J. and Neville, S. and Robinson, K. and Birngruber, R. and  Laird, A. and Richmond, C. and Farrow, A. and McKay, S. and Saperstein, D. A. and Aaberg, T. M. and Johnson, J. B. and Waldron, R. and Loupe, D. and Gillman, J. and Myles, B. and Schachat, A. P. and Bressler, N. M. and Bressler, S. B. and Nesbitt, P. and Porter, T. and Hawse, P. and Hartnett, M. and Eager, A. and Belt, J. and Cain, D. and Emmert, D. and George, T. and Herring, M. and McDonald, J. and Mones, J. and Corcostegui, B. and Gilbert, M. and Duran, N. and Sisquella, M. and Nolla, A. and Margalef, A. and Miller, J. W. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Lane, A. M. and Emmanuel, N. and Holbrook, A. and Evans, C. and Lord, U. S. and Walsh, D. K. and Callahan, C. D. and DuBois, J. L. and Lewis, H. and Kaiser, P. K. and Holody, L. J. and Lesak, E. and Lichterman, S. and Siegel, H. and Fattori, A. and Ambrose, G. and Fecko, T. and Ross, D. and Burke, S. and Singerman, L. and Zegarra, H. and Novak, M. and Bartel, M. and Tilocco-DuBois, K. and Iic, M. and Schura, S. and Mayes, S. J. and Tanner, V. and Rowe, P. and Smith-Brewer, S. and Kukula, D. and Greanoff, G. and Daley, G. and DuBois, J. and Lehnhardt, D. and Fish, G. E. and Jost, B. F. and Anand, R. and Callanan, D. and Arceneaux, S. and Arnwine, J. and Ellenich, P. and King, J. and Aguado, H. and Rollins, R. and Jurklies, B. and Pauleikhoff, D. and Hintzmann, A. and Fischer, M. and Sowa, C. and Behne, E. and Pournaras, C. J. and Donati, G. and Kapetanios, A. D. and Cavaliere, K. and Guney-Wagner, S. and Gerber, N. and Sickenberg, M. and Sickenberg, V. and Gans, A. and Hosner, B. and others },
       title = {Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in pathologic myopia with verteporfin - 1-year results of a randomized clinical trial - VIP report no. 1},
       journal = {Ophthalmology},
       volume = {108},
       number = {5},
       pages = {841-852},
       note = {425WW
    Times Cited:272
    Cited References Count:12},
       abstract = {Objective: To determine if photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (Visudyne; CIBA Vision Corp, Duluth, GA) can improve the chance of stabilizing or improving vision (<8 letter loss) safely in patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) caused by pathologic myopia.
    Design: Multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial at 28 ophthalmology practices in Europe and North America.
    Participants: One hundred twenty patients with subfoveal CNV caused by pathologic myopia with a greatest linear dimension no more than 5400 <mu>m and best-corrected visual acuity (Snellen equivalent) of approximately 20/100 or better.
    Intervention: Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to verteporfin (6 mg per square meter of body surface area; n = 81) or placebo (5% dextrose in water, n = 39) administered via intravenous infusion of 30 ml over 10 minutes. Fifteen minutes after the start of the infusion, a laser light at 689 nm was delivered at an intensity of 600 mW/cm(2) over 83 seconds to give a light dose of 50 J/cm(2) to a round spot size on the retina with a diameter of 1000 mum larger than the greatest linear dimension of the choroidal neovascular lesion. At follow-up examinations every 3 months, retreatment with either verteporfin or placebo (as assigned at baseline) was applied to areas of fluorescein leakage if present.
    Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of eyes at the follow-up examination 12 months after study entry with fewer than eight letters (approximately 1.5 lines) of visual acuity lost, adhering to an intent-to-treat analysis.
    Results: At baseline, move than 90% of each group had evidence of classic CNV (regardless of whether occult CNV was present) and only 12 (15%) and 5 (13%) cases in the verteporfin and placebo groups, respectively, had occult CNV (regardless of whether classic CNV was present). Seventy-nine of the 81 verteporfin-treated patients (98%) compared with 36 of the 39 placebo-treated patients (92%) completed the month 12 examination. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and fluorescein angiographic outcomes were better in the verteporfin-treated eyes than in the placebo-treated eyes at every follow-up examination through the month 12 examination. At the month 12 examination, 58 (72%) of the verteporfin-treated patients compared with 17 (44%) of the placebo-treated patients lost fewer than eight letters (P < 0.01), including 26 (32%) versus 6 (15%) improving at least five letters (<greater than or equal to>1 line). Seventy (86%) of the verteporfin-treated patients compared with 26 (67%) of the placebo-treated patients lost fewer than 15 letters (P = 0.01), Few ocular or other systemic adverse events were associated with verteporfin therapy compared with placebo treatment.
    Conclusions: Because photodynamic therapy with verteporfin can safely increase the chance of stabilizing or improving vision in patients with subfoveal CNV from pathologic myopia compared with a placebo, we recommend ophthalmologists consider verteporfin therapy for treatment of such patients. Ophthalmology 2001; 108:841-852 (C) 2001 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.},
       ISSN = {0161-6420},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000168315500020},
       year = {2001},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Arnold, J. and Kilmartin, D. and Olson, J. and Neville, S. and Robinson, K. and Laird, A. and Richmond, C. and Farrow, A. and McKay, S. and McKechnie, R. and Evans, G. and Aaberg, T. M. and Brower, J. and Waldron, R. and Loupe, D. and Gillman, J. and Myles, B. and Saperstein, D. A. and Schachat, A. P. and Bressler, N. M. and Bressler, S. B. and Nesbitt, P. and Porter, T. and Hawse, P. and Harnett, M. and Eager, A. and Belt, J. and Cain, D. and Emmert, D. and George, T. and Herring, M. and McDonald, J. and Mones, J. and Corcostegui, B. and Gilbert, M. and Duran, N. and Sisquella, M. and Nolla, A. and Margalef, A. and Miller, J. W. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Lane, A. M. and Emmanuel, N. and Holbrook, A. and Evans, C. and Lord, U. S. and Walsh, D. K. and Callahan, C. D. and DuBois, J. L. and Moy, J. and Kenney, A. G. and Milde, I. and Platz, E. S. and Lewis, H. and Kaiser, P. K. and Holody, L. J. and Lesak, E. and Lichterman, S. and Siegel, H. and Fattori, A. and Ambrose, G. and Fecko, T. and Ross, D. and Burke, S. and Conway, J. and Singerman, L. and Zegarra, H. and Novak, M. and Bartel, M. and Tilocco-DuBois, K. and Ilc, M. and Schura, S. and Joyce, S. and Tanner, V. and Rowe, P. and Smith-Brewer, S. and Greanoff, G. and Daley, G. and DuBois, J. and Lehnhardt, D. and Kukula, D. and Fish, G. E. and Jost, B. F. and Anand, R. and Callanan, D. and Arceneaux, S. and Arnwine, J. and Ellenich, P. and King, J. and Aguado, H. and Rollins, R. and Anderson, T. and Nork, C. and Duignan, K. and Boleman, B. and Jurklies, B. and Pauleikhoff, D. and Hintzmann, A. and Fischer, M. and Sowa, C. and Birngruber, R. and others: Verteporfin therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration: Two-year results of a randomized clinical trial including lesions with occult with no classic choroidal neovascularization-verteporfin in photodynamic therapy report 2. American Journal of Ophthalmology, no. 131, pp. 541-560, 2001
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Birngruber2001,
       author = {Arnold, J. and Kilmartin, D. and Olson, J. and Neville, S. and Robinson, K. and Laird, A. and Richmond, C. and Farrow, A. and McKay, S. and McKechnie, R. and Evans, G. and Aaberg, T. M. and Brower, J. and Waldron, R. and Loupe, D. and Gillman, J. and Myles, B. and Saperstein, D. A. and Schachat, A. P. and Bressler, N. M. and Bressler, S. B. and Nesbitt, P. and Porter, T. and Hawse, P. and Harnett, M. and Eager, A. and Belt, J. and Cain, D. and Emmert, D. and George, T. and Herring, M. and McDonald, J. and Mones, J. and Corcostegui, B. and Gilbert, M. and Duran, N. and Sisquella, M. and Nolla, A. and Margalef, A. and Miller, J. W. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Lane, A. M. and Emmanuel, N. and Holbrook, A. and Evans, C. and Lord, U. S. and Walsh, D. K. and Callahan, C. D. and DuBois, J. L. and Moy, J. and Kenney, A. G. and Milde, I. and Platz, E. S. and Lewis, H. and Kaiser, P. K. and Holody, L. J. and Lesak, E. and Lichterman, S. and Siegel, H. and Fattori, A. and Ambrose, G. and Fecko, T. and Ross, D. and Burke, S. and Conway, J. and Singerman, L. and Zegarra, H. and Novak, M. and Bartel, M. and Tilocco-DuBois, K. and Ilc, M. and Schura, S. and Joyce, S. and Tanner, V. and Rowe, P. and Smith-Brewer, S. and Greanoff, G. and Daley, G. and DuBois, J. and Lehnhardt, D. and Kukula, D. and Fish, G. E. and Jost, B. F. and Anand, R. and Callanan, D. and Arceneaux, S. and Arnwine, J. and Ellenich, P. and King, J. and Aguado, H. and Rollins, R. and Anderson, T. and Nork, C. and Duignan, K. and Boleman, B. and Jurklies, B. and Pauleikhoff, D. and Hintzmann, A. and Fischer, M. and Sowa, C. and Birngruber, R. and others },
       title = {Verteporfin therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration: Two-year results of a randomized clinical trial including lesions with occult with no classic choroidal neovascularization-verteporfin in photodynamic therapy report 2},
       journal = {American Journal of Ophthalmology},
       volume = {131},
       number = {5},
       pages = {541-560},
       note = {431AN
    Times Cited:579
    Cited References Count:9},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To determine if photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (Visudyne; Novartis AG, Bulach, Switzerland), termed verteporfin therapy, can safely reduce the risk of vision loss compared with a placebo (with sham treatment) in patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization caused by age-related macular degeneration who were identified with a lesion composed of occult with no classic choroidal neovascularization, or with presumed early onset classic choroidal neovascularization with good visual acuity letter score,
    METHODS: This was a double-masked, placebo controlled (sham treatment), randomized, multicenter clinical trial involving 28 ophthalmology practices in Europe and North America. The study population was patients with age related macular degeneration, with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization lesions measuring no greater than 5400 mum in greatest linear dimension with either 1) occult with no classic choroidal neovascularization, best-corrected visual acuity score of at least 50 (Snellen equivalent approximately 20/100), and evidence of hemorrhage or recent disease progression; or 2) evidence of classic choroidal neovascularization with a best-corrected visual acuity score of at least 70 (better than a Snellen equivalent of approximately 20/40); assigned randomly (2:1) to verteporfin therapy or placebo therapy. Verteporfin (6 mg per square meter of body surface area) or placebo (5% dextrose in water) was administered by means of intravenous infusion of 30 mi over 10 minutes. Fifteen minutes after the start of the infusion, a laser light at 689 nm delivered 50 J/cm(2) by application of an intensity of 600 mW/cm(2) over 83 seconds using a spot size with a diameter 1000 mum larger than the greatest linear dimension of the choroidal neovascularization lesion on the retina. At follow-up examinations every 3 months, retreatment with the same regimen was applied if angiography showed fluorescein leakage. The main outcome measure was at least moderate vision loss, that is, a loss of at least 15 letters (approximately 3 lines), adhering to an intent-to treat analysis with the last observation carried forward to impute for missing data.
    RESULTS: Two hundred ten (93%) and 193 (86%) of the 225 patients in the verteporfin group compared with 104 (91%) and 99 (87%) of the 114 patients in the placebo group completed the month 12 and 24 examinations, respectively. On average, verteporfin-treated patients received five treatments over the 24 months of follow-up. The primary outcome was similar for the verteporfin-treated and the placebo-treated eyes through the month 12 examination, although a number of secondary visual and angiographic outcomes significantly favored the verteporfin-treated group. Between the month 12 and 24 examinations, the treatment benefit grew so that by the month 24 examination, the vertepor-fin-treated eyes were less likely to have moderate or severe vision loss. Of the 225 verteporfin-treated patients, 121 (54%) compared with 76 (67%) of 114 placebo-treated patients lost at least 15 letters (P =.023). Likewise, 61 of the verteporfin-treated patients (30%) compared with 54 of the placebo-treated patients (47%) lost at least 30 letters (P = .001). Statistically significant results favoring verteporfin therapy at the month 24 examination were consistent between the total population and the subgroup of patients with a baseline lesion composition identified as occult choroidal neovascularization with no classic choroidal neovascularization, This subgroup included 166 of the 225 verteporfin-treated patients (74%) and 92 of the 114 placebo-treated patients (81%). In these patients, 91 of the verteporfin-treated group (55%) compared with 63 of the placebo-treated group (68%) lost at least 15 letters (P =.032), whereas 48 of the verteporfin-treated group (29%) and 43 of the placebo-treated group (47%) lost at least 30 letters (P =.004). Other secondary outcomes, including visual acuity letter score worse than 34 (approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/200 or worse), mean change in visual acuity letter score, development of classic choroidal neovascularization, progression of classic choroidal neovascularization and size of lesion, favored the verteporfin-treated group at both the month 12 and month 24 examination for both the entire study group and the subgroup of cases with occult with no classic choroidal neovascularization at baseline. Subgroup analyses of lesions composed of occult with no classic choroidal neovascularization at baseline suggested that the treatment benefit was greater for patients with either smaller lesions (4 disc areas or less) or lower levels of visual acuity (letter score less than 65, an approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/50(-1) or worse) at baseline. Prospectively planned multivariable analyses confirmed that these two baseline variables affected the magnitude of treatment benefit. Of the 123 verteporfin-treated patients and 64 placebo-heated patients with either visual acuity score Less than 65 or lesion size 4 disc areas or less at baseline, 60 (49%) and 48 (75%) lost at least 15 letters (P < .001), respectively, and 26 (21%) and 31 (48%) lost at least 30 letters (P <.001), respectively, at the month 24 examination. Conversely, treatment may not be beneficial for patients with both larger lesions and good visual acuity (both greater than 4 disc areas and letter score 65 or greater, an approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/50 or better). With respect to safety for the entire study group, 10 of 225 verteportin-treated patients (4.
    4%) and none of the placebo-treated patients had a severe decrease of vision (at least 20 letters compared with the visual acuity just before the treatment) within 7 days after treatment, judged to be the result of the development of subretinal pigment epithelial blood, marked subretinal fluid associated with choroidal hypofluorescence, or no obvious cause. Five of these 10 patients had recovery of vision to less than a 20-letter loss compared with the pretreatment vision score at 3 months after this event. Photosensitivity reactions occurred in only one patient in each group.
    CONCLUSIONS: In this trial of patients with agerelated macular degeneration and subfoveal choroidal neovascularisation lesions composed of occult with no classic choroidal neovascularization, verteporfin therapy significantly reduced the risk of moderate and severe visual acuity loss. Subgroup analyses suggest that a greater benefit was achieved in patients presenting with either smaller lesions (4 disc areas or less) or lower levels of visual acuity (letter score less than 65, an approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/50(-1) or less). The Verteporfin In Photodynamic Therapy Study Group recommends that this therapy should be considered for the treatment of patients with age-related macular degeneration with subfoveal lesions composed of occult with no classic choroidal neovascularization who are presumed to have recent disease progression. Patients to be treated should be aware of a small (4%) risk of acute, severe vision decrease.<(c)> 2001 by Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.).},
       ISSN = {0002-9394},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000168609900001},
       year = {2001},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wirbelauer, C. and Scholz, C. and Hoerauf, H. and Bastian, G. O. and Engelhardt, R. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.: Untersuchungen der Hornhaut mittels optischer Kohärenztomographie.. Ophthalmologe, no. 98, pp. 151-156, 2001
    BibTeX
    @article{Wirbelauer2001,
       author = {Wirbelauer, C. and Scholz, C. and Hoerauf, H. and Bastian, G. O. and Engelhardt, R. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.},
       title = {Untersuchungen der Hornhaut mittels optischer Kohärenztomographie.},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {98},
       pages = {151-156},
       year = {2001},
       type = {Journal Article}
    
  • Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Teschner, S. and Noack, J. and Birngruber, R.: Three-dimensional topographic angiography in chorioretinal vascular disease. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 42, pp. 2386-2394, 2001
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth2001,
       author = {Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Teschner, S. and Noack, J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Three-dimensional topographic angiography in chorioretinal vascular disease},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {42},
       number = {10},
       pages = {2386-2394},
       note = {469FL
    Times Cited:11
    Cited References Count:31},
       abstract = {PURPOSE. To evaluate a new angiographic technique that offers three-dimensional imaging of chorioretinal vascular diseases.
    METHODS. Fluorescein (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) were performed using. a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Tomographic series with 32 images per set were taken over a depth of 4 min at an image frequency of 20 Hz. An axial analysis was performed for each x/y position to determine the fluorescence distribution along, the z-axis. The location of the onset of fluorescence at a defined threshold intensity was identified and a depth profile was generated. The overall results of fluorescence topography were displayed in a gray scale-coded image and three-dimensional relief.
    RESULTS. Topographic angiography delineated the choriocapillary surface covering.. the posterior pole with exposed larger retinal vessels. Superficial masking of fluorescence by hemorrhage or absorbing fluid did not preclude detection of underlying diseases. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) appeared as a vascular formation with distinct configuration and prominence. Chorioretinal infiltrates exhibited perfusion defects with dye pooling. Retinal pigment epithelium detachments (PEDs) demonstrated dynamic filling mechanisms. Intraretinal extravasation in retinal vascular disease was, detected within a well-demarcated area with prominent retinal thickening.
    CONCLUSIONS. Confocal topographic angiography allows high-resolution three-dimensional imaging, of chorioretinal vascular and exudative diseases. Structural vascular changes (e.g., proliferation) are detected in respect to location and size. Dynamic processes (e.g., perfusion defects, extravasation, and barrier dysfunction) are clearly identified and may be quantified. Topographic angiography is a promising technique in the diagnosis, therapeutic evaluation, and pathophysiological evaluation of macular disease.},
       keywords = {indocyanine green angiography
    scanning laser ophthalmoscope
    occult choroidal neovascularization
    optical coherence tomography
    cystoid macular edema
    fluorescein angiography
    fundus camera
    in-vivo
    videoangiography
    degeneration},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000170803900032},
       year = {2001},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wirbelauer, C. and Scholz, C. and Hoerauf, H. and Bastian, G. O. and Engelhardt, R. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.: Examination of the cornea using optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmologe, no. 98, pp. 151-156, 2001
    BibTeX Link Link
    @article{Wirbelauer2001,
       author = {Wirbelauer, C. and Scholz, C. and Hoerauf, H. and Bastian, G. O. and Engelhardt, R. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.},
       title = {Examination of the cornea using optical coherence tomography},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {98},
       number = {2},
       pages = {151-156},
       note = {403KQ
    Times Cited:34
    Cited References Count:18},
       abstract = {Introduction. This study evaluated the clinical use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for two-dimensional representation of the cornea.
    Patients and methods. Noncontact slit-lamp-adapted OCT was used in selected cases to evaluate pathologically altered corneas and to measure the central corneal thickness and curvature.
    Results. OCT provided correlation between differences in reflection and morphological changes. Scar tissue resulted in hyperreflective light scattering, wheras cystic lesions were hyporeflective. Precise biomorphometry also allowed representation of intrastromal and retrocorneal changes. Central corneal thickness measured by OCT yielded reproducible values and corn be calculated from the optical signals of the corneal surface.
    Conclusions. OCT provides high-resolution representation of the cornea and exact evaluation of its morphology, thickness, and curvature. Due to the noncontact, simple,and rapid examination using the slitlamp the corneal OCT method is a promising additional diagnostic modality.},
       keywords = {optical coherence tomography
    cornea
    pachymetry
    profilometry
    thickness measurements
    in-vivo
    pachymetry
    topography
    eye},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1007/s003470170176},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000167041400005},
       year = {2001},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schneider-Brachert, W. and Birngruber, R. and Linde, H. J. and Miehlke, S. and Bayerdorffer, E. and Lehn, N.: Susceptibility of clinical ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates of Helicobacter pylori to new fluoroquinolones. Gut, no. 49, pp. A96-A96, 2001
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schneider-Brachert2001,
       author = {Schneider-Brachert, W. and Birngruber, R. and Linde, H. J. and Miehlke, S. and Bayerdorffer, E. and Lehn, N.},
       title = {Susceptibility of clinical ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates of Helicobacter pylori to new fluoroquinolones},
       journal = {Gut},
       volume = {49},
       pages = {A96-A96},
       note = {Suppl. 2
    476NB
    1553
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0017-5749},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000171232500340},
       year = {2001},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Elsner, H. G. and Niemeyer, M. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.: Imaging of choroidal neovascularization: A comparison of optical coherence tomography and topographic angiography.. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 42, pp. S795-S795, 2001
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Elsner2001,
       author = {Elsner, H. G. and Niemeyer, M. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.},
       title = {Imaging of choroidal neovascularization: A comparison of optical coherence tomography and topographic angiography.},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {42},
       number = {4},
       pages = {S795-S795},
       note = {Suppl. S
    427EP
    4262
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000168392104225},
       year = {2001},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

2000

  • Wirbelauer, C. and Koop, N. and Tuengler, A. and Geerling, G. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H. and Brinkmann, R.: Corneal endothelial cell damage after experimental diode laser thermal keratoplasty. J Refract Surg, no. 16, pp. 323-9, 2000
    BibTeX
    @article{Wirbelauer2000,
       author = {Wirbelauer, C. and Koop, N. and Tuengler, A. and Geerling, G. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Corneal endothelial cell damage after experimental diode laser thermal keratoplasty},
       journal = {J Refract Surg},
       volume = {16},
       number = {3},
       pages = {323-9},
       note = {Wirbelauer, C
    Koop, N
    Tuengler, A
    Geerling, G
    Birngruber, R
    Laqua, H
    Brinkmann, R
    Journal Article
    United States
    J Refract Surg. 2000 May-Jun;16(3):323-9.},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety of diode laser thermal keratoplasty (LTK) with respect to corneal endothelial cell damage. METHODS: In an in vitro animal model system, porcine eyes were irradiated with a continuously emitting laser diode at wavelengths (lambda) of 1.85 or 1.87 microm, corresponding to an absorption coefficient (micro(a)) of 1.1 or 2.0 mm(-1). Different irradiation and application parameters were tested serially. To determine the temperature threshold for endothelial damage, corneal buttons were analyzed separately in a waterbath experiment. The endothelial damage was assessed after trypan blue and alizarin red supravital staining under light microscopy. RESULTS: The thresholds for the 50% probability of thermal damage (ED50) were determined at corneal temperatures of 65 degrees C for a 10-second water-bath immersion, and 59 degrees C for 60 seconds. Coagulations that reached the deeper stromal layers revealed severe endothelial cellular alterations and areas of exposed Descemet's membrane. The thermally induced changes were dependent on laser power and the absorption coefficient (wavelength). Mean diameter of total endothelial cell damage was 245 +/- 154 microm (range, 0 to 594 microm) for an absorption coefficient of 1.1 mm(-1). The maximal lateral extent of endothelial cell damage induced by the laser exposure was 594 microm in diameter. Increasing the absorption coefficient decreased the penetration depth of the laser irradiation, creating a greater temperature rise within the corneal stroma and significantly less endothelial damage (P < .01), when the same laser power was applied. The calculated total area of damage for the paracentral human corneal endothelium ranged from 1.8% to 13.6%. CONCLUSION: Data obtained in this in vitro study were transferred to an endothelial cell damage nomogram, demonstrating that appropriate parameter improvements can minimize the adverse effects to the corneal endothelium. However, model adjustment to the human cornea indicates the potential for endothelial cell damage after diode laser thermal keratoplasty, and should be considered when performing this elective procedure.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Anthraquinones
    Cell Count
    Cell Survival
    Corneal Diseases/*etiology/pathology
    Corneal Stroma/*surgery
    Endothelium, Corneal/*pathology
    Laser Coagulation/*adverse effects/methods
    Necrosis
    Safety
    Swine
    Trypan Blue},
       ISSN = {1081-597X (Print)
    1081-597x},
       year = {2000},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Radt, B. and Flamm, C. and Kampmeier, J. and Koop, N. and Birngruber, R.: Influence of temperature and time on thermally induced forces in corneal collagen and the effect on laser thermokeratoplasty. J Cataract Refract Surg, no. 26, pp. 744-54, 2000
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Brinkmann2000,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Radt, B. and Flamm, C. and Kampmeier, J. and Koop, N. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Influence of temperature and time on thermally induced forces in corneal collagen and the effect on laser thermokeratoplasty},
       journal = {J Cataract Refract Surg},
       volume = {26},
       number = {5},
       pages = {744-54},
       note = {0886-3350 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To investigate thermomechanical aspects of corneal collagen denaturation as a function of temperature and time and the effect of the induced forces on refractive changes with laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK). SETTING: Medical Laser Center Lubeck, Lubeck, Germany. METHODS: In a material-test setup, porcine corneal strips were denatured in paraffin oil at various constant temperatures for 10 and 500 seconds, and the temporal course of the contractive forces was studied under isometric conditions. Typical LTK lesions were performed in porcine eyes in vitro with a continuous-wave infrared laser diode at a wavelength of 1.87 microm for 10 and 60 seconds. The laser power was chosen to achieve comparable denatured volumes at both irradiation times. The refractive changes were measured and analyzed by histologic evaluations and temperature calculations. RESULTS: The time course of the induced forces was characterized by a maximal force, which increased almost linearly with temperature, and a residual lower force. After 500 seconds of heating, the highest force was achieved with a temperature of 75 degrees C. With a limited heating period of only 10 seconds, the forces steadily increased with temperature over the entire observation period. Laser thermokeratoplasty produced less refractive change after 10 seconds of irradiation than after 60 seconds, although the laser power was 25% higher in the short heating period. Polarization light microscopy of LTK lesions revealed different stages of thermal damage. CONCLUSION: The course of the contractive forces during and after heating is a complicated function of the spatial time/temperature profile. Laser thermokeratoplasty lesions produced with 2 irradiation times showed different stages of denaturation and induced refractive change.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Body Temperature
    Collagen/*metabolism
    Cornea/metabolism/pathology/*surgery
    *Laser Coagulation
    Microscopy, Polarization
    Protein Denaturation
    Swine
    Time Factors},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=10831907},
       year = {2000},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wirbelauer, C. and Scholz, C. and Hoerauf, H. and Engelhardt, R. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.: Corneal optical coherence tomography before and immediately after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy. Am J Ophthalmol, no. 130, pp. 693-9,
    BibTeX
    @article{Wirbelauer,
       author = {Wirbelauer, C. and Scholz, C. and Hoerauf, H. and Engelhardt, R. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.},
       title = {Corneal optical coherence tomography before and immediately after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy},
       journal = {Am J Ophthalmol},
       volume = {130},
       number = {6},
       pages = {693-9},
       note = {0002-9394 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To investigate the representation of the corneal structure with optical coherence tomography before and immediately after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy. METHODS: Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with myopia and myopic astigmatism were prospectively studied. The corneal thickness and the corneal profile were assessed with slit-lamp-adapted optical coherence tomography preoperatively and immediately after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy. RESULTS: The attempted mean spherical equivalent of the refractive corrections was -6.7 +/- 3.6 (mean +/- SD) diopters with a mean calculated stromal ablation depth of 91 +/- 38 microm. The corneal optical coherence tomography was reproducible in all patients, demonstrating a mean decrease of central corneal thickness after epithelial debridement and excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy of 118 +/- 45 microm. The comparison of the calculated stromal ablation depth and the corneal thickness changes determined by corneal optical coherence tomography revealed a significant linear relationship with a correlation coefficient of 0.88 (P <.001). The flattening of the corneal curvature was confirmed in all patients with the optical coherence tomography system and correlated with the attempted refractive correction (r =.82, P <.001). CONCLUSIONS: The slit-lamp-adapted optical coherence tomography system presented in this study allowed noncontact, cross-sectional, and high-resolution imaging of the corneal configuration. This initial clinical evaluation demonstrated that corneal optical coherence tomography could be a promising diagnostic modality to monitor corneal changes of thickness and curvature before and after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy.},
       keywords = {Adult
    Astigmatism/*diagnosis/surgery
    Cornea/*pathology/surgery
    *Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological
    Female
    Humans
    Interferometry
    *Keratectomy, Photorefractive, Excimer Laser
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Myopia/*diagnosis/surgery
    Prospective Studies
    Refraction, Ocular
    Reproducibility of Results
    Sound
    
  • Sickenberg, M. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Miller, J. W. and Pournaras, C. J. and Zografos, L. and Piguet, B. and Donati, G. and Laqua, H. and Barbazetto, I. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Lane, A. M. and Birngruber, R. and van den Bergh, H. and Strong, H. A. and Manjuris, U. and Gray, T. and Fsadni, M. and Bressler, N. M.: A preliminary study of photodynamic therapy using verteporfin for choroidal neovascularization in pathologic myopia, ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, angioid streaks, and idiopathic causes. Arch Ophthalmol, no. 118, pp. 327-36,
    BibTeX
    @article{Sickenberg,
       author = {Sickenberg, M. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Miller, J. W. and Pournaras, C. J. and Zografos, L. and Piguet, B. and Donati, G. and Laqua, H. and Barbazetto, I. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Lane, A. M. and Birngruber, R. and van den Bergh, H. and Strong, H. A. and Manjuris, U. and Gray, T. and Fsadni, M. and Bressler, N. M.},
       title = {A preliminary study of photodynamic therapy using verteporfin for choroidal neovascularization in pathologic myopia, ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, angioid streaks, and idiopathic causes},
       journal = {Arch Ophthalmol},
       volume = {118},
       number = {3},
       pages = {327-36},
       note = {0003-9950 (Print)
    Case Reports
    Clinical Trial
    Clinical Trial, Phase I
    Clinical Trial, Phase II
    Journal Article
    Multicenter Study
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short-term safety and the effects on visual acuity and fluorescein angiography of single or multiple sessions of photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) not related to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), including pathologic myopia, the ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, angioid streaks, and idiopathic causes. DESIGN: A nonrandomized, multicenter, open-label, dose-escalation phase 1 and 2 clinical trial. SETTING: Four ophthalmic centers in Europe and North America providing retinal care. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen patients with subfoveal CNV due to pathologic myopia, the ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, angioid streaks, or idiopathic causes. METHODS: Standardized protocol refraction, visual acuity testing, ophthalmic examinations, color photographs, and fluorescein angiograms were used to evaluate the results of photodynamic therapy treatments with verteporfin. Follow-up ranged from 12 weeks for patients who were treated once to 43 weeks for patients who were treated up to 4 times. RESULTS: Verteporfin therapy was well tolerated in patients with CNV not related to AMD. No deterioration in visual acuity was observed; most patients gained at least 1 line of vision. Reduction in the size of leakage area from classic CNV was noted in all patients as early as 1 week after verteporfin therapy, with complete absence of leakage from classic CNV in almost half of the patients. Improvement in visual acuity after verteporfin therapy was greatest (+6, +8, and +9 lines) in 3 patients with relatively poor initial visual acuity (between 20/200 and 20/800). Up to 4 treatments were found to have short-term safety even with retreatment intervals as short as 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of CNV not related to AMD with verteporfin therapy achieves short-term cessation of fluorescein leakage from CNV in a small number of patients without loss of vision. Further randomized clinical trials including a larger number of patients are under way to confirm whether verteporfin therapy is beneficial for subfoveal CNV not related to AMD.},
       keywords = {Adult
    Aged
    
  • Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Wirbelauer, C. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Subthreshold (retinal pigment epithelium) photocoagulation in macular diseases: a pilot study. Br J Ophthalmol, no. 84, pp. 40-7, 2000
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider,
       author = {Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Wirbelauer, C. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Subthreshold (retinal pigment epithelium) photocoagulation in macular diseases: a pilot study},
       journal = {Br J Ophthalmol},
       volume = {84},
       number = {1},
       pages = {40-7},
       note = {0007-1161 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND: Subthreshold (retinal pigment epithelium) photocoagulation is a new photocoagulation method, which treats the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and avoids damage to the neural retina. The initial results in this prospective pilot study on various macular diseases are presented. METHODS: 12 patients with diabetic maculopathy (group I), 10 with soft drusen (group II), and four with central serous retinopathy (CSR) (group III) were treated and followed up for 1 year. Treatment was achieved using a train of repetitive short laser pulses (1.7 micros) of a green Nd:YLF laser (parameters: 527 nm, 100 and 500 pulses, repetition rate: 500 Hz, spot size: 160 microm, energies: 70-100 microJ). Laser energy was based on the visibility of test lesions on fluorescein angiography (50-130 microJ). Patients were examined at various times by ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein and ICG angiography, and infrared imaging. RESULTS: After 6 months hard exudates disappeared in six out of nine patients in group I and leakage disappeared in six out of 12 diabetic patients. In group II drusen were less in seven out of 10 patients. In group III serous detachment disappeared in three out of four cases. Visual acuity was stable in all cases. None of the laser lesions was clinically visible immediately. After 1 day most lesions were visible as yellowish RPE depigmentation. After 3 months some of the lesions were visible as hyperpigmented areas but most were not. Fluorescein angiography showed leakage only in the first week. Infrared imaging showed that most lesions can be visualised in groups I and II after a period longer than 1 week as hyperreflective areas. CONCLUSION: This study showed that subthreshold (RPE) photocoagulation is effective in some cases of diabetic maculopathy, drusens, and in CSR. Visibility of laser burns is not always necessary in the treatment of macular diseases presented here. Infrared imaging is an effective and non-invasive way of visualising subthreshold (RPE) laser burns.},
       keywords = {Aged
    Diabetic Retinopathy/surgery
    Female
    Fluorescein Angiography
    Follow-Up Studies
    Fundus Oculi
    Humans
    *Laser Coagulation
    Macular Degeneration/pathology/*surgery
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/*surgery
    Pilot Projects
    Prospective Studies
    Retinal Drusen/surgery
    Treatment Outcome},
       year = {2000}
    }
    
  • Kampmeier, J. and Radt, B. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.: Thermal and biomechanical parameters of porcine cornea. Cornea, no. 19, pp. 355-63,
    BibTeX
    @article{Kampmeier,
       author = {Kampmeier, J. and Radt, B. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Thermal and biomechanical parameters of porcine cornea},
       journal = {Cornea},
       volume = {19},
       number = {3},
       pages = {355-63},
       note = {0277-3740 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: New methods in refractive surgery require a considerable understanding of the material "cornea" and are often studied by theoretical modeling in order to gain insight into the procedure and an optimized approach to the technique. The quality of these models is highly dependent on the preciseness of its input parameters. Porcine cornea often is used as a model in preclinical studies because of its similarity to man and its availability. METHODS: The important physical parameters for biomechanical deformation, heat conduction, and collagen denaturation kinetics have been determined for porcine cornea. Experimental methods include densitometry, calorimetry, turbidimetry, tensile tests, stress relaxation, and hydrothermal isometric tension measurements. RESULTS: The density of porcine cornea was measured as p = 1062+/-5 kg/m3, the heat capacity gave c = 3.74+/-0.05 J/gK. The stress-strain relation for corneal strips is represented by a third order approximation where the secant modulus yields about Esec approximately equal to 0.4 MPa for small strains less than 2%. The normalized stress relaxation is described by an exponential fit over time. The denaturation process of cornea is characterized by specific temperatures which can be related to the change of the mechanical properties. Denaturation kinetics are described according to the model of Arrhenius yielding the activation energy deltaEa = 106 kJ/mol and the phase transition entropy deltaS = 39 J/(mol x K). CONCLUSIONS: The established set of parameters characterizes the porcine cornea in a reliable way that creates a basis for corneal models. It furthermore gives direct hints of how to treat cornea in certain refractive techniques.},
       keywords = {Animals
    
  • Hüttmann, G. and Radt, B. and Birngruber, R.: Laserinduzierte Mikro- und Nanoeffekte - Von der selektiven Thermolyse zu molekularen Nanoeffekten. LaserOpto, no. 32, pp. 47-55, 2000
    BibTeX
    @article{Hüttmann,
       author = {Hüttmann, G. and Radt, B. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laserinduzierte Mikro- und Nanoeffekte - Von der selektiven Thermolyse zu molekularen Nanoeffekten},
       journal = {LaserOpto},
       volume = {32},
       pages = {47-55},
       year = {2000}
    }
    
  • Hüttmann, G. and Birngruber, R.: Laserinduzierte thermische Gewebseffekte mit mikroskopischer und makromolekularer Präzision. Z Med Phys, no. 10, pp. 169-174, 2000
    BibTeX
    @article{Hüttmann,
       author = {Hüttmann, G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laserinduzierte thermische Gewebseffekte mit mikroskopischer und makromolekularer Präzision},
       journal = {Z Med Phys},
       volume = {10},
       pages = {169-174},
       year = {2000}
    }
    
  • Teschner, S. and Noack, J. and Birngruber, R. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.: Documentation of perfusion and leakage characteristics in age-related macular degeneration by dynamic topographic angiography. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 41, pp. S170-S170, 2000
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Teschner2000,
       author = {Teschner, S. and Noack, J. and Birngruber, R. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.},
       title = {Documentation of perfusion and leakage characteristics in age-related macular degeneration by dynamic topographic angiography},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {41},
       number = {4},
       pages = {S170-S170},
       note = {Suppl. S
    300HF
    882b257
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000086246700881},
       year = {2000},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Hoerauf, H. and Gordes, R. S. and Scholz, C. and Wirbelauer, C. and Koch, P. and Engelhardt, R. and Winkler, J. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: First experimental and clinical results with transscleral optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers, no. 31, pp. 218-22, 2000
    BibTeX
    @article{Hoerauf,
       author = {Hoerauf, H. and Gordes, R. S. and Scholz, C. and Wirbelauer, C. and Koch, P. and Engelhardt, R. and Winkler, J. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {First experimental and clinical results with transscleral optical coherence tomography},
       journal = {Ophthalmic Surg Lasers},
       volume = {31},
       number = {3},
       pages = {218-22},
       note = {Hoerauf, H
    Gordes, R S
    Scholz, C
    Wirbelauer, C
    Koch, P
    Engelhardt, R
    Winkler, J
    Laqua, H
    Birngruber, R
    Comparative Study
    United states
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 2000 May-Jun;31(3):218-22.},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potentials of optical coherence tomagraphy (OCT) using long wavelength to penetrate highly scattering tissues of the eye and visualize the anterior chamber angle and the ciliary body. METHODS: OCT images were generated by an experimental prototype in enucleated porcine eyes using as light source a superluminiscent diode with a wavelength of 1310 nm and a scan frequency of 60 Hz. The number of lateral scans was variable in a range from 100 to 400. RESULTS: Infrared OCT was able to penetrate the sclera. The anterior chamber angle could be visualized completely and the ciliary body could be identified. However, it was not possible to penetrate the highly reflective iris pigment epithelium. CONCLUSION: The use of infrared OCT allows penetration of the sclera, thus, providing complete visualization of the anterior chamber angle and limited demonstration of the ciliary body. Because of its higher resolution, it may represent an interesting noninvasive alternative to ultrasound biomicroscopy.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Anterior Chamber/ anatomy & histology
    Ciliary Body/ anatomy & histology
    Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological
    Humans
    Interferometry
    Iris/ anatomy & histology
    Light
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/cytology
    Reference Values
    Sclera
    Swine
    Tomography/ methods},
       year = {2000}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Birngruber, R.: Patenting medical procedures - Reply. Archives of Ophthalmology, no. 118, pp. 1140-1140, 2000
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roider2000,
       author = {Roider, J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Patenting medical procedures - Reply},
       journal = {Archives of Ophthalmology},
       volume = {118},
       number = {8},
       pages = {1140-1140},
       note = {343KZ
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0003-9950},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000088702700026},
       year = {2000},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Huttmann, G. and Rogener, J. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R. and Lin, C. P.: Origin of retinal pigment epithelium cell damage by pulsed laser irradiance in the nanosecond to microsecond time regimen. Lasers Surg Med, no. 27, pp. 451-64,
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann2000,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Huttmann, G. and Rogener, J. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R. and Lin, C. P.},
       title = {Origin of retinal pigment epithelium cell damage by pulsed laser irradiance in the nanosecond to microsecond time regimen},
       journal = {Lasers Surg Med},
       volume = {27},
       number = {5},
       pages = {451-64},
       note = {0196-8092 (Print)
    In Vitro
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Selective photodamage of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a new technique to treat a variety of retinal diseases without causing adverse effects to surrounding tissues such as the neural retina including the photoreceptors and the choroid. In this study, the mechanism of cell damage after laser irradiation was investigated. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single porcine RPE-melanosomes and RPE cells were irradiated with a Nd:YLF laser (wavelength lambda = 527 nm, adjustable pulse duration tau = 250 nsec-3 microsec) and a Nd:YAG laser (lambda = 532 nm, tau = 8 nsec). Fast flash photography was applied to observe vaporization at melanosomes in suspension. A fluorescence viability assay was used to probe the cells vitality. RESULTS: The threshold radiant exposures for vaporization around individual melanosomes and for ED50 cell damage are similar at 8-nsec pulse duration. Both thresholds increase with pulse duration; however, the ED50 cell damage radiant exposure is 40% lower at 3 microsec. Temperature calculations to model the onset of vaporization around the melanosomes are in good agreement with the experimental results when assuming a surface temperature of 150 degrees C to initiate vaporization and a homogeneous melanosome absorption coefficient of 8,000 cm(-1). Increasing the number of pulses delivered to RPE cells at a repetition rate of 500 Hz, the ED50 value 
  • Roider, J. and Birngruber, R.: Patenting medical procedures. Arch Ophthalmol, no. 118, pp. 1140, 2000
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider2000,
       author = {Roider, J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Patenting medical procedures},
       journal = {Arch Ophthalmol},
       volume = {118},
       number = {8},
       pages = {1140},
       note = {0003-9950 (Print)
    Journal article},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=10922219},
       year = {2000},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Meyer, C. and Hoerauf, H. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Roider, J. and Scholz, C. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Correlation of morphologic changes between optical coherence tomography and topographic angiography in a case of gyrate atrophy. Ophthalmologe, no. 97, pp. 41-46, 2000
    BibTeX Link Link
    @article{Meyer2000,
       author = {Meyer, C. and Hoerauf, H. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Roider, J. and Scholz, C. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Correlation of morphologic changes between optical coherence tomography and topographic angiography in a case of gyrate atrophy},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {97},
       number = {1},
       pages = {41-46},
       note = {283HG
    Times Cited:5
    Cited References Count:10},
       abstract = {Purpose:To characterize ultrastrructual changes in atrophic disease of the retina, RPE and choroid as seen with gyrate atrophy using two new diagnostic modalities, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and topographic angiography.
    Patient and method: OCT images were taken in a patient with pericentral choroidal atrophy using a slit-lamp-adapted OCT system. Ophthalmoscopy, conventional and topographic angiographic findings were correlated to the reflectivity changes as seen an OCT.
    Results:Areas of chorioretinal atrophy correlated with a loss of reflectivity in the RPE-choriocapillaris complex on OCT. Additionally OCT identified a thinning of the nerve fiber layer. Topographic angiography demonstrated an extensive defect, seen as an area of depression, consistent with a loss of choriocapillaris and larger-sized choroidal vessels. In contrast to conventional angiography, central islands were not found to demonstrate structural intensity, while the midperipheral surrounding area was clearly elevated to physiological levels.
    Conclusion: OCT and topographic angiography provide in vivo insight into morphologic changes within neurosensory retina and choroid caused by pericentral choroidal atrophy.},
       keywords = {optical coherence tomography
    topographic aniography
    pericentral choroidal atrophy
    ornithine},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1007/s003470050009},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000085269900009},
       year = {2000},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Hoerauf, H. and Wirbelauer, C. and Scholz, C. and Engelhardt, R. and Koch, P. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Slit-lamp-adapted optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment. Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, no. 238, pp. 8-18, 2000
    BibTeX Link Link
    @article{Hoerauf2000,
       author = {Hoerauf, H. and Wirbelauer, C. and Scholz, C. and Engelhardt, R. and Koch, P. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Slit-lamp-adapted optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment},
       journal = {Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology},
       volume = {238},
       number = {1},
       pages = {8-18},
       note = {282FC
    Times Cited:77
    Cited References Count:19},
       abstract = {Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic potential of a slit-lamp-adapted optical coherence tomography (OCT) system as an in vivo imaging device for routine clinical examination of the anterior segment of the eve.
    Patients and methods: In a pilot study, healthy volunteers and patients with different pathologies of the anterior segment were examined with a slit-lamp-adapted OCT system using 100-200 axial scans with 100-Hz line-scan frequency. The scan length is variable up to 7 mm, and the axial depth is 1.5 mm in tissue.
    Results: The slit-lamp-adapted OCT system allowed direct biomicroscopic imaging of the measured area. Anatomic structures and morphological changes anterior to the attenuating iris pigment epithelium could be visualized with high accuracy, Biometric analyses of the cornea, the chamber angle, the iris and secondary cataract were possible. Complete demonstration of the chamber angle was difficult clue to the backscattering properties of the anterior part of the sclera and the consequent shadowing of the most peripheral part of the iris.
    Conclusions: Slit-lamp-adapted OCT is a diagnostic tool which allows in vivo microscopic cross-sectional imaging of the anterior segment and precise measurement of ocular structures.},
       keywords = {in-vivo
    nerve
    eye},
       ISSN = {0721-832X},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1007/s004170050002},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000085205300002},
       year = {2000},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Hoerauf, H. and Gordes, R. and Scholz, C. and Koch, P. and Engelhardt, R. and Wirbelauer, C. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: First experimental and clinical results of transscleral OCT. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 41, pp. S786-S786, 2000
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Hoerauf2000,
       author = {Hoerauf, H. and Gordes, R. and Scholz, C. and Koch, P. and Engelhardt, R. and Wirbelauer, C. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {First experimental and clinical results of transscleral OCT},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {41},
       number = {4},
       pages = {S786-S786},
       note = {Suppl. S
    300HF
    4171B118
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000086246704240},
       year = {2000},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Teschner, S. and Noack, J.: Confocal laser scanning fluorescence topography: a new method for three-dimensional functional imaging of vascular structures. Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, no. 238, pp. 559-565, 2000
    BibTeX Link Link
    @article{Birngruber2000,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Teschner, S. and Noack, J.},
       title = {Confocal laser scanning fluorescence topography: a new method for three-dimensional functional imaging of vascular structures},
       journal = {Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology},
       volume = {238},
       number = {7},
       pages = {559-565},
       note = {341NG
    Times Cited:10
    Cited References Count:16},
       abstract = {Three-dimensional topography of perfused vascular structures is possible via confocal laser scanning of intravascular fluorescence. The lateral resolution is given by the spot size of the scanning laser beam (optimally 10 mu m at the retina). The axial resolution, however, depends on the accuracy of detection of the surface of the fluorescent structure, which is typically one order of magnitude higher (30 mu m at the retina) than the confocal resolution. The vascular structure is stained with an appropriate fluorescent dye prior to the investigation using standard systemic dye injection. Confocal scanning of the fluorescence in planes of different depths within the vascular structure under investigation leads to a three-dimensional data set. Signal processing in eludes passive eye tracking, lateral averaging and axial determination of the surface of the fluorescent structure. The potential of this new technique is demonstrated by showing the topography of physiological vessel structures as well as of selected vascular diseases such as cone dystrophy, RPE detachment, choroidal haemangioma and retinal laser coagulation. Confocal laser angioscopic fluorescence topography (CLAFT) measures the three-dimensional surface structure of functional (perfused) vasculature and surrounding leakage. CLAFT may help to diagnose and quantify status and time course of vascular diseases.},
       keywords = {in-vivo
    ophthalmoscope
    therapy},
       ISSN = {0721-832X},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1007/s004179900059},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000088596000003},
       year = {2000},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Hasan, T.: Photodynamische Therapie der altersbedingten Makuladegeneration - Nichtthermische Laserbestrahlung aktiviert einen hochselektiven Photosensibilisator. LaserOpto, no. 32, pp. 66-70, 2000
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber2000,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Hasan, T.},
       title = {Photodynamische Therapie der altersbedingten Makuladegeneration - Nichtthermische Laserbestrahlung aktiviert einen hochselektiven Photosensibilisator},
       journal = {LaserOpto},
       volume = {32},
       pages = {66-70},
       year = {2000},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schüle, G. and Hüttmann, G. and Roider, J. and Wirbelauer, C. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.: Optoacoustic measurements during µs-irradiation of the retinal pigment epithelium. Proc. SPIE, no. 3914A, 2000
    BibTeX
    @article{Schüle,
       author = {Schüle, G. and Hüttmann, G. and Roider, J. and Wirbelauer, C. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Optoacoustic measurements during µs-irradiation of the retinal pigment epithelium},
       journal = {Proc. SPIE},
       volume = {3914A},
       year = {2000}
    }
    

1999

  • Vogel, A. and Nahen, K. and Theisen-Kunde, D. and Birngruber, R. and Thomas, J. and Rockwell, B.A.: Influence of optical aberrations on laser-induced plasma formation in water, and their consequences for intraocular photodisruption. Appl Optics, no. 38, pp. 3636-3643, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Nahen, K. and Theisen-Kunde, D. and Birngruber, R. and Thomas, J. and Rockwell, B.A.},
       title = {Influence of optical aberrations on laser-induced plasma formation in water, and their consequences for intraocular photodisruption},
       journal = {Appl Optics},
       volume = {38},
       number = {16},
       pages = {3636-3643},
       year = {1999}
    }
    
  • Hüttmann, G. and Birngruber, R.: On the Possibility of High-Precision Photothermal Microeffects and the Measurement of Fast thermal Denaturation of Proteins.. IEEE J Quant Electr, no. 5, pp. 954-962, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Hüttmann,
       author = {Hüttmann, G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {On the Possibility of High-Precision Photothermal Microeffects and the Measurement of Fast thermal Denaturation of Proteins.},
       journal = {IEEE J Quant Electr},
       volume = {5},
       number = {4},
       pages = {954-962},
       year = {1999}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Rögener, J. and Lin, C.P. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R. and Hüttmann, G.: Selective RPE-Photodestruction: Mechanism of Cell Damage by pulsed laser irradiance in the ns to µs time regime. Proc. SPIE, no. 3601, pp. 59-65, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann1999,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Rögener, J. and Lin, C.P. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R. and Hüttmann, G.},
       title = {Selective RPE-Photodestruction: Mechanism of Cell Damage by pulsed laser irradiance in the ns to µs time regime},
       journal = {Proc. SPIE},
       volume = {3601},
       pages = {59-65},
       year = { 1999}
    }
    
  • Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Miller, J. W. and Sickenberg, M. and Laqua, H. and Barbazetto, I. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Zografos, L. and Piguet, B. and Pournaras, C. J. and Donati, G. and Lane, A. M. and Birngruber, R. and van den Berg, H. and Strong, H. A. and Manjuris, U. and Gray, T. and Fsadni, M. and Bressler, N. M.: Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for choroidal neovascularization caused by age-related macular degeneration: results of retreatments in a phase 1 and 2 study. Arch Ophthalmol, no. 117, pp. 1177-87, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth,
       author = {Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Miller, J. W. and Sickenberg, M. and Laqua, H. and Barbazetto, I. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Zografos, L. and Piguet, B. and Pournaras, C. J. and Donati, G. and Lane, A. M. and Birngruber, R. and van den Berg, H. and Strong, H. A. and Manjuris, U. and Gray, T. and Fsadni, M. and Bressler, N. M.},
       title = {Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for choroidal neovascularization caused by age-related macular degeneration: results of retreatments in a phase 1 and 2 study},
       journal = {Arch Ophthalmol},
       volume = {117},
       number = {9},
       pages = {1177-87},
       note = {0003-9950 (Print)
    Clinical Trial
    Clinical Trial, Phase I
    Clinical Trial, Phase II
    Comment
    Journal Article
    Multicenter Study
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {OBJECTIVES: To evaluate safety and short-term visual acuity and fluorescein angiographic effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) after retreatments with verteporfin for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) that demonstrated fluorescein leakage after at least 1 course of PDT. DESIGN: Nonrandomized, multicenter, open-label phase 1 and 2 clinical trial using 2 different retreatment dosage regimens. SETTING: Four ophthalmic centers in Europe and North America providing retinal care. METHODS: Standardized protocol refraction, visual acuity testing, ophthalmic examinations, color photographs, and fluorescein angiograms were used to evaluate the results of multiple PDT treatments. Two regimens (regimens 2 and 4) for treatment and retreatment were chosen from 5 used in a single-treatment study. Both regimens used a verteporfin dose of 6 mg/m2 infused for 10 minutes. However, regimen 2 used a light dose of 100 J/cm2 applied 20 minutes after the start of the verteporfin infusion, whereas regimen 4 used a light dose of 50, 75, or 100 J/cm2 applied 15 minutes after infusion commenced. Posttreatment evaluations were planned in 31 participants up to 3 months after up to 2 retreatments given at 2- or 4-week intervals after initial PDT treatment. Similar posttreatment evaluations were planned after retreatments in 5 additional participants who were reenrolled some time more than 12 weeks after an initial PDT treatment. RESULTS: The average visual acuity change for the 31 participants who had retreatment within 2 to 4 weeks after the initial treatment and a follow-up examination 16 to 20 weeks after the initial treatment was 0.2 lines (range, -4 to 4 lines) in regimen 2 and -1.0 line (range, -5 to 3 lines) in regimen 4. Similar outcomes were noted in the 5 reenrolled participants. Cessation of fluorescein leakage from classic CNV for at least 1 to 4 weeks could be achieved without loss of visual acuity after at least 2 treatments in 2 (6.5%) of 31 patients. Similar to single-treatment effects, the disappearance of leakage was documented regularly at 1 week after each retreatment. Fluorescein leakage reappeared by 4 to 12 weeks after a retreatment in almost all cases. However, compared with baseline, leakage activity appeared to be reduced after multiple PDT courses. For the 31 patients who had follow-up for 3 months after the last retreatment and had received retreatment 2 to 4 weeks after the initial treatment, progression of CNV beyond the area identified before the retreatment was noted in 10 (48%) of the 21 eyes with classic CNV in regimen 2 and 9 (90%) of 10 eyes in regimen 4. The rate and severity of ocular or systemic adverse events were not increased by multiple applications. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple applications of PDT with verteporfin achieve repetitive, short-term cessation of fluorescein leakage from CNV secondary to AMD, without loss of visual acuity. This strategy can be used in randomized clinical trials investigating the efficacy of verteporfin in PDT for recurrent fluorescein dye leakage from persistent or recurrent CNV, following an initial or subsequent PDT treatment, with maintenance of visual acuity. Retreatments may achieve progressive cessation of leakage and prevent further growth of CNV and subsequent visual loss.},
       keywords = {Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Capillary Permeability/drug effects
    Choroid/blood supply
    Choroidal Neovascularization/*drug therapy/etiology/metabolism/pathology
    Female
    Fluorescein/metabolism
    Fluorescein Angiography
    Follow-Up Studies
    Fundus Oculi
    Humans
    Macular Degeneration/*complications
    Male
    Middle Aged
    *Photochemotherapy
    Photosensitizing Agents/administration & dosage/*therapeutic use
    Porphyrins/administration & dosage/*therapeutic use
    Retreatment
    Safety
    Treatment Outcome
    Visual Acuity},
       year = {1999}
    }
    
  • Theisen, D. and Brendel, T. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R: Endokardiale Laser Revaskularisation des Myokards mittels 20 J Einzelpuls Holmium Laserstrahlung. Lasermedizin, no. 14, pp. 125-128, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Theisen1999,
       author = {Theisen, D. and Brendel, T. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R},
       title = {Endokardiale Laser Revaskularisation des Myokards mittels 20 J Einzelpuls Holmium Laserstrahlung},
       journal = {Lasermedizin},
       volume = {14},
       pages = {125-128},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Noack, J. and Nahen, K. and Theisen, D. and Busch, S. and Parlitz, U. and Hammer, D.X. and Noojin, G. D. and Rockwell, B.A. and Birngruber, R.: Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales. Appl Phys B, no. 68, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Noack, J. and Nahen, K. and Theisen, D. and Busch, S. and Parlitz, U. and Hammer, D.X. and Noojin, G. D. and Rockwell, B.A. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales},
       journal = {Appl Phys B},
       volume = {68},
       number = {271-280},
       year = {1999}
    }
    
  • Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Noack, J. and Teschner, S. and Birngruber, R.: [Confocal indocyanine green angiography with 3-dimensional topography. Results in choroid neovascularization (CNV)]. Ophthalmologe, no. 96, pp. 797-804, Dec, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth,
       author = {Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Noack, J. and Teschner, S. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[Confocal indocyanine green angiography with 3-dimensional topography. Results in choroid neovascularization (CNV)]},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {96},
       number = {12},
       pages = {797-804},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       month = {Dec},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND: Confocal indocyanin green angiography (ICGA) offers detailed two-dimensional imaging of choroidal pathologies. However, the spatial extension of lesions is not reproduced. We developed a novel method for three-dimensional documentation of choroidal vascular abnormalities. METHODS: Focal series were performed using a laser scanning ophthalmoscope (Heidelberg Retina Angiograph). Thirty-two images within a distance of 4 mm were taken at a frequency of 20 Hz. Following correction of dislocation, a surface of normalized fluorescence intensity was determined and displayed topographically. RESULTS: In physiological eyes three-dimensional ICGA demonstrates the homogeneous concavity of the choroid with prominent overlay of retinal vessels. Classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) imposes as substantial elevation. Occult CNV are demarcated despite negative conventional ICGA due to reduction of blocking phenomena. Therapeutic interventions such as photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy and surgery induce a resolution of CNV with or without residual defects within the choroidal pattern. CONCLUSION: Topographic ICGA allows for the first time in-vivo representation of prominence and depth of vascularized pathologies and provides a tool for improved diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation.},
       keywords = {Choroidal Neovascularization/*diagnosis
    *Fluorescein Angiography
    Humans
    *Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
    Indocyanine Green/*diagnostic use
    Macular Degeneration/diagnosis
    *Microscopy, Confocal
    *Ophthalmoscopes
    Sensitivity and Specificity},
       year = {1999}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Buesgen, P. and Hoerauf, H. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Macular injury by a military range finder. Retina-the Journal of Retinal and Vitreous Diseases, no. 19, pp. 531-535, 1999
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roider1999,
       author = {Roider, J. and Buesgen, P. and Hoerauf, H. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Macular injury by a military range finder},
       journal = {Retina-the Journal of Retinal and Vitreous Diseases},
       volume = {19},
       number = {6},
       pages = {531-535},
       note = {403KZ
    Times Cited:11
    Cited References Count:18},
       abstract = {Objective: The authors report the clinical findings of a civilian patient who unintentionally looked into the laser beam of a military range finder. Detailed information on the range finder is given. The objective is to illustrate the potential danger of such devices and to give detailed information on the device, the clinical findings associated with exposure, and the laser-tissue interaction mechanism.
    Methods: The patient was examined with fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, microperimetry, and optical coherence tomography, both in the acute stage (2 hours) and 4 weeks later. Fluorescein angiography was performed again 4 months later. A total of 100 mg prednisone tapered over 9 days was prescribed. Additionally, 50 mug tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) and 0.5 mt pure C2F6 were injected in the vitreous.
    Results: In the acute phase, hemorrhage was located beneath the retina, primarily beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. Retinal defects as seen initially over the subretinal blood were reduced after 4 weeks, but a retinal defect ranging from the lasered site toward the fovea remained. Visual acuity slightly increased from 20/100 to 20/63 after 4 weeks. Indocyanine green angiography showed a large hypofluorescent spot in the macula. Four months after the accident, a classic choroidal neovascularization developed, originating from the lasered site. The technical parameters of the range finder were: Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), pulse duration 10 ns, beam divergence 1.5 mrad, energy 10 mJ.
    Conclusion: A range finder can produce severe macular injury. The primary laser-tissue interaction mechanism seems to be explosive disruption of choroidal tissue. Intravitreal injection of TPA and C2F6 did not show a clear benefit to such laser lesions. A late complication can be secondary choroidal neovascularization.},
       keywords = {laser accident
    range finder
    nd : yag
    tissue plasminogen activator
    choroidal neovascularization
    retinal injury
    yag laser
    neovascularization
    neodymium},
       ISSN = {0275-004X},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1097/00006982-199911000-00009},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000167042200009},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Wirbelauer, C. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Retinal sparing by selective retinal pigment epithelial photocoagulation. Arch Ophthalmol, no. 117, pp. 1028-34, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider1999,
       author = {Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Wirbelauer, C. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Retinal sparing by selective retinal pigment epithelial photocoagulation},
       journal = {Arch Ophthalmol},
       volume = {117},
       number = {8},
       pages = {1028-34},
       note = {0003-9950 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether photocoagulation of the retinal pigment epithelium is possible with sparing of the photoreceptors. METHODS: Mild laser effects of a neodymium:yttrium-lithium-fluoride (Nd:YLF) laser (527 nm) were applied to 17 patients. To establish the necessary energy, test exposures were performed to the lower macula (laser variables: 1.7 microseconds, 100 and 500 pulses applied in a train at 500 Hz, 20-130 microJ, 160 microm). Of 179 test lesions, 73 were followed up at various time intervals up to 1 year by performing microperimetry directly on top of the laser lesions. RESULTS: All of the test lesions were at the threshold of retinal pigment epithelial disruption, and none of the laser effects were visible by ophthalmoscopy during photocoagulation; they were detectable only by fluorescein angiography. After exposure with 500 pulses, retinal defects were detected in up to 73% of the patients (100 microJ) after the first day. Most of these defects were no longer detectable after 3 months. After exposure with 100 pulses, no defects could be detected with 70 and 100 microJ after 1 day. The absence of microscotomas in the follow-up period suggests that retinal damage was minimal or, if it occurred, was functionally repaired. CONCLUSION: By choosing proper energy and number of pulses, it is possible to produce retinal pigment epithelial effects with no subsequent retinal damage detectable by microperimetry.},
       keywords = {Adult
    Eye Injuries/physiopathology/*prevention & control
    Female
    Fluorescein Angiography
    Follow-Up Studies
    Fundus Oculi
    Humans
    *Laser Coagulation/methods
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Ophthalmoscopy
    Perimetry
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/physiopathology/*surgery
    Retina/injuries/*physiopathology
    Retinal Diseases/physiopathology/*surgery
    Visual Acuity},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=10448745},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Wirbelauer, C. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.: Variability of RPE reaction in two cases after selective RPE laser effects in prophylactic treatment of drusen. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, no. 237, pp. 45-50, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider1999,
       author = {Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Wirbelauer, C. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.},
       title = {Variability of RPE reaction in two cases after selective RPE laser effects in prophylactic treatment of drusen},
       journal = {Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol},
       volume = {237},
       number = {1},
       pages = {45-50},
       note = {0721-832X (Print)
    Case Reports
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND: The value of prophylactic photocoagulation of soft drusen is unclear. Photocoagulation is usually performed by a continuous wave laser. METHODS: We report the cases of two patients with age-related macular degeneration with soft drusen who were treated by selective retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) photocoagulation of a pulsed Nd:YLF (527 nm) laser. Laser parameters were: wavelength 527 nm, number of pulses in a train 500, pulse duration 1.7 microseconds, energy per pulse 70 microJ, spot size 160 microns, repetition rate 500 Hz. RESULTS: Dosimetry performed individually showed that in both patients laser photocoagulation was performed at the threshold of RPE disruption. None of the laser effects was visible during photocoagulation. They were detectable only by fluorescein angiography. Despite identical photocoagulation parameters the RPE reaction was completely different. In the first patient RPE hyperpigmentation was notable at most photocoagulation sites and the drusen had disappeared after 6 months. In the second patient the laser effects were not visible after 6 months by biomicroscopy and the drusen stayed unchanged. CONCLUSION: These findings could reflect different repair mechanisms of the RPE after alteration and could represent a sign of a different viable stage in the life of RPE cells. Close attention should be paid to this phenomenon in the various drusen studies currently under way.},
       keywords = {Fluorescein Angiography
    Fundus Oculi
    Humans
    *Laser Coagulation
    Macular Degeneration/complications
    Middle Aged
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/pathology/*surgery
    Retinal Drusen/complications/pathology/*surgery
    Visual Acuity},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=9951641},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Miller, J. W. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Sickenberg, M. and Pournaras, C. J. and Laqua, H. and Barbazetto, I. and Zografos, L. and Piguet, B. and Donati, G. and Lane, A. M. and Birngruber, R. and van den Berg, H. and Strong, H. A. and Manjuris, U. and Gray, T. and Fsadni, M. and Bressler, N. M. and Gragoudas, E. S.: Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for choroidal neovascularization caused by age-related macular degeneration - Results of a single treatment in a phase 1 and 2 study. Archives of Ophthalmology, no. 117, pp. 1161-1173, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Miller1999,
       author = {Miller, J. W. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Sickenberg, M. and Pournaras, C. J. and Laqua, H. and Barbazetto, I. and Zografos, L. and Piguet, B. and Donati, G. and Lane, A. M. and Birngruber, R. and van den Berg, H. and Strong, H. A. and Manjuris, U. and Gray, T. and Fsadni, M. and Bressler, N. M. and Gragoudas, E. S.},
       title = {Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for choroidal neovascularization caused by age-related macular degeneration - Results of a single treatment in a phase 1 and 2 study},
       journal = {Archives of Ophthalmology},
       volume = {117},
       number = {9},
       pages = {1161-1173},
       note = {234ZE
    Times Cited:196
    Cited References Count:35},
       abstract = {Objective: To evaluate the safety and short-term visual and fluorescein angiographic effects of a single photodynamic therapy treatment with verteporfin with the use of different dosage regimens in patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) from age-related macular degeneration.
    Design: Nonrandomized, multicenter, open-label, clinical trial using 5 dosage regimens.
    Setting: Four ophthalmic centers in North America and Europe providing retinal care.
    Participants: Patients with subfoveal CNV caused by age-related macular degeneration.
    Methods: Standardized protocol refraction, visual acuity testing, ophthalmic examination, color photographs, and fluorescein angiograms were used to evaluate the effects of a single treatment of photodynamic therapy with verteporfin. Follow-up was planned through 3 months in 97 patients and for less than 3 months in 31 other patients.
    Results: The mean visual acuity change (and range of change) from baseline at the follow-up examination at week 12 after a single treatment with regimens 1 through 5 was -0.2 (-3 to +2), -0.9 (-9 to +5);, -1.6 (-9 to +2), +0.4 (-8 to +7), and +0.1 (-8 to +9) lines, respectively. Only the highest light dose (150J/cm(2)) in regimens 2 and 3, which produced angiographic nonperfusion of neurosensory retinal vessels, caused marked vision loss. Some cessation of fluorescein leakage from CNV was achieved without loss of vision when the light dose used was less than 150J/cm(2). Systemic adverse events were rare. Cessation of fluorescein leakage from CNV was noted in all regimens by 1 week after photodynamic therapy. Fluorescein leakage from at least a portion of the CNV reappeared by 4 to 12 weeks after treatment in almost all cases. Progression of classic CNV beyond the area of CNV identified before treatment was noted in 42 (51%) of the 83 eyes with classic CNV followed up for 3 months after a single treatment. Eyes in which the area of any CNV leakage at 12 weeks was less than at baseline had a significantly better visual acuity outcome (+0.8 line) than eyes in which CNV leakage progressed (-0.8 line).
    Conclusions: Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin achieved short-term cessation of fluorescein leakage from CNV without loss of vision or growth of classic CNV in some patients with age-related macular degeneration. Except for nonperfusion of neurosensory retinal vessels at a light dose of 150 J/cm(2), no other adverse events were of concern. Randomized clinical trials to investigate whether this new modality can preserve vision in patients with CNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration are justified.},
       keywords = {lipoprotein-delivered benzoporphyrin
    tumor
    maculopathy
    prevalence},
       ISSN = {0003-9950},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000082513600007},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Huttmann, G. and Birngruber, R.: On the possibility of high-precision photothermal microeffects and the measurement of fast thermal denaturation of proteins. Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, no. 5, pp. 954-962, 1999
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Hüttmann1999,
       author = {Huttmann, G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {On the possibility of high-precision photothermal microeffects and the measurement of fast thermal denaturation of proteins},
       journal = {Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics},
       volume = {5},
       number = {4},
       pages = {954-962},
       note = {248CM
    Times Cited:77
    Cited References Count:43},
       abstract = {The precision of laser-induced effects is often limited by thermal and thermomechanical collateral damage. Adjusting the pulsewidth of the laser to the size of the absorbing structure can at least avoid thermal side effects and facilitates a selective treatment of vessels or pigmented cells. Further extending the precision of thermal effects below cellular dimensions by using nanometer sized particles could open up new fields of applications for lasers in medicine and biology. Calculations show that under irradiation with nano- or picosecond laser pulses gold particles of submicrometer size can easily be heated by several hundred K, High temperatures have to be used for subcellular thermal effects, because heat confinement to such small structures requires the thermal damage to occur in extremely short times. Estimating the denaturation temperature by extrapolating the Arrhenius equation from a time range of minutes and seconds into a time range of nano- and picoseconds leads to temperatures beta;een 370 K-470 K, There is evidence that in aqueous media, due to the surface tension, these temperatures can be generated at the surface of nanometer sized particles without vaporization of the surrounding water,
    In order to show whether or not an extrapolation of the damage rates over six to nine orders of magnitude gives correct data, a temperature-jump experiment was designed and tested which allows to measure denaturation rates of proteins in the millisecond time range. Denaturation of chymotrypsin was observed within 300 mu s at temperatures below 380 K, The rate constants for the unfolding of chymotrypsin followed the Arrhenius equation up to rates of 3000 s(-1).},
       keywords = {laser medicine
    microeffects
    protein denaturation
    thermal effects
    assisted laser inactivation},
       ISSN = {1077-260X},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1109/2944.796317},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000083257800013},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Geerling, G. and Koop, N. and Tungler, A. and Brinkmann, R. and Wirbelauer, C. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.: Diode laser thermokeratoplasty. Initial clinical experiences. Ophthalmologe, no. 96, pp. 306-11, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Geerling1999,
       author = {Geerling, G. and Koop, N. and Tungler, A. and Brinkmann, R. and Wirbelauer, C. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.},
       title = {Diode laser thermokeratoplasty. Initial clinical experiences},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {96},
       number = {5},
       pages = {306-11},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: Pulsed holmium lasers are currently used to correct hyperopia by means of laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK). Series of microsecond laser pulses are applied with a high repetition rate to induce shrinkage of corneal collagen fibers. The pulsed energy application results in intrastromal temperature peaks of up to 200 degrees C. A continuously emitting laser diode can--as we demonstrated recently in an invivo study on minipigs--be used for LTK and may be of advantage because the temperature rise is more steady. The aim of this study was to examine the safety, amount, and stability of hyperopic correction of diode LTK on blind human eyes. METHODS: We used a laserdiode that was set to continuously emit light at lambda = 1.854 microns/mu a = 1.04 mm-1 (group I, n = 4) or 1.87 microns/mu a = 1.92 mm-1 (group II, n = 4). Radiation energy was 100 to 150 mW for 10 s per coagulation. Eight coagulations on a single ring (group I) and 16 coagulations on a double ring (group II) diameter were applied in the cornea concentric to the entrance pupil by means of a vacuum-fixed application mask (group I = conjunctival fixation; group II = corneal fixation) and a handpiece with a focusing optic. Preoperatively as well as 1 week, 1, 2, 3, 6 12 and 18 months postoperative ophthalmologic controls were performed and the corneal refractive power was measured. RESULTS: In group I initial refractive changes of up to +4.9 D were achieved (1 week postoperative). However, due to the great penetration depth of the laser irradiation, large endothelial defects resulted beneath the stromal coagulations. In group II an initial refractive change of up to +6.8 D was achieved and as a result of the reduced penetration depth, the endothelial cell damage was much reduced. Partial regression of the refractive effect occurred in all subjects, which continued in higher refractive changes during the 2nd postoperative year. The refractive effect at 12 months was +0.6 to +1.5 D in group I and +0.9 to +5.7 D in group II. At 12 months the induced astigmatism was 0.5 to 2.2 D in group I and 0.3 to 1.6 D in group II. No serious adverse effects were noticed. CONCLUSION: A continously emitting laser diode working at a wavelength of 1.87 microns can be used to correct hyperopia by means of LTK safely and effectively. Regression occurs predominantly in the first 6 postoperative months. Further studies must be conducted to determine the importance of patient inherent parameters such as age in establishing a nomogram.},
       keywords = {Adult
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Blindness/*surgery
    Corneal Topography
    English Abstract
    Equipment Safety
    Female
    Human
    Hyperopia/*surgery
    Keratectomy, Photorefractive, Excimer Laser/*instrumentation
    Laser Coagulation/*instrumentation
    Male
    Middle Age
    Postoperative Complications/etiology
    Refraction, Ocular
    Temperature},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Geerling, G. and Koop, N. and Brinkmann, R. and Tungler, A. and Wirbelauer, C. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.: Continuous-wave diode laser thermokeratoplasty: first clinical experience in blind human eyes. J Cataract Refract Surg, no. 25, pp. 32-40, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Geerling1999,
       author = {Geerling, G. and Koop, N. and Brinkmann, R. and Tungler, A. and Wirbelauer, C. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.},
       title = {Continuous-wave diode laser thermokeratoplasty: first clinical experience in blind human eyes},
       journal = {J Cataract Refract Surg},
       volume = {25},
       number = {1},
       pages = {32-40},
       note = {0886-3350 (Print)
    Clinical Trial
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and stability of laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK) with a continuous-wave diode laser in blind human eyes and to optimize parameters for a study in sighted eyes. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University Lubeck, Germany. METHODS: A continuous-wave diode laser was set to emit radiation with a wavelength of 1.854 microns (Group 1, n = 4) or 1.870 microns (Group 2, n = 4) and 100 to 150 mW power for 10 seconds. A focusing handpiece was coupled with an application mask and fixed by partial vacuum to the conjunctiva or cornea. The radiation was focused into the corneal stroma between 400 and 600 microns in Group 1 and set to 1000 microns in Group 2. Eight (Group 1, single ring) or 16 (Group 2, double ring) coagulations were applied. RESULTS: The refractive change increased with higher laser power and smaller ring diameters. Two rings of coagulations provided higher and more stable refractive changes of up to 5.66 diopters (D) than a single ring. The refractive effect stabilized between 3 and 6 months postoperatively. At 1 year, mean refractive change was +0.99 D +/- 0.39 (SD) in Group 1 and +2.32 +/- 2.24 D in Group 2. Extensive endothelial damage occurred in Group 1 but was minimal in Group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Diode LTK was used to treat hyperopia safely and effectively. Regression occurred mainly in the first 3 postoperative months. With a wavelength of 1.870 microns, corneal endothelial damage was limited.},
       keywords = {Adult
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Blindness/*complications
    Corneal Stroma/pathology/physiopathology/*surgery
    Corneal Topography
    Female
    Humans
    Hyperopia/pathology/physiopathology/*surgery
    Laser Coagulation/adverse effects/*methods
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Postoperative Complications
    Safety},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=9888074},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Theisen, D. and Brendel, T. and Birngruber, R.: Single-pulse 30-J holmium laser for myocardial revascularization - A study on ablation dynamics in comparison to CO2 laser-TMR. Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, no. 5, pp. 969-980, 1999
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Brinkmann1999,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Theisen, D. and Brendel, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Single-pulse 30-J holmium laser for myocardial revascularization - A study on ablation dynamics in comparison to CO2 laser-TMR},
       journal = {Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics},
       volume = {5},
       number = {4},
       pages = {969-980},
       note = {248CM
    Times Cited:9
    Cited References Count:40},
       abstract = {Endocardial laser revascularization (ELR) is a new technique to treat coronary heart disease in a percutaneous, minimally invasive approach. A holmium laser (lambda = 2.12 mu m) was developed to emit pulse energies of up to 30 J in order to ablate the desired channels in a single laser pulse. The energy was transmitted by multimode flexible optical waveguides as required for ELR, Ablation dynamics were investigated in two model systems, water serving as blood model and polyacrylamide (PAA) as a transparent tissue phantom. Measurements were undertaken using pulse energies of 12 J at pulse durations of 2.2 and 8 ms with a beam diameter of 1 mm, For comparison with the clinically established method of transmyocardial revascularization (TMR), ablations were also investigated with a standard 800 W TMR CO2 laser. The dynamics were recorded with a drum camera and stroboscope illumination providing a high framing rate of a single ablation process. Tissue ablation was quantified with the holmium laser in vitro on porcine heart tissue using pulse energies of up to 20 J, Tissue morphology was evaluated using polarization light microscopy to determine thermal and mechanical collateral damage zones. Oscillating vapor bubble channels were found in water and PAA with all laser systems and parameters used. Quasi-static vapor bubbles are observed in water in the millisecond time range using the holmium laser. CO2 laser radiation performed deeper channels in PAA than holmium laser pulses using the same radiant exposure. Channel depths of up to 10 mm were achieved with the holmium laser in myocardial tissue with pulse energies of 17 J, Thermal damage zones of about 150 mu m for the CO2 and 500 mu m for the holmium laser were found. The orientation of myocardial fibrils significantly influences the shape of the ablated cavities and the thermo-mechanical collateral damage zones. In conclusion, the results are very encouraging and demonstrate the potential of a catheter-based minimal invasive procedure for heart reperfusion using single high energy laser pulses.},
       keywords = {ablation dynamics
    co2 laser
    elr
    fast flash photography
    heart revascularization
    holmium laser
    polyacrylamide
    tmlr
    tmr
    transmyocardial revascularization
    tissue ablation
    channels
    generation
    duration
    water
    blood},
       ISSN = {1077-260X},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1109/2944.796319},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000083257800015},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brendel, T. and Brinkmann, R. and Theisen, D. and Birngruber, R.: Ablation Dynamics of High Energy IR Laser Pulses in Myocardial Revascularization. Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest, pp. 152-154, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Brendel1999,
       author = {Brendel, T. and Brinkmann, R.  and Theisen, D.  and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Ablation Dynamics of High Energy IR Laser Pulses in Myocardial Revascularization},
       journal = {Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest},
       pages = {152-154},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Noack, J. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.: Confocal laserscanning fluorescence topography of chorioretinal vascular structures. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 40, pp. S571-S571, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1999,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Noack, J. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.},
       title = {Confocal laserscanning fluorescence topography of chorioretinal vascular structures},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {40},
       number = {4},
       pages = {S571-S571},
       note = {178MF
    3007
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000079269203007},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1998

  • Vogel, Alfred and Nahen, Kester and Theisen, Dirk and Birngruber, Reginald and Thomas, Robert J and Rockwell, Benjamin A: Influence of optical aberrations on laser-induced plasma formation in water and their consequences for intraocular photodisruption. in BiOS`98 International Biomedical Optics Symposium, pp. 120-131, International Society for Optics and Photonics,
    BibTeX
    @inproceedings{Vogel1998,
       author = {Vogel, Alfred and Nahen, Kester and Theisen, Dirk and Birngruber, Reginald and Thomas, Robert J and Rockwell, Benjamin A},
       title = {Influence of optical aberrations on laser-induced plasma formation in water and their consequences for intraocular photodisruption},
       booktitle = {BiOS'98 International Biomedical Optics Symposium},
       publisher = {International Society for Optics and Photonics},
       pages = {120-131},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Vogel, Alfred and Noack, Joachim and Nahen, Kester and Theisen, Dirk and Busch, Stefan and Parlitz, Ulrich and Hammer, Daniel X and Noojin, Gary D and Rockwell, Benjamin A and Birngruber, Reginald: Energy balance of optical breakdown in water. in BiOS`98 International Biomedical Optics Symposium, pp. 168-179, International Society for Optics and Photonics,
    BibTeX
    @inproceedings{Vogel1998,
       author = {Vogel, Alfred and Noack, Joachim and Nahen, Kester and Theisen, Dirk and Busch, Stefan and Parlitz, Ulrich and Hammer, Daniel X and Noojin, Gary D and Rockwell, Benjamin A and Birngruber, Reginald},
       title = {Energy balance of optical breakdown in water},
       booktitle = {BiOS'98 International Biomedical Optics Symposium},
       publisher = {International Society for Optics and Photonics},
       pages = {168-179},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Vogel, Alfred and Noack, Joachim and Nahen, Kester and Theisen, Dirk and Birngruber, Reginald and Hammer, Daniel X and Noojin, Gary D and Rockwell, Benjamin A: Laser-induced breakdown in the eye at pulse durations from 80 ns to 100 fs. in BiOS`98 International Biomedical Optics Symposium, pp. 34-49, International Society for Optics and Photonics,
    BibTeX
    @inproceedings{Vogel1998,
       author = {Vogel, Alfred and Noack, Joachim and Nahen, Kester and Theisen, Dirk and Birngruber, Reginald and Hammer, Daniel X and Noojin, Gary D and Rockwell, Benjamin A},
       title = {Laser-induced breakdown in the eye at pulse durations from 80 ns to 100 fs},
       booktitle = {BiOS'98 International Biomedical Optics Symposium},
       publisher = {International Society for Optics and Photonics},
       pages = {34-49},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Welzel, J. and Lankenau, E. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.: Optical coherence tomography of the skin. Curr Probl Dermatol, no. 26, pp. 27-37, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Welzel1998,
       author = {Welzel, J. and Lankenau, E. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.},
       title = {Optical coherence tomography of the skin},
       journal = {Curr Probl Dermatol},
       volume = {26},
       pages = {27-37},
       note = {1421-5721 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       keywords = {Biomedical Engineering
    Blister/pathology
    Eczema/pathology
    Epidermis/anatomy & histology/pathology
    Humans
    Melanoma/pathology
    Optics
    Pemphigus/pathology
    Scabies/parasitology/pathology
    Skin/*anatomy & histology/pathology
    Skin Neoplasms/pathology
    Tomography/*methods},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=9597313},
       year = {1998},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Spiegel, D. and Wetzel, W. and Birngruber, R.: Comparison of the efficacy of ER-YAG laser sclerostomy ab externo versus trabeculectomy in the treatment of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmologe, no. 95, pp. 537-541, 1998
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Spiegel1998,
       author = {Spiegel, D. and Wetzel, W. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Comparison of the efficacy of ER-YAG laser sclerostomy ab externo versus trabeculectomy in the treatment of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {95},
       number = {8},
       pages = {537-541},
       note = {119TQ
    Times Cited:3
    Cited References Count:16},
       abstract = {Purpose: This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of the Er-YAG laser sclerostomy ab externo versus trabeculectomy in the treatment of primary open - angle glaucoma.
    Methods: Twelve patients with POAG underwent ab externo laser sclerostomy using an Er-YAG laser (Sklerostom 2.9(R); lambda = 2940 nm, t = 200 mu s, 2 Hz, 400 mu m, 15 mJ). Only local medication was used, and there were no risk factors for failure. As a control group 12 patients out of 248 standardized trabeculectomies were matched in terms of age, sex, diagnosis and local medications. No antimetabolites were used in either group.
    Results: After a follow-up of 9 months in the sclerostomy group 53%; (7/12; P = 0.03) showed a patent fistula in comparison of 100% in the trabeculectomy group. There was a significantly lower mean IOP during the first postsurgical week in the group of sclerostomies (3.6 +/- 1.5 mmHg versus 7.5 +/- 2.7 mmHg; P = 0.0001) with a higher incidence of choroidal detachments (9/12 versus 2/12; P = 0.004). The choroidal detachments lasted longer in the sclerostomy group (3.5 months versus 0.3 months; P = 0.014). Iris incarcerations were found only in sclerostomies (7/12; P = 0.05).
    Conclusions: Based on these findings, Er-YAG laser sclerostomy prooved to be less effective than trabeculectomy in the treatment of glaucoma patients. Er-YAG laser sclerostomies were associated with a higher incidence of postsurgical complications such as hypotony, choroidal detachments and iris incarcerations. At this point Er-YAG laser sclerostomy is not superior to conventional trabeculectomy.},
       keywords = {glaucoma
    er-yag laser
    sclerostomy
    trabeculectomy
    filtration surgery
    mitomycin
    aphakia},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1007/s003470050312},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000075913700003},
       year = {1998},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.: Photodynamic therapy in ocular vascular disease (Reprinted from IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol 2, 1996). Laser Physics, no. 8, pp. 191-198, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1998,
       author = {Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.},
       title = {Photodynamic therapy in ocular vascular disease (Reprinted from IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol 2, 1996)},
       journal = {Laser Physics},
       volume = {8},
       number = {1},
       pages = {191-198},
       note = {Zb459
    Times Cited:4
    Cited References Count:58},
       abstract = {Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a novel therapeutical approach which is noninvasive and potentially selective for neoplastic pathologies. Association of photosensitizers with low density lipoprotein (LDL) leads to direct targeting of the treated lesions with enhanced efficiency and selectivity. LDL-mediated PDT is particularly useful in the treatment of neovascular structures since LDL receptors are abundantly expressed on vascular endothelial cells. To evaluate the potential of selective photodynamic vasoocclusion in ocular neovascular disease, a sequence of experiments was designed: efficiency of the LDL-carrier was tested in vitro, and the system was then transferred to an in vivo model demonstrating a vascularized neoplasm. Occlusion was successfully performed in experimentally-induced neovascularization in the cornea, while selective photothrombosis of subretinal vasculature revealed lack of collateral damage. The experimental results were used to establish a first clinical trial for the use of PDT in age-related macular degeneration, one of the leading causes for blindness.},
       keywords = {low-density-lipoprotein
    receptor activity
    plasma-lipoproteins
    singlet oxygen
    cells-invitro
    murine tumor
    hematoporphyrin
    invivo
    benzoporphyrin
    retinoblastoma},
       ISSN = {1054-660X},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000072474100030},
       year = {1998},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and El Hifnawi, E. S. and Birngruber, R.: Bubble formation as primary interaction mechanism in retinal laser exposure with 200-ns laser pulses. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, no. 22, pp. 240-248, 1998
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roider1998,
       author = {Roider, J. and El Hifnawi, E. S. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Bubble formation as primary interaction mechanism in retinal laser exposure with 200-ns laser pulses},
       journal = {Lasers in Surgery and Medicine},
       volume = {22},
       number = {4},
       pages = {240-248},
       note = {Zl426
    Times Cited:15
    Cited References Count:23},
       abstract = {Background and Objective: Retinal laser photocoagulation is generally performed by laser pulses of a few hundred milliseconds. The tissue interaction mechanism is a pure thermal interaction mechanism. As pulse duration gets shorter, different, non-thermal interaction mechanisms start to appear. The time domain for a change of tissue interaction mechanism seems to be in the ns and mu s range. The goal of this study was to characterize the tissue interaction mechanism with 200-ns laser pulses, which approximate the thermal relaxation time of single melanin granules.
    Materials and Methods: The retinas of 19 eyes of 10 rabbits were irradiated by 10 and 500 repetitive laser pulses (wavelength, 532 nm; repetition rate, 500 Hz; pulse duration, 200 ns; per pulse energy, 0-120 mu J; retinal spot size, 100 mu m). The effects were evaluated by fluorescein angiography, ophthalmoscopy and by theoretical thermal calculations. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were additionally performed on lesions irradiated by 500 pulses.
    Results: Single pulse threshold energies for angiographic visibility were 3.5 mu J (10 pulses) and 2.1 mu J (500 pulses), for ophthalmoscopic visibility 9.0 mu J (10 pulses) vs. 8.6 mu J (500 pulses). At energy levels above ophthalmoscopic visibility macroscopically visible bubble formation inside the retina could be observed. This occurred at energy levels of 35 mu J (10 pulses) vs. 17 mu J (500 pulses). Microscopic evaluation of lesions irradiated with 500 pulses and energies at the angiographic threshold showed a damage primarily to the RPE. Additional outer segment damage of the photoreceptors could be found. A gap between damaged RPE cells and the outer segments could be repeatedly found as well as damaged RPE cells, which were detached from intact Bruch's membrane. Temperature calculation shows that temperatures above 100 degrees C may exist around single melanin granules.
    Conclusion: The studies suggest that RPE damage may occur by bubble formation around single melanin granules. (C) 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.},
       keywords = {bubble
    laser
    melanin
    retina
    retinal pigment epithelium
    injury
    stress
    radiation},
       ISSN = {0196-8092},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1002/(Sici)1096-9101(1998)22:4<240::Aid-Lsm9>3.0.Co;2-P},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000073431700009},
       year = {1998},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Lindemann, C. and el-Hifnawi el, S. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Therapeutic range of repetitive nanosecond laser exposures in selective RPE photocoagulation. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, no. 236, pp. 213-9, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider1998,
       author = {Roider, J. and Lindemann, C. and el-Hifnawi el, S. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Therapeutic range of repetitive nanosecond laser exposures in selective RPE photocoagulation},
       journal = {Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol},
       volume = {236},
       number = {3},
       pages = {213-9},
       note = {0721-832X (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether selective damage the RPE while sparing the adjacent photoreceptors is possible with repetitive 200-ns pulses of Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) and what potential side effects can be expected with higher pulse energies. METHODS: We irradiated the retinas of 19 eyes of 10 chinchilla rabbits with 500 pulses from a Nd:YAG laser, each 200 ns in duration, at a repetition rate of 500 Hz (158 microns, 0-120 microJ). Threshold curves for different effects were established. Representative lesions were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: It was possible to produce lesions, which were only visible by fluorescein angiography. The ED50 threshold energy per pulse for visibility by fluorescein angiography was 2.1 microJ per pulse, for visibility by ophthalmoscopy 8.6 microJ. Bubble formation, an uncommon phenomenon in retinal photocoagulation, occurred at energies of 15-25 microJ. Hemorrhage occurred at surprisingly high energy levels of more than 100 microJ. Histology performed on lesions visible only by angiography showed damage primarily to the RPE and outer segments, with very little damage to some inner segments dependent on the energy used. CONCLUSIONS: Selective RPE damage is possible with repetitive 200-ns laser pulses and appropriate energy; however, the collateral damage to the adjacent retina is more pronounced than with repetitive microsecond laser pulses. There is no risk of hemorrhage of retinal photocoagulation with the repetitive 200-ns laser pulses at low energy levels which would be used clinically.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Eye Injuries/etiology/pathology
    Fundus Oculi
    Laser Coagulation/adverse effects/*methods
    Photoreceptors/injuries/ultrastructure
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/*surgery/ultrastructure
    Rabbits
    Reoperation
    Retinal Hemorrhage/etiology
    Safety},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=9541826},
       year = {1998},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Hüttmann, G. and Birngruber, R.: Dynamics of Thermal Microeffects: Rate Constants of Thermal Denaturation Measured by a Temperature-Jump Experiment. OSA TOPS, no. 22, pp. 300-305, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Hüttmann1998,
       author = {Hüttmann, G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Dynamics of Thermal Microeffects: Rate Constants of Thermal Denaturation Measured by a Temperature-Jump Experiment},
       journal = {OSA TOPS},
       volume = {22},
       pages = {300-305},
       year = {1998},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R and Theisen, D. and Stubbe, H.M. and Birngruber, R.: Endocardial Laser Revascularization with Single High Energy Laser Pulses. OSA TOPS, no. 22, pp. 272-276, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann1998,
       author = {Brinkmann, R and Theisen, D. and Stubbe, H.M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Endocardial Laser Revascularization with Single High Energy Laser Pulses},
       journal = {OSA TOPS},
       volume = {22},
       pages = {272-276},
       year = { 1998},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R and Koop, N. and Kamm, K. and Geerling, G. and Kampmeier, J. and Birngruber, R.: Laser Thermokeratoplastik: eine in vitro- und in vivo-Studie mit kontinuierlich emittierender Laserdiode im mittleren IR-Spektralbereich.. Laser in der Medizin, Proc. Laser 97, pp. 412-416, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann1998,
       author = {Brinkmann, R and Koop, N. and Kamm, K. and Geerling, G. and Kampmeier, J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser Thermokeratoplastik: eine in vitro- und in vivo-Studie mit kontinuierlich emittierender Laserdiode im mittleren IR-Spektralbereich.},
       journal = {Laser in der Medizin, Proc. Laser 97},
       pages = {412-416},
       year = {1998},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Geerling, G. and Kampmeier, J. and Borcherding, S. and Kamm, K. and Birngruber, R.: Diode laser thermokeratoplasty: application strategy and dosimetry. J Cataract Refract Surg, no. 24, pp. 1195-207, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann1998,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Geerling, G. and Kampmeier, J. and Borcherding, S. and Kamm, K. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Diode laser thermokeratoplasty: application strategy and dosimetry},
       journal = {J Cataract Refract Surg},
       volume = {24},
       number = {9},
       pages = {1195-207},
       note = {0886-3350 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To investigate suitable application parameters for efficient hyperopic correction by laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK) using mid-infrared laser diodes. SETTING: Medical Laser Center Lubeck, Lubeck, Germany. METHOD: A tunable continuous-wave laser diode in the spectral range between 1.845 and 1.871 microns was used. Transmitted by waveguides, the laser energy was used to induce coagulations on freshly enucleated porcine eyes to increase corneal curvature. The coagulations were equidistantly applied by a fiber-cornea contact and a noncontact focusing device that were adjusted on a ring concentric to the corneal apex. Different laser parameters and application geometries were evaluated. Refractive changes were measured by computer-assisted corneal topography before and after treatment. Polarization light microscopy and temperature calculations were used to analyze the coagulations. RESULTS: Because of the tunability of the laser diode, the influence of the corneal absorption coefficient (between 0.9 and 1.6 mm-1) on the refractive change could be measured. A laser power between 125 and 200 mW was adequate to achieve refractive changes up to 10.0 diopters. In the preferable focusing device, the refractive change increased almost logarithmically with the irradiation time up to 15 seconds. The number of coagulations on a fixed application ring showed no significant influence on refractive change; however, it showed an almost linear decrease with increasing ring diameter from 5.0 to 10.0 mm. Histological analysis revealed 3 stages of thermal damage. CONCLUSION: Diode LTK provided defined and uniform coagulations when using a well-adapted focusing device, resulting in sufficient refractive change. The results indicate that diode LTK is superior to pulsed holmium LTK.},
       keywords = {Absorption
    Animals
    Cornea/pathology/physiopathology/*surgery
    Hyperopia/pathology/physiopathology/*surgery
    Laser Coagulation/*methods
    Microscopy, Polarization
    Refraction, Ocular
    Swine},
       year = { 1998}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Knipper, A. and Dröge, G. and Schroer, F. and Gromoll, B. and Birngruber, R.: Fundamental Studies of Fiber-Guided Soft Tissue Cutting by Means of Pulsed Midinfrared IR lasers and their Application in Ureterotomy. J Biomed Opt, no. 3, pp. 85-95, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann1998,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Knipper, A. and Dröge, G. and Schroer, F. and Gromoll, B. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Fundamental Studies of Fiber-Guided Soft Tissue Cutting by Means of Pulsed Midinfrared IR lasers and their Application in Ureterotomy},
       journal = {J Biomed Opt},
       volume = {3},
       number = {1},
       pages = {85-95},
       year = { 1998}
    }
    

1997

  • Vogel, Alfred and Günther, Thomas and Birngruber, Reginald and Asyo-Vogel, M: Untersuchungen zur Entstehung von Refraktionseffekten bei der intrastromalen refraktiven Hornhautchirurgie mit dem Pikosekundenlaser. Der Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 467-474, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Vogel 1997,
       author = {Vogel, Alfred and Günther, Thomas and Birngruber, Reginald and Asyo-Vogel, M},
       title = {Untersuchungen zur Entstehung von Refraktionseffekten bei der intrastromalen refraktiven Hornhautchirurgie mit dem Pikosekundenlaser},
       journal = {Der Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       number = {7},
       pages = {467-474},
       keywords = {Schlüsselwörter Refraktive Hornhautchirurgie
    Intrastromale photorefraktive Keratektomie
    Pikosekundenlaser
    Photodisruption
    Kavitation
    Key words Refractive surgery
    Intrastromal photorefractive keratectomy
    Picosecond laser
    Cavitation},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       DOI = {10.1007/s003470050141},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003470050141},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Welzel, J. and Lankenau, E. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.: Optical coherence tomography of the human skin. J Am Acad Dermatol, no. 37, pp. 958-63, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Welzel1997,
       author = {Welzel, J. and Lankenau, E. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.},
       title = {Optical coherence tomography of the human skin},
       journal = {J Am Acad Dermatol},
       volume = {37},
       number = {6},
       pages = {958-63},
       note = {0190-9622 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new diagnostic method for tissue characterization. OBJECTIVE: We investigated normal and pathologic structures in human skin in several locations to evaluate the potential application of this technique to dermatology. METHODS: Based on the principle of low-coherence interferometry, cross-sectional images of the human skin can be obtained in vivo with a high spatial resolution of about 15 microns. Within a penetration depth of 0.5 to 1.5 mm, structures of the stratum corneum, the living epidermis, and the papillary dermis can be distinguished. RESULTS: Different layers could be detected that were differentiated by induction of experimental blisters and by comparison with corresponding histologic sections. Furthermore, OCT images of several skin diseases and tumors were obtained. CONCLUSION: OCT is a promising new imaging method for visualization of morphologic changes of superficial layers of the human skin. It may be useful for noninvasive diagnosis of bullous skin diseases, skin tumors, and in vivo investigation of pharmacologic effects.},
       keywords = {Adult
    Anatomy, Cross-Sectional
    Basement Membrane/pathology
    Blister/diagnosis/pathology
    Epidermis/anatomy & histology
    Evaluation Studies
    Female
    Forearm/anatomy & histology
    Hand/anatomy & histology
    Humans
    Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle/diagnosis/pathology
    Image Enhancement
    Interferometry
    Male
    Melanoma/diagnosis/pathology
    Nails/anatomy & histology
    Optics
    Skin/*anatomy & histology
    Skin Diseases/*diagnosis/pathology
    Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous/diagnosis/pathology
    Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis/pathology
    Tomography/*methods},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=9418764},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wirbelauer, C. and Geerling, G. and Koop, N. and Brinkmann, R. and Tungler, A. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.: Acute endothelial cell changes after laser thermal keratoplasty with a CW-IR laser diode. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 38, pp. 2516-2516, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Wirbelauer1997,
       author = {Wirbelauer, C. and Geerling, G. and Koop, N. and Brinkmann, R. and Tungler, A. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.},
       title = {Acute endothelial cell changes after laser thermal keratoplasty with a CW-IR laser diode},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {38},
       number = {4},
       pages = {2516-2516},
       note = {1
    Wn186
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WN18602508},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, Alfred and Günther, Thomas and Birngruber, Reginald and Asyo-Vogel, M: Untersuchungen zur Entstehung von Refraktionseffekten bei der intrastromalen refraktiven Hornhautchirurgie mit dem Pikosekundenlaser. Der Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 467-474, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Vogel1997,
       author = {Vogel, Alfred and Günther, Thomas and Birngruber, Reginald and Asyo-Vogel, M},
       title = {Untersuchungen zur Entstehung von Refraktionseffekten bei der intrastromalen refraktiven Hornhautchirurgie mit dem Pikosekundenlaser},
       journal = {Der Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       number = {7},
       pages = {467-474},
       keywords = {Schlüsselwörter Refraktive Hornhautchirurgie
    Intrastromale photorefraktive Keratektomie
    Pikosekundenlaser
    Photodisruption
    Kavitation
    Key words Refractive surgery
    Intrastromal photorefractive keratectomy
    Picosecond laser
    Cavitation},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       DOI = {10.1007/s003470050141},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003470050141},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Gunther, T. and Asiyo-Vogel, M. and Birngruber, R.: Investigations on the origin of refractive effects in intrastromal refractive surgery with the picosecond laser. Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 467-474, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Vogel1997,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Gunther, T. and Asiyo-Vogel, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Investigations on the origin of refractive effects in intrastromal refractive surgery with the picosecond laser},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       number = {7},
       pages = {467-474},
       note = {Yp140
    Times Cited:2
    Cited References Count:21},
       abstract = {Background: Picosecond laser intrastromal photorefractive keratectomy (ISPRK) aims at achieving a flattening of the central cornea by plasma-mediated tissue evaporation without affecting the anterior or posterior corneal layers. We investigated the laser-induced tissue effects to establish a functional relationship between laser parameters and tissue removal and to assess their influence on the healing process and long-term refractive changes.
    Materials and methods: A modified ISL 2001 System with a cone angle of 30 degrees was used for in vitro investigations of the laser effects in water and porcine cornea. Photographic methods were used to determine the plasma volume and the thickness of the laser-generated intrastromal bubble layer as a function of the pulse energy and the number and separation in which the pulses were applied (216 eyes). Histological evaluation was done by polarization microscopy (9 eyes).
    Results: Polarization microscopy revealed only minor signs of thermal tissue damage. The maximum amount of tissue that can be evaporated without damaging the outer corneal layers corresponds to a layer about 10 mu m thick. With a 6-mm optical zone, this tissue removal yields an immediate refractive effect of only 0.85 dpt. Stronger long-term refractive changes observed in animal experiments and clinical studies must thus be due to the healing response of the cornea. The healing response may be induced by mechanical distortion due to intrastromal bubble formation affecting about one third of the corneal thickness.
    Conclusion: Since the refractive effects are apparently strongly influenced by corneal healing, they are poorly predictable and can probably not be used for clinical purposes.},
       keywords = {refractive surgery
    intrastromal photorefractive keratectomy
    picosecond laser
    photodisruption
    cavitation
    photorefractive keratectomy
    intraocular photodisruption
    corneal tissue
    pulses},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1007/s003470050141},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000071246700001},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Koop, Norbert and Brinkmann, Ralf and Lankenau, Eva and Flache, Stefan and Engelhardt, Ralf and Birngruber, Reginald: Optische Kohärenztomographie der Kornea und des vorderen Augenabschnitts. Der Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 481-486, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Koop1997,
       author = {Koop, Norbert and Brinkmann, Ralf and Lankenau, Eva and Flache, Stefan and Engelhardt, Ralf and Birngruber, Reginald},
       title = {Optische Kohärenztomographie der Kornea und des vorderen Augenabschnitts},
       journal = {Der Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       number = {7},
       pages = {481-486},
       ISSN = {1433-0423},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003470050143},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Koop, Norbert and Langholz, Michael and Birngruber, Reginald and Geerling, Gerd and Bastian, Gerd-Otto: Vergleichende Untersuchungen verschiedener kornealer Topographiemeßgeräte. Der Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 120-126, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Koop1997,
       author = {Koop, Norbert and Langholz, Michael and Birngruber, Reginald and Geerling, Gerd and Bastian, Gerd-Otto},
       title = {Vergleichende Untersuchungen verschiedener kornealer Topographiemeßgeräte},
       journal = {Der Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       number = {2},
       pages = {120-126},
       ISSN = {1433-0423},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003470050092},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Toth, C. A. and Birngruber, R. and Boppart, S. A. and Hee, M. R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and DiCarlo, C. D. and Swanson, E. A. and Cain, C. P. and Narayan, D. G. and Noojin, G. D. and Roach, W. P.: Argon laser retinal lesions evaluated in vivo by optical coherence tomography. Am J Ophthalmol, no. 123, pp. 188-98, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Toth1997,
       author = {Toth, C. A. and Birngruber, R. and Boppart, S. A. and Hee, M. R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and DiCarlo, C. D. and Swanson, E. A. and Cain, C. P. and Narayan, D. G. and Noojin, G. D. and Roach, W. P.},
       title = {Argon laser retinal lesions evaluated in vivo by optical coherence tomography},
       journal = {Am J Ophthalmol},
       volume = {123},
       number = {2},
       pages = {188-98},
       note = {0002-9394 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To assess the in vivo evolution of argon laser retinal lesions by correlating the cross-sectional structure from sequential optical coherence tomography with histopathologic sectioning. METHODS: Argon laser lesions were created in the retinas of Macaca mulatta and evaluated by cross-section optical coherence tomography, which was compared at selected time points with corresponding histopathology. RESULTS: Argon laser lesions induced an optical coherence tomography pattern of early outer retinal relative high reflectivity with subsequent surrounding relative low reflectivity that correlated well with histopathologic findings. The in vivo optical coherence tomography images of macular laser lesions clearly demonstrated differences in pathologic response by retinal layer over time. CONCLUSION: The novel sequential imaging of rapidly evolving macular lesions with optical coherence tomography provides new insight into the patterns of acute tissue response by cross-sectional layer. This sequential imaging technique will aid in our understanding of the rapid evolution of retinal pathology and response to treatment in the research and clinical setting.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Argon
    *Lasers
    Macaca mulatta
    *Optics
    Retina/*pathology/*radiation effects
    Time Factors
    Tomography/*methods},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=9186124},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Spiegel, D. and Wetzel, W. and Birngruber, R.: Comparison of the efficacy of Er-YAG laser sclerostomy ab externo versus trabeculectomy in the treatment of ``low risk`` glaucoma patients.. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 38, pp. 829-829, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Spiegel1997,
       author = {Spiegel, D. and Wetzel, W. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Comparison of the efficacy of Er-YAG laser sclerostomy ab externo versus trabeculectomy in the treatment of ''low risk'' glaucoma patients.},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {38},
       number = {4},
       pages = {829-829},
       note = {1
    Wn186
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WN18600827},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Sickenberg, M. and SchimdtErfurth, U. and Miller, J. W. and Donati, G. and Bressler, N. M. and Zografos, L. and Piguet, B. and Laqua, H. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Lane, A. M. and Pournaras, C. and Birngruber, R. and vandenBergh, H. and Strong, H. A. and Manjuris, U. and Fsadni, M.: Preliminary results of photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization in pathologic myopia, ocular histoplasmosis syndrome and idiopathic causes within a phase I/II study. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 38, pp. 450-450, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Sickenberg1997,
       author = {Sickenberg, M. and SchimdtErfurth, U. and Miller, J. W. and Donati, G. and Bressler, N. M. and Zografos, L. and Piguet, B. and Laqua, H. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Lane, A. M. and Pournaras, C. and Birngruber, R. and vandenBergh, H. and Strong, H. A. and Manjuris, U. and Fsadni, M.},
       title = {Preliminary results of photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization in pathologic myopia, ocular histoplasmosis syndrome and idiopathic causes within a phase I/II study},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {38},
       number = {4},
       pages = {450-450},
       note = {1
    Wn186
    Times Cited:1
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WN18600448},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • SchmidtErfurth, U. and Wetzel, W. and Droge, G. and Birngruber, R.: Mitomycin-C in laser sclerostomy: Benefit and complications. Ophthalmic Surgery and Lasers, no. 28, pp. 14-20, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1997,
       author = {SchmidtErfurth, U. and Wetzel, W. and Droge, G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Mitomycin-C in laser sclerostomy: Benefit and complications},
       journal = {Ophthalmic Surgery and Lasers},
       volume = {28},
       number = {1},
       pages = {14-20},
       note = {Wf713
    Times Cited:6
    Cited References Count:27},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The authors studied the effect of topical mitomycin-C administration on the maintenance of filter function and intraocular pressure (IOP) following laser sclerostomy.
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with a presumed high risk of episcleral scarring were treated intraoperatively with topical mitomycin-C (0.5 mg/ml) for 3 to 5 minutes. Their IOPs were monitored for at least 2 years. The IOP data of these patients were compared with the results for 46 patients who underwent the identical procedure without antimetabolite.
    RESULTS: IOPs below 23 mm Hg were achieved in 70% of the mitomycin-C-treated patients. Compared with the non-mitomycin-C group, the rate and duration of early postoperative hypotony was significantly increased in the mitomycin-C-treated group.
    CONCLUSION: Mitomycin-C is useful for maintaining successful filter function in patients with unfavorable prognoses. However, severe and persistent hypotony may occur.},
       keywords = {topical antiglaucoma medication
    open-angle glaucoma
    filtration surgery
    thermal sclerostomy
    trabeculectomy
    abexterno
    rabbits},
       ISSN = {0022-023X},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WF71300003},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • SchmidtErfurth, U. and Miller, J. W. and Sickenberg, M. and Bressler, N. M. and Laqua, H. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Zografos, L. and Hager, A. and Piguet, B. and Birngruber, R. and vandenBergh, H. and Strong, H. A. and Fsadni, M.: Photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularisation in a phase I/II study: Preliminary results of multiple treatments. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 38, pp. 74-74, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1997,
       author = {SchmidtErfurth, U. and Miller, J. W. and Sickenberg, M. and Bressler, N. M. and Laqua, H. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Zografos, L. and Hager, A. and Piguet, B. and Birngruber, R. and vandenBergh, H. and Strong, H. A. and Fsadni, M.},
       title = {Photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularisation in a phase I/II study: Preliminary results of multiple treatments},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {38},
       number = {4},
       pages = {74-74},
       note = {1
    Wn186
    Times Cited:8
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WN18600074},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Pan, Y. T. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.: Contrast limits of coherence-gated imaging in scattering media. Applied Optics, no. 36, pp. 2979-2983, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Pan1997,
       author = {Pan, Y. T. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.},
       title = {Contrast limits of coherence-gated imaging in scattering media},
       journal = {Applied Optics},
       volume = {36},
       number = {13},
       pages = {2979-2983},
       note = {Wx242
    Times Cited:50
    Cited References Count:8},
       abstract = {The fundamental difference between time-resolved and coherence-gated imaging modalities in scattering media is analyzed in terms of their optical transfer functions. The effectiveness of coherence gating for multiple-scattering rejection is shown by imaging a 100-mu m-thick razor blade hidden in the scattering phantoms (i.e., Intralipid suspensions) with different scattering coefficients. We found that the imaging contrast is limited by multiple scattering and speckle effects in high-scattering media, and the measured effective penetration depth of optical coherence tomography is approximately equal to six mean free paths under the experimental conditions of a numerical aperture of less than 0.1 and a scattering anisotropy of approximately 0.8. (C) 1997 Optical Society of America.},
       keywords = {coherence-gated imaging
    time-resolved imaging
    low-coherence interference
    imaging contrast limits
    multiple scattering effects
    tissue optics
    tomography},
       ISSN = {0003-6935},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1364/Ao.36.002979},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WX24200038},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • SchmidtErfurth, U. and Diddens, H. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.: Photodynamic targeting of human retinoblastoma cells using covalent low-density lipoprotein conjugates. British Journal of Cancer, no. 75, pp. 54-61, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1997,
       author = {SchmidtErfurth, U. and Diddens, H. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.},
       title = {Photodynamic targeting of human retinoblastoma cells using covalent low-density lipoprotein conjugates},
       journal = {British Journal of Cancer},
       volume = {75},
       number = {1},
       pages = {54-61},
       note = {Wa344
    Times Cited:69
    Cited References Count:64},
       abstract = {Combination of photosensitizers with carrier molecules has been shown to enhance the efficiency of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Owing to an increased expression of their receptors on some malignant and proliferating cells, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are potential endogenous carriers. A photosensitizer, chlorin e(6) (Ce-6), was covalently bound to LDL via carbodiimide activation. The Ce-6-LDL conjugate was evaluated on a fibroblast cell line with defined LDL receptor expression and a retinoblastoma cell line (Y79). Uptake of free Ce-6 and Ce-6 either covalently bound to or complexed with LDL was measured by spectrofluorimetry. Phototoxicity after irradiation at 660 nm was determined by a mitochondrial activity assay (MTT). Covalent binding to LDL significantly increased the uptake of Ce, for both cell lines by a factor of 4-5. A Ce-6:LDL binding ratio of 50:1 was optimal. A receptor-mediated uptake was demonstrated by saturability and competitive inhibition by free LDL. Binding also occurred at 2 degrees C and was attributed to non-specific associations. Irradiation with 10 J cm(-2) of 660 nm light after treatment of cells with Ce-6-LDL conjugate reduced the MTT activity by 80%, while free or mixed Ce-6 induced a maximum of 10% reduction in the MTT activity following identical treatment conditions. These data suggest that targeting of LDL receptor-bearing cells using covalently bound carriers, such as LDL, might increase the efficiency and selectivity of PDT. Intraocular tumours such as retinoblastomas could be appropriate targets for such an approach owing to the ease of access of light sources and the need for non-invasive approaches in sensitive ocular sites.},
       keywords = {photochemistry
    ocular
    neovascularization
    chlorin
    bladder-carcinoma cells
    receptor-mediated uptake
    plasma-lipoproteins
    endothelial-cells
    human fibroblasts
    cellular-uptake
    therapy
    tumor
    benzoporphyrin
    cancer},
       ISSN = {0007-0920},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1038/Bjc.1997.9},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WA34400009},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Therapeutical bandwidth or selective RPE-photocoagulation treatment by repetitive mu s-laser pulses (527 nm) - First clinical results. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 38, pp. 404-404, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider1997,
       author = {Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Therapeutical bandwidth or selective RPE-photocoagulation treatment by repetitive mu s-laser pulses (527 nm) - First clinical results},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {38},
       number = {4},
       pages = {404-404},
       note = {1
    Wn186
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WN18600402},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Koop, N. and Langholz, M. and Birngruber, R. and Geerling, G. and Bastian, G. O.: Comparative evaluation of different corneal topographical devices. Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 120-126, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Koop1997
       author = {Koop, N. and Langholz, M. and Birngruber, R. and Geerling, G. and Bastian, G. O.},
       title = {Comparative evaluation of different corneal topographical devices},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       number = {2},
       pages = {120-126},
       note = {Yp129
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:25},
       abstract = {Purpose: It is difficult to measure the topography of the cornea with high resolution and visualize it on a map displaying refraction. This is demonstrated by the ongoing improvement and further development of different methods and by the fact that users of these techniques are not always satisfied.
    Materials and methods: Five different ring projectors were compared. Spherical and aspherical ball standards were used to measure the standard deviation of the refraction of the system. A patient group of eight people with healthy eyes was used to compare the measurement accuracy and operational errors. Some patients were also measured after cataract surgery. The lateral and axial range of the devices was determined.
    Results: The measurement accuracy for bail stand ards for the five devices was below 1/8 D. For the in vivo case in the control group it was below 1/4 D for four devices. Furthermore, the reproducibility of the results, the accuracy of angle determination and the influence of mechanical and optical design will be discussed. The study demonstrates applications and limits of this measurement method.},
       keywords = {placido-disk
    corneal topography
    refractive power
    videokeratoscope
    accuracy
    system
    reproducibility},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1007/s003470050092},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000071245600008},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Koop, N. and Brinkmann, R. and Lankenau, E. and Flache, S. and Engelhardt, R. and Birngruber, R.: Optical coherence tomography of cornea and anterior segment of the eye. Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 481-486, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Koop1997,
       author = {Koop, N. and Brinkmann, R. and Lankenau, E. and Flache, S. and Engelhardt, R. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Optical coherence tomography of cornea and anterior segment of the eye},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       number = {7},
       pages = {481-486},
       note = {Yp140
    Times Cited:34
    Cited References Count:19},
       abstract = {Target: The method of optical coherence tomography (OCT) was investigated regarding its suitability and limits for measuring the cornea and the anterior segment of the eye. Furthermore, the stromal expansion of thermally induced lesions in the cornea directly after irradiation was determined within the scope of the laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK).
    Material and methods: With the experimental scanning OCT system, x-z sections of the anterior eye segment were made with an optical resolution of about 20 mu m axially and 25 mu m laterally. Freshly enucleated, tonicized porcine eyes were used as model eyes. Thermal lesions were applied with a continuously emitting laser diode (lambda=1.86 mu m) and various radiation parameters, Before and after coagulation, the cornea was viewed from limbus to limbus in a central OCT scan and the individual coagulation source was measured,
    Results: Global and local changes of the thickness of the cornea as well as the distance between cornea and lens were measured with high precision. Thermal lesions in their expansion can be clearly presented and matching well with the histologically stained sections, bur are not as exactly defined at the edges due to the limited optical resolution, as known from histological preparations.
    Conclusion: With the OCT method quantitative measuring of the anterior eye segment can be performed in vitro and with reduced resolutions also in vivo. Due to the qualitatively good correspondence regarding the dimensions of thermal damage of the cornea with histologically obtained morphometric results,this method can be used for supervision of coagulation directly after LTK as well as for examination of the individual healing process.},
       keywords = {optical coherence tomography
    pachometry
    laser thermokeratoplasty
    thermal damage
    tissue},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1007/s003470050143},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000071246700003},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Geerling, G. and Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Wirbelauer, C. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Diode-laser thermokeratoplasty - First clinical experiences in human blind eyes. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 38, pp. 2292-2292, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Geerling1997,
       author = {Geerling, G. and Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Wirbelauer, C. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Diode-laser thermokeratoplasty - First clinical experiences in human blind eyes},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {38},
       number = {4},
       pages = {2292-2292},
       note = {1
    Wn186
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WN18602285},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Kampmeier, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Pfleiderer, M. and Schneider, E. and Birngruber, R.: Laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK): A finite element model of the cornea. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 38, pp. 2515-2515, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Kampmeier1997,
       author = {Kampmeier, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Pfleiderer, M. and Schneider, E. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK): A finite element model of the cornea},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {38},
       number = {4},
       pages = {2515-2515},
       note = {1
    Wn186
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WN18602507},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Gragoudas, E. S. and SchmidtErfurth, U. and Sickenberg, M. and Pournaras, C. J. and Bressler, N. M. and Strong, A. and Hoehne, U. and Fsadni, M. and Lane, A. M. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R. and Donati, G. and Zografos, L. and vandenBergh, H. and Piguet, B. and Miller, J. W.: Results and preliminary dosimetry of photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration in a phase I/II study.. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 38, pp. 73-73, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Gragoudas1997,
       author = {Gragoudas, E. S. and SchmidtErfurth, U. and Sickenberg, M. and Pournaras, C. J. and Bressler, N. M. and Strong, A. and Hoehne, U. and Fsadni, M. and Lane, A. M. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R. and Donati, G. and Zografos, L. and vandenBergh, H. and Piguet, B. and Miller, J. W.},
       title = {Results and preliminary dosimetry of photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration in a phase I/II study.},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {38},
       number = {4},
       pages = {73-73},
       note = {1
    Wn186
    Times Cited:5
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WN18600073},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Kampmeier, J. and Bruhns, A. and AsiyoVogel, M. and Engelhardt, R. and Birngruber, R.: Corneal collagen denaturation in laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK). Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 38, pp. 2514-2514, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann1997,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Kampmeier, J. and Bruhns, A. and AsiyoVogel, M. and Engelhardt, R. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Corneal collagen denaturation in laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK)},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {38},
       number = {4},
       pages = {2514-2514},
       note = {1
    Wn186
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WN18602506},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Welzel, J. and Lankenau, E. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.: Optical coherence tomography of the human skin. J Am Acad Dermatol, no. 37, pp. 958-63,
    BibTeX
    @article{Welzel,
       author = {Welzel, J. and Lankenau, E. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.},
       title = {Optical coherence tomography of the human skin},
       journal = {J Am Acad Dermatol},
       volume = {37},
       number = {6},
       pages = {958-63},
       note = {0190-9622 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new diagnostic method for tissue characterization. OBJECTIVE: We investigated normal and pathologic structures in human skin in several locations to evaluate the potential application of this technique to dermatology. METHODS: Based on the principle of low-coherence interferometry, cross-sectional images of the human skin can be obtained in vivo with a high spatial resolution of about 15 microns. Within a penetration depth of 0.5 to 1.5 mm, structures of the stratum corneum, the living epidermis, and the papillary dermis can be distinguished. RESULTS: Different layers could be detected that were differentiated by induction of experimental blisters and by comparison with corresponding histologic sections. Furthermore, OCT images of several skin diseases and tumors were obtained. CONCLUSION: OCT is a promising new imaging method for visualization of morphologic changes of superficial layers of the human skin. It may be useful for noninvasive diagnosis of bullous skin diseases, skin tumors, and in vivo investigation of pharmacologic effects.},
       keywords = {Adult
    Anatomy, Cross-Sectional
    Basement Membrane/pathology
    Blister/diagnosis/pathology
    Epidermis/anatomy & histology
    Evaluation Studies
    Female
    Forearm/anatomy & histology
    Hand/anatomy & histology
    
  • Brinkmann, R and Dröge, G and Schroer, F and Scheu, M and Birngruber, R: Ablation Dynamics in Laser Sclerostomy Ab Externo by means of Pulsed Lasers in the Mid-Infrared Spectral Range. Ophth Surg Las, no. 28, pp. 853-865, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann1997,
       author = {Brinkmann, R and Dröge, G and Schroer, F and Scheu, M and Birngruber, R},
       title = {Ablation Dynamics in Laser Sclerostomy Ab Externo by means of Pulsed Lasers in the Mid-Infrared Spectral Range},
       journal = {Ophth Surg Las},
       volume = {28},
       number = {10},
       pages = {853-865},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Asiyo-Vogel, M. N. and Koop, N. and Brinkmann, R. and Engelhardt, R. and Eggers, R. and Birngruber, R. and Vogel, A.: Evaluation of LTK lesions by optical low coherence tomography (OCT) and polarization microscopy after Sirius-Red staining. Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 487-491, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Asiyo-Vogel1997,
       author = {Asiyo-Vogel, M. N. and Koop, N. and Brinkmann, R. and Engelhardt, R. and Eggers, R. and Birngruber, R. and Vogel, A.},
       title = {Evaluation of LTK lesions by optical low coherence tomography (OCT) and polarization microscopy after Sirius-Red staining},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       number = {7},
       pages = {487-491},
       note = {Yp140
    Times Cited:5
    Cited References Count:21},
       abstract = {Background: Information on the extent and degree of the thermal effect produced is of great importance for control of the laser dosage in laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK) and for postoperative follow-up. We investigated on acute LTK effects which information images obtained by optical low coherence tomography (OCT) offer compared to those obtained by polarization microscopy.
    Methods: Porcine eyes were irradiated through a 400 mu m quartz fiber using light from a laser diode emitting up to 300 mW at a wavelength of 1.86 mu m. Thermal lesions of varying strength were scanned using an experimental OCT device with about 25 mu m lateral and 20 mu m axial resolution. Histologic evaluation of the scanned areas was done by polarization microscopy after Sirius-Red staining, and similar lesions were also analyzed by TEM.
    Results: Both methods differentiated three damage zones: a transition zone, a zone of moderate coagulation, and a central zone of strong coagulation. In the transition zone,increased birefringence was seen in polarization microscopy, which correlated with increased light scattering seen in the DCT images,ln the moderately coagulated zone, a decrease in birefringence was associated with an even stronger increase of the OCT signal, In the central zone,a loss of the fibrillar tissue structure was observed, which led to a complete loss of birefringence and a strong reduction of the OCT signal.
    Conclusions: Although OCT does not provide the detailed information on thermal changes of tissue seen by the histologic method, it offers information on the extent and degree of tissue changes without preparation artifacts and provides a non-invasive method of immediate and follow-up control of LTK lesions, A quantitative analysis of changes in corneal thickness and curvature is much simpler than by a slit lamp. Time-resolved measurements of corneal light scattering may be used for on-line control of the laser-light dosage during LTK.},
       keywords = {refractive surgery
    laser thermokeratoplasty
    collagen denaturation
    collagen shrinkage
    optical low coherence tomography
    polarization microscopy
    sirius-red staining
    tissue
    collagen
    eye},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1007/s003470050144},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000071246700004},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Günther, T. and Asiyo-Vogel, M. and Birngruber, R.: Factors determining the refractive effects of intrastromal photorefractive keratectomy with the picosecond laser. J Cataract Refract Surg, no. 23, pp. 1301-1310, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel1997,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Günther, T. and Asiyo-Vogel, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Factors determining the refractive effects of intrastromal photorefractive keratectomy with the picosecond laser},
       journal = {J Cataract Refract Surg},
       volume = {23},
       number = {9},
       pages = {1301-1310},
       abstract = {To determine the relationship between laser parameters and tissue removal with picosecond laser intrastromal photorefractive keratectomy (ISPRK) and to assess the effect of the parameters on the healing process and the long-term refractive changes.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Corneal Stroma
    Follow-Up Studies
    Lasers, Excimer
    Microscopy, Polarization
    Photorefractive Keratectomy
    Refraction, Ocular
    Refractive Errors
    Swine
    Wound Healing
    pathology
    physiopathology
    surgery
    adverse effects
    methods
    physiology
    etiology},
       year = {1997}
    }
    
  • Toth, C. A. and Narayan, D. G. and Boppart, S. A. and Hee, M. R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Birngruber, R. and Cain, C. P. and DiCarlo, C. D. and Roach, W. P.: A comparison of retinal morphology viewed by optical coherence tomography and by light microscopy. Arch Ophthalmol, no. 115, pp. 1425-8, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Toth,
       author = {Toth, C. A. and Narayan, D. G. and Boppart, S. A. and Hee, M. R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Birngruber, R. and Cain, C. P. and DiCarlo, C. D. and Roach, W. P.},
       title = {A comparison of retinal morphology viewed by optical coherence tomography and by light microscopy},
       journal = {Arch Ophthalmol},
       volume = {115},
       number = {11},
       pages = {1425-8},
       note = {0003-9950 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.},
       abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To compare the cross-sectional images of primate retinal morphology obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT) with light microscopy to determine the retinal components represented in OCT images. METHODS: Laser pulses were delivered to the retina to create small marker lesions in a Macaca mulatta. These lesions were used to align in vivo OCT scans and ex vivum histologic cross sections for image comparison. RESULTS: The OCT images demonstrated reproducible patterns of retinal morphology that corresponded to the location of retinal layers seen on light microscopic overlays. Layers of relative high reflectivity corresponded to horizontally aligned retinal components such as the nerve fiber layer and plexiform layers, as well as to the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. In contrast, the nuclear layers and the photoreceptor inner and outer segments demonstrated relative low reflectivity by OCT. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal morphology and macular OCT imaging correlate well, with alignment of areas of high and low reflectivity to specific retinal and choroidal elements. Resolution of retinal structures by OCT depends on the contrast in relative reflectivity of adjacent structures. Use of this tool will enable expanded study of retinal morphology, both normal and pathologic, as it evolves in vivo.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Macaca mulatta
    Microscopy/*methods
    Retina/*cytology
    Tomography/*methods},
       year = {1997}
    }
    
  • Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Diddens, H. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.: Photodynamic targeting of human retinoblastoma cells using covalent low-density lipoprotein conjugates. Br J Cancer, no. 75, pp. 54-61, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth,
       author = {Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Diddens, H. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.},
       title = {Photodynamic targeting of human retinoblastoma cells using covalent low-density lipoprotein conjugates},
       journal = {Br J Cancer},
       volume = {75},
       number = {1},
       pages = {54-61},
       note = {0007-0920 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.},
       abstract = {Combination of photosensitizers with carrier molecules has been shown to enhance the efficiency of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Owing to an increased expression of their receptors on some malignant and proliferating cells, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are potential endogenous carriers. A photosensitizer, chlorin e6 (Ce6), was covalently bound to LDL via carbodiimide activation. The Ce6-LDL conjugate was evaluated on a fibroblast cell line with defined LDL receptor expression and a retinoblastoma cell line (Y79). Uptake of free Ce6 and Ce6 either covalently bound to or complexed with LDL was measured by spectrofluorimetry. Phototoxicity after irradiation at 660 nm was determined by a mitochondrial activity assay (MTT). Covalent binding to LDL significantly increased the uptake of Ce6 for both cell lines by a factor of 4-5. A Ce6: LDL binding ratio of 50:1 was optimal. A receptor-mediated uptake was demonstrated by saturability and competitive inhibition by free LDL. Binding also occurred at 2 degrees C and was attributed to non-specific associations. Irradiation with 10 J cm-2 of 660 nm light after treatment of cells with Ce6-LDL conjugate reduced the MTT activity by 80%, while free or mixed Ce6 induced a maximum of 10% reduction in the MTT activity following identical treatment conditions. These data suggest that targeting of LDL receptor-bearing cells using covalently bound carriers, such as LDL, might increase the efficiency and selectivity of PDT. Intraocular tumours such as retinoblastomas could be appropriate targets for such an approach owing to the ease of access of light sources and the need for non-invasive approaches in sensitive ocular sites.},
       keywords = {Carrier Proteins
    Cell Survival/drug effects
    Dermatitis, Phototoxic
    Fibroblasts/cytology/drug effects
    Humans
    Lipoproteins, LDL/*chemistry
    Photosensitizing Agents/*pharmacology
    Porphyrins/*pharmacology
    Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/*pharmacology
    Retinoblastoma/*drug therapy
    Tumor Cells, Cultured},
       year = {1997}
    }
    
  • Noack, J. and Tonnies, R. and Hohla, K. and Birngruber, R. and Vogel, A.: Influence of ablation plume dynamics on the formation of central islands in excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy. Ophthalmology, no. 104, pp. 823-30, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Noack,
       author = {Noack, J. and Tonnies, R. and Hohla, K. and Birngruber, R. and Vogel, A.},
       title = {Influence of ablation plume dynamics on the formation of central islands in excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy},
       journal = {Ophthalmology},
       volume = {104},
       number = {5},
       pages = {823-30},
       note = {0161-6420 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    In Vitro
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to understand the dynamics of ablation products during excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy, and their influence on the formation of central islands. METHOD: Laser flash photography was used to investigate the dynamics of ablation products during photorefractive keratectomy. The ablation plume over polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and porcine cornea targets ablated with different zone diameters was imaged at various times between 10 musec and 100 msec after the ablating laser pulse. On PMMA targets, the profiles of the resulting ablation craters were measured. RESULTS: In all cases, the ablation products formed a ring vortex. The plume velocities on cornea were found to be approximately twice as fast as on PMMA for all zone diameters. For both materials, the ablation plume evolves faster for smaller zone diameters. Central islands were observed for zone diameters between 1 and 7 mm on PMMA substrates. The islands became more pronounced with increasing zone diameter. CONCLUSIONS: A major cause for the formation of central islands was found to be particle redeposition at the center of the ablation zone. Because of the vortex dynamics, redeposition of particles favorably occurs at the center of the ablation zone. Additionally, the dynamics of the ablation plume lead to a concentration of airborne particles over the center of the ablation zone, which also may contribute to the creation of central islands by partial absorption of the next excimer laser pulse.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Cornea/*pathology/*surgery
    Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
    *Keratectomy, Photorefractive, Excimer Laser
    Methylmethacrylates
    Models, Anatomic
    Swine
    Time and Motion Studies
    Volatilization},
       year = {1997}
    }
    
  • Asiyo-Vogel, M and Koop, N and Brinkmann, R and Engelhardt, R and Eggers, R and Birngruber, R and Vogel, A: Darstellung von LTK-Läsionen durch optische Kurzkohärenztomographie (OCT) und Polarisationsmikroskopie nach Sirius-Rot-Färbung. Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 487-491, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Asiyo-Vogel1997,
       author = {Asiyo-Vogel, M and Koop, N and Brinkmann, R and Engelhardt, R and Eggers, R and Birngruber, R and Vogel, A},
       title = {Darstellung von LTK-Läsionen durch optische Kurzkohärenztomographie (OCT) und Polarisationsmikroskopie nach Sirius-Rot-Färbung},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       pages = {487-491},
       year = {1997}
    }
    

1996

  • Schmidt Erfurth, U; Birngruber, R and Hasan, T: Photodynamic therapy in ocular vascular disease. Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 2(4), pp. 988-996, 1996
    BibTeX Link Link Auszeichnung
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1996,
       author = {Schmidt Erfurth, U; Birngruber, R and Hasan, T},
       title = {Photodynamic therapy in ocular vascular disease},
       journal = {Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics} {2(4)},
      
       pages = {988-996},
       note = {Xd616
    Times Cited:5
    Cited References Count:57},
       abstract = {Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a novel therapeutical approach which is noninvasive and potentially selective for neoplastic pathologies, Association of photosensitizers with low density lipoprotein (LDL) leads to direct targeting of the treated lesions with enhanced efficiency and selectivity. LDL-mediated PDT is particularly useful in the treatment of neovascular structures since LDL receptors are abundantly expressed on vascular endothelial cells, To evaluate the potential of selective photodynamic vasoocclusion in ocular neovascular disease a sequence of experiments was designed: Efficiency of the LDL-carrier was tested in vitro, the system was then transfered to an in vivo model demonstrating a vascularized neoplasm, Occlusion was successfully performed in experimentally induced neovascularization in the cornea, while selective photothrombosis of subretinal vasculature revealed lack of collateral damage, The experimental results were used to establish a first clinical trial for the use of PDT in age-related macular degeneration, one of the leading causes for blindness.},
       keywords = {low-density-lipoprotein
    receptor activity
    plasma-lipoproteins
    singlet oxygen
    cells-invitro
    murine tumor
    hematoporphyrin
    invivo
    benzoporphyrin
    retinoblastoma},
       ISSN = {1077-260X},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1109/2944.577328},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996XD61600025},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, Ralf and Kampmeier, Juergen and Grotehusmann, Ulf and Vogel, Alfred and Koop, Norbert and Asiyo-Vogel, Mary and Birngruber, Reginald: Corneal collagen denaturation in laser thermokeratoplasty. no. 2681, pp. 56-63,
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Brinkmann1996,
       author = {Brinkmann, Ralf and Kampmeier, Juergen and Grotehusmann, Ulf and Vogel, Alfred and Koop, Norbert and Asiyo-Vogel, Mary and Birngruber, Reginald},
       title = {Corneal collagen denaturation in laser thermokeratoplasty},
       volume = {2681},
       pages = {56-63},
       note = {10.1117/12.239611},
       abstract = {In laserthermokeratoplasty (LTK) thermal denaturation and shrinkage of corneal collagen is used to correct hyperopia and astigmatism. In order to optimize dosimetry, the temperature at which maximal shrinkage of collagen fibrils occurs is of major interest. Since the exposure time in clinical LTK-treatment is limited to a few seconds, the kinetics of collagen denaturation as a rate process has to be considered, thus the time of exposure is of critical importance for threshold and shrinkage temperatures. We investigated the time-temperature correlation for corneal collagen denaturation within different time domains by turbidimetry of scattered HeNe laser probe light using a temperature controlled water bath and pulsed IR laser irradiation. In the temperature range of 60 degree(s)C to 95 degree(s)C we found an exponential relation between the denaturation time and temperature. For the typical LTK-treatment time of 2 s, a temperature of 95 degree(s)C is needed to induce thermal damage. Use of pulsed Holmium laser radiation gave significant scattering of HeNe laser probe light at calculated temperatures of around 100 degree(s)DC. Rate parameters according to the formalism of Arrhenius were fitted to these results. Force measurements showed the simultaneous onset of light scattering and collagen shrinkage.},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.239611},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Wetzel, W. and SchmidtErfurth, U. and Spiegel, D. and Jacobi, P. and Buhl, M. and Birngruber, R.: Laser sclerostomy ab externo using a new Er:YAG laser device. A clinical multicenter study - Laser sclerostomy study group. Vision Research, no. 36, pp. 2414-2414, 1996
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Wetzel1996,
       author = {Wetzel, W. and SchmidtErfurth, U. and Spiegel, D. and Jacobi, P. and Buhl, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser sclerostomy ab externo using a new Er:YAG laser device. A clinical multicenter study - Laser sclerostomy study group},
       journal = {Vision Research},
       volume = {36},
       pages = {2414-2414},
       note = {Suppl. S
    Vr898
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0042-6989},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996VR89800185},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • SchmidtErfurth, U. and Flotte, T. J. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Schomacker, K. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.: Benzoporphyrin-lipoprotein-mediated photodestruction of intraocular tumors. Experimental Eye Research, no. 62, pp. 1-10, 1996
    BibTeX Link Link
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1996,
       author = {SchmidtErfurth, U. and Flotte, T. J. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Schomacker, K. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.},
       title = {Benzoporphyrin-lipoprotein-mediated photodestruction of intraocular tumors},
       journal = {Experimental Eye Research},
       volume = {62},
       number = {1},
       pages = {1-10},
       note = {Tt612
    Times Cited:22
    Cited References Count:43},
       abstract = {Benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD), a sensitizer currently in clinical trials, was evaluated for the treatment of experimental Greene melanoma implanted in the rabbit iris. To improve tumor targeting, BPD was complexed with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) representing an endogenous carrier system for BPD as previously described. Twelve tumors were irradiated at a sensitizer dose of 2 mg kg(-1) body weight using a dye laser at 692 nm. Tumor responses were documented by photography, angiography and light and electron microscopy. All tumors treated with 80 J cm(-2) regressed irreversibly. The principal mechanism of tumor necrosis was thrombosis following disruption of endothelial membranes. Ultrastructure data suggested tumor cell damage, although evidence for this being the result of direct PDT-mediated tumor cell death was less clear. These data suggest that BPD-LDL may be used to improve the selectivity of photodynamic tumor therapy possibly by the increased uptake of lipoprotein-delivered sensitizer to neovascular endothelial cells. (C) 1996 Academic Press Limited},
       keywords = {photodynamic therapy
    benzoporphyrin derivative
    low-density lipoprotein
    intraocular tumors, in vivo
    photodynamic therapy
    plasma-lipoproteins
    malignant-melanoma
    cholesterol-metabolism
    endothelial-cells
    hematoporphyrin
    photosensitization
    photoimmunotherapy
    biodistribution
    invitro},
       ISSN = {0014-4835},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1006/exer.1996.0001},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996TT61200001},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Geerling, G. and Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Klingemann, I. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Laser thermokeratoplasty - Experimental study in minipigs with a cw-IR laser diode. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 37, pp. 304-304, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Geerling1996,
       author = {Geerling, G. and Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Klingemann, I. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser thermokeratoplasty - Experimental study in minipigs with a cw-IR laser diode},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {37},
       number = {3},
       pages = {304-304},
       note = {Tx397
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996TX39700304},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Kampmeier, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R.: Laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK): Biomechanical properties and IR-laser induced forces in porcine cornea.. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 37, pp. 301-301, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Kampmeier1996,
       author = {Kampmeier, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK): Biomechanical properties and IR-laser induced forces in porcine cornea.},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {37},
       number = {3},
       pages = {301-301},
       note = {Tx397
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996TX39700301},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Kamm, K. and Geerling, G. and Kampmeier, J. and Birngruber, R.: Laser thermokeratoplasty: an in vitro and in vivo-study by means of a Continous Wave Mid-IR laser diode.. Lasermedizin, no. 12, pp. 179-186, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann1996,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Kamm, K. and Geerling, G. and Kampmeier, J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser thermokeratoplasty: an in vitro and in vivo-study by means of a Continous Wave Mid-IR laser diode.},
       journal = {Lasermedizin},
       volume = {12},
       pages = {179-186},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Lindemann, C. and Droge, G. and ElHifnawi, E. and Birngruber, R.: Selective RPE-photocoagulation with repetitive 200 ns subthreshold laser pulses. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 37, pp. 3585-3585, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider1996,
       author = {Roider, J. and Lindemann, C. and Droge, G. and ElHifnawi, E. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Selective RPE-photocoagulation with repetitive 200 ns subthreshold laser pulses},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {37},
       number = {3},
       pages = {3585-3585},
       note = {Tx397
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996TX39703579},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wetzel, W. and Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Schroer, F. and Birngruber, R.: Photofragmentation of lens nuclei using the Er:YAG laser: Preliminary report of an in vitro study. German Journal of Ophthalmology, no. 5, pp. 281-284, 1996
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Wetzel1996,
       author = {Wetzel, W. and Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Schroer, F. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Photofragmentation of lens nuclei using the Er:YAG laser: Preliminary report of an in vitro study},
       journal = {German Journal of Ophthalmology},
       volume = {5},
       number = {5},
       pages = {281-284},
       note = {Vq341
    Times Cited:13
    Cited References Count:12},
       abstract = {The energy of the erbium:YAG laser (2,940-nm wave-length) can be used for minimally traumatic photoablation due to its high absorption at the tissue water and its consequently low penetration depth. Laser sclerostomy ab externo, an application of this principle, has undergone advanced clinical investigation. Another potential application is photofragmentation of the lens for cataract extraction. A laboratory model Er: YAG laser (flashlamp-pumped, 200-mu s pulse length, 5-Hz repetition frequency) was coupled to a short low-OH quartz fiber (400 mu m in diameter). The laser energy was applied by direct contact of the fiber tip to human lenses with very dense cataract. The lenses rested in a small cuvette filled with an aqueous-humor-analogous fluid. The fragmentablation rate was evaluated in relation to the number of pulses and the pulse energy. A laser-triggered flash-photography unit was engaged to visualize the ablation dynamics. We found tissue-ablation rates to range from 4 to 19 mu g/pulse, depending on the nucleus density and ulse energy. The maximal size of the removed fragments was always below 500 mu m During ablation, rapidly increasing and collapsing cavitation bubbles were photographed at the distal tip of the application fiber. The impact radius of these cavitation effects markedly exceeded the pure penetration depth of laser radiation at a 2.9-mu m wavelength. A clinical application of the method should be possible as judged by the results obtained for tissue-ablation rate and fragment size. Cavitation-bubble dynamics seems to be responsible for the high fragmentation efficiency. Special application probes have to be developed to optimize ablation and to prevent inadvertent destruction of the posterior lens capsule by cavitation effects.},
       keywords = {phacoemulsification
    er:yag laser
    cavitation effects
    ablation
    surgery},
       ISSN = {0941-2921},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996VQ34100006},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • SchmidtErfurth, U. and Miller, J. and Sickerberg, M. and Strong, A. and Hoehne, U. and Fsachi, M. and Birngruber, R. and vandenBerg, H. and Laqua, H. and Gragoudas, E. and Zografos, L. and Bressler, N.: Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization using benzoporphyrin derivative: First results of a multi-center trial. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 37, pp. 580-580, 1996
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1996,
       author = {SchmidtErfurth, U. and Miller, J. and Sickerberg, M. and Strong, A. and Hoehne, U. and Fsachi, M. and Birngruber, R. and vandenBerg, H. and Laqua, H. and Gragoudas, E. and Zografos, L. and Bressler, N.},
       title = {Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization using benzoporphyrin derivative: First results of a multi-center trial},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {37},
       number = {3},
       pages = {580-580},
       note = {Tx397
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996TX39700579},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Indorf, L. and Soultanopoulos, D. and Droge, G. and Eggers, H. and SchmidtErfurth, U.: Photodynamic occlusion of ocular neovascularization: Preclinical evaluation of liposomal zinc phthalocyanine. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 37, pp. 4214-4214, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1996,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Indorf, L. and Soultanopoulos, D. and Droge, G. and Eggers, H. and SchmidtErfurth, U.},
       title = {Photodynamic occlusion of ocular neovascularization: Preclinical evaluation of liposomal zinc phthalocyanine},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {37},
       number = {3},
       pages = {4214-4214},
       note = {Tx397
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996TX39704208},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Zwaan, M. and Behnle, U. and Engelhardt, R. and Vogel, A. and Kloess, W. and Birngruber, R. and Weiss, H. D.: In-vitro-Untersuchungen zur gepulsten Laserangioplastie in flüssigem und gasförmigem Medium.. Fortschr Röntgenstr, no. 164, pp. 68-71, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Zwaan,
       author = {Zwaan, M. and Behnle, U. and Engelhardt, R. and Vogel, A. and Kloess, W. and Birngruber, R. and Weiss, H. D.},
       title = {In-vitro-Untersuchungen zur gepulsten Laserangioplastie in flüssigem und gasförmigem Medium.},
       journal = {Fortschr Röntgenstr},
       volume = {164},
       number = {1},
       pages = {68-71},
       year = {1996}
    }
    
  • Pan, Y. and Lankenau, E. and Welzel, J. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.: Optical Coherence - Gated imaging of Biological Tissues. IEEE J Quant Electr, no. 2, pp. 1029-1034, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Pan,
       author = {Pan, Y. and Lankenau, E. and Welzel, J. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.},
       title = {Optical Coherence - Gated imaging of Biological Tissues},
       journal = {IEEE J Quant Electr},
       volume = {2},
       number = {4},
       pages = {1029-1034},
       year = {1996}
    }
    
  • Gerling, G. and Vogel, A. and ElHifnawi, E. and Koop, N. and Droge, G. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.: Morphological and biomorphometrical observations on laser thermal keratoplasty - Histological and biomorphometrical examination of the relationship between refractive change and the volume of laser thermal keratoplasty lesions following Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser treatment. German Journal of Ophthalmology, no. 5, pp. 84-91, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Gerling1996,
       author = {Gerling, G. and Vogel, A. and ElHifnawi, E. and Koop, N. and Droge, G. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Morphological and biomorphometrical observations on laser thermal keratoplasty - Histological and biomorphometrical examination of the relationship between refractive change and the volume of laser thermal keratoplasty lesions following Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser treatment},
       journal = {German Journal of Ophthalmology},
       volume = {5},
       number = {2},
       pages = {84-91},
       note = {Vf915
    Times Cited:4
    Cited References Count:21},
       abstract = {Laser thermal keratoplasty (LTK) is currently under clinical trial for the correction of hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism by means of collagen coagulation in the peripheral cornea. The purpose of our study was to optimize the ratio between the volume of damaged corneal stroma and the refractive effect so as to minimize potential side effects such as endothelial damage or induction of glare phenomena. We therefore performed histological and morphometrical examinations of enucleated pig eyes to determine the relationship between the coagulated stromal volume and the refractive change after LTK using a pulsed Cr: Tm: Ho: YAG laser (wavelength 2.12 mu m) on enucleated pig eyes. The refractive change was documented with a Littman ophthalmometer. Morphometrical analysis was performed using polarized light microscopy of sirius red-stained specimens. This special stain separated the thermally changed stroma into a dark, nonbirefringent center and a birefringent peripheral zone. The volume of both zones was positively correlated with the refractive change induced. The volume was in turn influenced by the choice of laser parameters, From the ratio of the volume to the refractive change it was found that pulse energies above 30 mJ led to an enlargement of the coagulation volume without increasing the refractive change effectively. The use of high pulse energies did not improve the effect of LTK but only increased the risk of unwanted side effects. However, an increase in the laser repetition rate at a constant pulse number per spot led to refractive changes with a minimal coagulation volume. The highest relative refractive change was achieved with a dark central zone and a birefringent zone, each having a volume of about 50 - 80 x 10(-3) mm(3).},
       keywords = {laser thermal keratoplasty
    hyperopic correction
    biomorphometry
    sirius red stain
    polarization microscopy
    organization
    microscopy
    collagen},
       ISSN = {0941-2921},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996VF91500004},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Hüttmann, G. and Hendrich, C. and Birngruber, R. and Lehnert, C. and Seara, J. and Siebert, W. E. and Diddens, H.: Protoporphyrin IX distribution after intra-articular and systemic application of 5-aminolevulinic acid in healthy and arthritic joints . Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy V,. in Proc. SPIE, no. 2675, pp. 238-242,
    BibTeX
    @inproceedings{Hüttmann,
       author = {Hüttmann, G. and Hendrich, C. and Birngruber, R. and Lehnert, C. and Seara, J. and Siebert, W. E. and Diddens, H.},
       title = {Protoporphyrin IX distribution after intra-articular and systemic application of 5-aminolevulinic acid in healthy and arthritic joints . 
    Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy V,},
       booktitle = {Proc. SPIE},
       volume = {2675},
       pages = {238-242},
    
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and AsiyoVogel, M. N. and Kaftan, B. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.: CW-IR laser thermokeratoplasty: Refractive changes and analysis by optical coherence tomography and light microscopy. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 37, pp. 305-305, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann1996,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and AsiyoVogel, M. N. and Kaftan, B. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.},
       title = {CW-IR laser thermokeratoplasty: Refractive changes and analysis by optical coherence tomography and light microscopy},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {37},
       number = {3},
       pages = {305-305},
       note = {Tx397
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996TX39700305},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R and Knipper, A and Dröge, G and Gafumbegete, D and Miller, A and Gromoll, B and Birngruber, R: Ureterotomy with a pulsed Holmium Laser. Proc LASER `95, Springer Verlag, pp. 16-19, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann1996,
       author = {Brinkmann, R and Knipper, A and Dröge, G and Gafumbegete, D and Miller, A and Gromoll, B and Birngruber, R},
       title = {Ureterotomy with a pulsed Holmium Laser},
       journal = {Proc LASER '95, Springer Verlag},
       pages = {16-19},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Hansen, C. and Mohrenstecher, D. and Scheu, M. and Birngruber, R.: Analysis of cavitation dynamics during pulsed laser tissue ablation by optical on-line monitoring. Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, no. 2, pp. 826-835, 1996
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Brinkmann1996,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Hansen, C. and Mohrenstecher, D. and Scheu, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Analysis of cavitation dynamics during pulsed laser tissue ablation by optical on-line monitoring},
       journal = {Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics},
       volume = {2},
       number = {4},
       pages = {826-835},
       note = {Xd616
    Times Cited:20
    Cited References Count:24},
       abstract = {Flashlamp pumped mid-IR laser systems emitting in the 23-mu m wavelength range are widely used for various medical applications, especially for tissue ablation, Explosive evaporation is inevitably associated with this process due to the short pulse durations of these laser systems and the high absorption of tissue and water in this spectral regime, Tissue displacement and dissection occur in liquid environment as a consequence of the induced cavitation, Depending on the application these processes might enhance the tissue ablation but can also cause adverse tissue effects, The ablation dynamics were investigated by evaluating the change in rejected probe-light intensity reemitted from the application fiber tip. The ablated cavity and the signal was correlated to fast-flash photographs of the event. Based on this reflection signal a water/tissue discrimination system is introduced which can widely support medical laser applications. In laser sclerostomy ab externo, for example, this approach can be used as a feedback system to automatically control the ablation process. With such a system, adverse effects to adjacent tissue in the anterior chamber of the eye can be minimized.},
       ISSN = {1077-260X},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1109/2944.577305},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996XD61600006},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1995

  • Schirner, G. and Brinkmann, R. and Droge, G. and Koop, N. and Elhifnawi, E. S. and Birngruber, R.: Experimental Studies to Optimize Laser-Thermokeratoplasty Using Pulsed and Cw-Laser-Sources. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 36, pp. S716-S716, 1995
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schirner1995,
       author = {Schirner, G. and Brinkmann, R. and Droge, G. and Koop, N. and Elhifnawi, E. S. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Experimental Studies to Optimize Laser-Thermokeratoplasty Using Pulsed and Cw-Laser-Sources},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {36},
       number = {4},
       pages = {S716-S716},
       note = {Qm915
    Times Cited:3
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1995QM91503294},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wetzel, W. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Haring, G. and Roider, J. and Droge, G. and Birngruber, R.: Laser sclerostomy ab externo using two different infrared lasers: a clinical comparison. Ger J Ophthalmol, no. 4, pp. 1-6, 1995
    BibTeX
    @article{Wetzel1995,
       author = {Wetzel, W. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Haring, G. and Roider, J. and Droge, G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser sclerostomy ab externo using two different infrared lasers: a clinical comparison},
       journal = {Ger J Ophthalmol},
       volume = {4},
       number = {1},
       pages = {1-6},
       note = {0941-2921 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {This study was designed to compare the clinical results of an ab externo approach to laser sclerostomy using two different laser sources under identical conditions. A pulsed (200 microseconds) erbium-YAG laser (lambda = 2940 nm) and a pulsed (200 microseconds) holmium:YAG laser (lambda = 2120 nm) were used. The energy of each laser was transmitted via a fiber (300 microns in diameter) and applied near the limbus, with the fiber tip remaining in steady contact with the sclera. According to the higher tissue absorption coefficient, a shorter penetration depth and, therefore, fewer complications were expected for the Er:YAG laser. A total of 26 patients with advanced open-angle glaucoma were treated and followed for up to 6 months. In all cases a functioning fistula with a prominent filtering bleb and a marked reduction in the intraocular pressure (from up to 35 mm Hg to < 10 mm Hg) could be achieved primarily. The total energy required was about 4 times lower for erbium:YAG laser was compared with holmium:YAG laser sclerostomies. No complication occurred intraoperatively. Postoperatively, reversible adherence of the iris to the internal ostium was more frequently observed in Ho:YAG laser sclerostomies (60%) and small hyphemas were more often seen in Er:YAG laser sclerostomies (30%). After 6 months of follow-up, about 40% of the fistula remained patent in both groups. In principle, both lasers are suited to serve as energy sources for the described approach. Under the conditions of the present study, different levels of thermal effects did not cause any significant difference in the clinical success rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)},
       keywords = {Adult
    Chronic Disease
    Follow-Up Studies
    Glaucoma, Open-Angle/*surgery
    Humans
    Intraocular Pressure
    Laser Surgery/*methods
    Middle Aged
    Ostomy
    Postoperative Complications
    Prognosis
    Sclera/surgery
    *Sclerostomy},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7728103},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Schmidterfurth, U. and Hoerauf, H. and Lasser, T. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.: Contact Diode-Laser Cyclophotocoagulation (Cpc) with a New Focusing Fiber Tip. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 36, pp. S559-S559, 1995
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roider1995,
       author = {Roider, J. and Schmidterfurth, U. and Hoerauf, H. and Lasser, T. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.},
       title = {Contact Diode-Laser Cyclophotocoagulation (Cpc) with a New Focusing Fiber Tip},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {36},
       number = {4},
       pages = {S559-S559},
       note = {Qm915
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1995QM91502590},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wetzel, W. and Otto, R. and Falkenstein, W. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Birngruber, R.: Development of a new Er: YAG laser conception for laser sclerostomy ab externo: experimental and first clinical results. Ger J Ophthalmol, no. 4, pp. 283-8, 1995
    BibTeX
    @article{Wetzel1995,
       author = {Wetzel, W. and Otto, R. and Falkenstein, W. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Development of a new Er: YAG laser conception for laser sclerostomy ab externo: experimental and first clinical results},
       journal = {Ger J Ophthalmol},
       volume = {4},
       number = {5},
       pages = {283-8},
       note = {0941-2921 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The erbium:YAG laser is a preferable energy source for laser sclerostomy ab externo due to the high absorption of its radiation (2940-nm wavelength) in the aqueous parts of scleral tissue. It has thus far been a disadvantage that laser energy has to be transmitted from the laser source to the application site via very susceptible special optical fibers (ZrF). As a consequence of technical improvements, the laser source could be integrated into the application probe. Therefore, only a robust quartz fiber was necessary for contact application. A fiber diameter of 400 microns was chosen according to the experience gained in previous studies. A total of 24 eyes with chronical open-angle glaucoma were treated. A fistula end-point detection unit was developed for safe indication of a full-thickness perforation of the sclera. With a fiber diameter of 400 microns, a postoperative success rate of about 54% was achieved at 6 months follow-up. The automated full-thickness perforation detection prevented the application of additional, surplus laser pulses in the anterior chamber. The postoperative success rate could be improved over that achieved in previous studies. The new device/conception offers more technical reliability and is a further step toward minimally invasive fistulating laser surgery of open-angle glaucoma.},
       keywords = {Erbium
    Follow-Up Studies
    Glaucoma, Open-Angle/*surgery
    Humans
    Laser Surgery/instrumentation/*methods
    Sclera/*surgery
    Treatment Outcome},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7496339},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schirner, G. and Koop, N. and Elhifnawi, E. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.: Experiments with Pulsed and Continuous-Wave Laser Sources to Optimize Laserthermo-Keratoplasty. Vision Research, no. 35, pp. P167-P167, 1995
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schirner1995,
       author = {Schirner, G. and Koop, N. and Elhifnawi, E. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Experiments with Pulsed and Continuous-Wave Laser Sources to Optimize Laserthermo-Keratoplasty},
       journal = {Vision Research},
       volume = {35},
       pages = {P167-P167},
       note = {Suppl. S
    Rz562
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0042-6989},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1995RZ56200472},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Inderfurth, J. and Ferguson, R. D. and Puliafito, C. A. and Frish, M. B. and Birngruber, R.: [Reflection measurement during retinal laser coagulation in patients. Development of an automatically controlled dosimeter]. Ophthalmologe, no. 92, pp. 717-22, 1995
    BibTeX
    @article{Inderfurth1995,
       author = {Inderfurth, J. and Ferguson, R. D. and Puliafito, C. A. and Frish, M. B. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[Reflection measurement during retinal laser coagulation in patients. Development of an automatically controlled dosimeter]},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {92},
       number = {5},
       pages = {717-22},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: Retinal laser coagulation has limited reproducibility, because every laser exposition is unpredictably affected by pigmentation and media opacities. This can lead to complications. A feedback-controlled dosimeter would make retinal laser treatment a safer, more reproducible and faster procedure. METHOD: A reflectometer was developed that allows monitoring of the reflection of laser light during standard photocoagulation. Hundreds of coagulations in rabbit eyes and about 12,000 coagulations in patients undergoing routine laser treatment were recorded. RESULTS: The results of the first reflectance measurements in humans are presented along with extensive animal studies. A typical reflectance history was found for different lesion intensities. The degree of retinal whitening correlates with reflectance characteristics. These characteristics allow an early prediction of lesion intensity. Motion during laser exposure affects each coagulation in a fashion similar to spot size and exposure time. CONCLUSION: Reflectometry is the currently most effective means of monitoring lesion development. An automatic dosimeter for retinal photocoagulation seems feasible.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Equipment Design
    Feasibility Studies
    Humans
    Laser Coagulation/*instrumentation
    Rabbits
    Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted/*instrumentation
    Retinal Diseases/*surgery
    Treatment Outcome},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8751004},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Toth, C. A. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Boppart, S. A. and Hee, M. R. and Dicarlo, C. D. and Cain, C. P. and Roach, W. P.: Correlation between Optical Coherence Tomography, Clinical Examination and Histopathology of Macular Laser Lesions. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 36, pp. S207-S207, 1995
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Toth1995,
       author = {Toth, C. A. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Boppart, S. A. and Hee, M. R. and Dicarlo, C. D. and Cain, C. P. and Roach, W. P.},
       title = {Correlation between Optical Coherence Tomography, Clinical Examination and Histopathology of Macular Laser Lesions},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {36},
       number = {4},
       pages = {S207-S207},
       note = {Qm915
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1995QM91500948},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schmidterfurth, U. and Hasan, T. and Schomacker, K. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.: In-Vivo Uptake of Liposomal Benzoporphyrin Derivative and Photothrombosis in Experimental Corneal Neovascularization. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, no. 17, pp. 178-188, 1995
    BibTeX Link Link
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1995,
       author = {Schmidterfurth, U. and Hasan, T. and Schomacker, K. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {In-Vivo Uptake of Liposomal Benzoporphyrin Derivative and Photothrombosis in Experimental Corneal Neovascularization},
       journal = {Lasers in Surgery and Medicine},
       volume = {17},
       number = {2},
       pages = {178-188},
       note = {Rw607
    Times Cited:72
    Cited References Count:39},
       abstract = {Background and Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used successfully to occlude neovascularizations experimentally. We evaluated the vasoocclusive potential of benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD), a new photosensitizer currently in clinical trials. Since liposomally formulated BPD strongly binds to endogenous low density lipoproteins (LDL) after i.v. injection, LDL act as carrier to deliver BPD preferentially 60 proliferating endothelial cells.
    Study Design/Materials and Methods: Corneal neovascularizations in rabbits were used as model. Time-dependent uptake and retention of liposomal BPD were measured in vivo by monitoring the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). Photothrombosis was induced using a dye laser emitting at 692 nm.
    Results: A maximal BPD concentration was measured at 60-90 minutes postinjection determining the optimal time interval for treatment. Exposures as low as 10 J/cm(2) allowed complete and irreversible neovascular occlusion as documented angiographically. Histology revealed selective endothelial damage, adjacent corneal stroma, or iris vessels, remained intact. Identical results were obtained using BPD directly complexed with LDL suggesting use of a LDL-mediated pathway.
    Conclusion: We suggest BPD-PDT for a selective treatment of neovascular diseases. (C) 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.},
       keywords = {benzoporphyrin derivative
    ocular photothrombosis
    liposomes
    cornea
    neovascularization
    low-density lipoprotein
    photodynamic therapy
    laser photocoagulation
    photochemical initiation
    vascular occlusion
    lipid keratopathy
    endothelial-cells
    feeder vessels
    thrombosis
    hematoporphyrin},
       ISSN = {0196-8092},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1002/lsm.1900170207},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1995RW60700006},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Goldau, R. and Twilfer, H. and Zwaan, M. and Morrin, M. and Marquardt, U. and Birngruber, R.: In-vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of abdominal and iliac arterial in humans.. Lasermedizin, no. 11, pp. 212-218, 1995
    BibTeX
    @article{Goldau1995,
       author = {Goldau, R. and Twilfer, H. and Zwaan, M. and Morrin, M. and Marquardt, U. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {In-vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of abdominal and iliac arterial in humans.},
       journal = {Lasermedizin},
       volume = {11},
       pages = {212-218},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Schroer, F. and Mohrenstecher, D. and Droge, G. and Birngruber, R.: Ablation Dynamics in Laser Sclerostomy Ab-Externo. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 36, pp. S558-S558, 1995
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Brinkmann1995,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Schroer, F. and Mohrenstecher, D. and Droge, G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Ablation Dynamics in Laser Sclerostomy Ab-Externo},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {36},
       number = {4},
       pages = {S558-S558},
       note = {Qm915
    Times Cited:1
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1995QM91502583},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Pan, Y. and Birngruber, R. and Rosperich, J. and Engelhardt, R.: Low-coherence optical tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis.. Appl Optics, no. 34, pp. 6564-6574, 1995
    BibTeX
    @article{Pan,
       author = {Pan, Y. and Birngruber, R. and Rosperich, J. and Engelhardt, R.},
       title = {Low-coherence optical tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis.},
       journal = {Appl Optics},
       volume = {34},
       number = {28},
       pages = {6564-6574},
       year = {1995}
    }
    
  • Schmidterfurth, U. and Droge, G. and Wetzel, W. and Birngruber, R.: Mitomycin-C in Laser Sclerostomy - Time of Administration and Postoperative Hypotony. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 36, pp. S89-S89, 1995
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1995,
       author = {Schmidterfurth, U; Droge, G; Wetzel, W  and Birngruber, R},
       title = {Mitomycin-C in Laser Sclerostomy - Time of Administration and Postoperative Hypotony},
       journal = {Invest Ophthal & VisScie} {36(4)},
       
       pages = {S89-S89},
       note = {Qm915
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1995QM91500432},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1994

  • Inderfurth, J. H. C. and Ferguson, R. D. and Puliafito, C. A. and Frish, M. B. and Birngruber, R.: Reflectance Monitoring during Retinal Photocoagulation in Humans - Steps toward the Development of an Automated Feedback-Controlled Photocoagulator. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 35, pp. 1374-1374, 1994
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Inderfurth1994,
       author = {Inderfurth, J. H. C. and Ferguson, R. D. and Puliafito, C. A. and Frish, M. B. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Reflectance Monitoring during Retinal Photocoagulation in Humans - Steps toward the Development of an Automated Feedback-Controlled Photocoagulator},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {35},
       number = {4},
       pages = {1374-1374},
       note = {Mz585
    Times Cited:1
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1994MZ58500560},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Weinberg, W. and Birngruber, R. and Lorenz, B.: The change in light reflection of the retina during therapeutic laser photocoagulation. IEEE J Quant Electr, no. 20, pp. 1481-1489, 1984
    BibTeX
    @article{Weinberg1984,
       author = {Weinberg, W. and Birngruber, R. and Lorenz, B.},
       title = {The change in light reflection of the retina during therapeutic laser photocoagulation},
       journal = {IEEE J Quant Electr},
       volume = {20},
       number = {12},
       pages = {1481-1489},
       year = {1984},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Inderfurth, J. H. and Ferguson, R. D. and Frish, M. B. and Birngruber, R.: Dynamic reflectometer for control of laser photocoagulation on the retina. Lasers Surg Med, no. 15, pp. 54-61, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Inderfurth1994,
       author = {Inderfurth, J. H. and Ferguson, R. D. and Frish, M. B. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Dynamic reflectometer for control of laser photocoagulation on the retina},
       journal = {Lasers Surg Med},
       volume = {15},
       number = {1},
       pages = {54-61},
       note = {0196-8092 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.},
       abstract = {In retinal laser photocoagulation, constant exposure parameters do not result in identical lesions. This lack of reproducibility increases the rate of complications from over- or undertreatment and inhibits determination of the optimal treatment endpoints for different retinal disorders. To this end, a feedback-controlled photocoagulator could make retinal photocoagulation a safer, more reproducible, and faster procedure. A dynamic confocal reflectometer was integrated into a slit lamp laser delivery system. Real-time reflectance changes on the retinas of pigmented rabbits were obtained by monitoring the increasing back-scattered light of the coagulating beam during argon laser photocoagulation. Reproducible temporal reflectance patterns were measured that correlated with ophthalmoscopically assessed lesion intensity independent of the exposure parameters, the transparency of the optical media, and the focusing conditions. As a step toward the development of a feedback-controlled photocoagulator, the confocal reflectometer has been proven in animal trials closely resembling clinical practice.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Laser Coagulation/*instrumentation/methods
    Rabbits
    Retina/*surgery},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7997048},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Schiller, M. and el Hifnawi, E. S. and Birngruber, R.: [Retinal photocoagulation with a pulsed, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm)]. Ophthalmologe, no. 91, pp. 777-82, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider1994,
       author = {Roider, J. and Schiller, M. and el Hifnawi, E. S. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[Retinal photocoagulation with a pulsed, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm)]},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {91},
       number = {6},
       pages = {777-82},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    Comparative Study
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The small difference in wavelength between an argon laser (514 nm) and a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), together with the advantage of the solid-state technology, makes the Nd:YAG laser likely to play a major role in retinal photocoagulation in the near future. For technical reasons all frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers work in a quasi-continuous mode, emitting a burst of highly repetitive short laser pulses during the exposure time desired. We investigated the side effects due to high peak irradiances of those short laser pulse trains (Crystal Focus Nd:YAG laser, Emerald; pulse duration 1-10 microseconds, repetition rate 13 KHz) in rabbits in comparison with a standard argon laser system (Zeiss, Visulas, Argon II). The energy necessary for blanching the retina was similar in both cases. As opposed to the argon laser system, subretinal bubbles were regularly visible ophthalmoscopically with the Nd:YAG system, when average powers as high as 200 mW were used. The ED50 power for bubble formation is about 2-3 times above the ED50 power for blanching. Thermal calculations show that this bubble formation effect is likely to be related to the peak power of the short pulses. The hemorrhage threshold is similar in both systems. However, light microscopically there is no difference between the two laser systems. Panretinal photocoagulation (300-500 microns, 100-200 ms) in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy produced such bubbles about once per 1000 lesions.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology/surgery
    Equipment Design
    Humans
    Laser Coagulation/*instrumentation
    Light Coagulation/*instrumentation
    Microscopy, Electron
    Ophthalmoscopy
    Rabbits
    Retina/injuries/pathology/*surgery
    Retinal Hemorrhage/pathology
    Vitreoretinopathy, Proliferative/pathology/surgery},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7849431},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wetzel, W. and Haring, G. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R.: Laser sclerostomy ab externo using the erbium: YAG laser. First results of a clinical study. Ger J Ophthalmol, no. 3, pp. 112-5, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Wetzel1994,
       author = {Wetzel, W. and Haring, G. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser sclerostomy ab externo using the erbium: YAG laser. First results of a clinical study},
       journal = {Ger J Ophthalmol},
       volume = {3},
       number = {2},
       pages = {112-5},
       note = {0941-2921 (Print)
    Clinical Trial
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {A new approach to fistulating glaucoma surgery, laser sclerostomy ab externo, was investigated in a clinical study. A pulsed (200 microseconds) erbium-YAG laser was used, as its wavelength (2940 nm) is very well absorbed by tissue water. The laser energy was transmitted via a fiber to an application probe with a cannula particularly designed to guide another fiber into the subconjunctival space. Nine patients with advanced open-angle or neovascular glaucoma were treated. In all cases a functioning fistula with a prominent filtering bleb and a reduction of the intraocular pressure (from up to 50 mmHg to 8-18 mmHg) could be achieved. The total energy was 60 mJ on average. No complication occurred intraoperatively. Postoperatively, all fistulas in patients with neovascular glaucoma (n = 6) were impatent after approx. 7 days due to iris adherence to the internal ostium and episcleral scarring. In cases of open-angle glaucoma (n = 3) a patent fistula persisted for several months. Variation of the exposure parameters, the use of antiproliferative drugs, and a less restrictive selection of patients could further improve the success rate.},
       keywords = {Fiber Optics
    Follow-Up Studies
    Glaucoma, Neovascular/*surgery
    Glaucoma, Open-Angle/*surgery
    Humans
    Intraocular Pressure
    Laser Surgery/*methods
    Postoperative Complications
    Prognosis
    *Sclerostomy},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8193571},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Asiyovogel, M. and Birngruber, R.: Investigations on Intrastromal Refractive Surgery with Picosecond Nd-Yag Laser-Pulses. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 35, pp. 2155-2155, 1994
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Vogel1994,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Asiyovogel, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Investigations on Intrastromal Refractive Surgery with Picosecond Nd-Yag Laser-Pulses},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {35},
       number = {4},
       pages = {2155-2155},
       note = {Mz585
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1994MZ58504161},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Hasan, T. and Gragoudas, E. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. J. and Birngruber, R.: Vascular targeting in photodynamic occlusion of subretinal vessels. Ophthalmology, no. 101, pp. 1953-61, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1994,
       author = {Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Hasan, T. and Gragoudas, E. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Vascular targeting in photodynamic occlusion of subretinal vessels},
       journal = {Ophthalmology},
       volume = {101},
       number = {12},
       pages = {1953-61},
       note = {0161-6420 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD) for occlusion of subretinal neovascular membranes, the authors studied efficiency and collateral damage of PDT-induced photothrombosis in the rabbit choriocapillary layer. METHOD: Benzoporphyrin derivative, a new photosensitizer, currently in clinical trials for tumor therapy, was used. Low-density lipoprotein served as a carrier to enhance selective targeting of vascular endothelial cells. RESULTS: Complete choriocapillary occlusion was achieved at a BPD dose of 2 mg/kg and a radiant exposure as low as 10 J/cm2. When PDT was performed 3 hours after BPD application, damage to the neural retina was minimal. Only inner photoreceptor segments showed mitochondrial swelling probably secondary to choroidal ischemia. Bruch's membrane remained intact. Retinal pigment epithelium was invariably damaged as seen with other photosensitizers. CONCLUSION: Compared with photocoagulation BPD-PDT allows endothelial-bound intraluminal photothrombosis, sparing important structures such as neural retina and Bruch's membrane. It may thus provide a more selective treatment of juxtafoveal and subfoveal neovascular membranes.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Bruch Membrane/drug effects/pathology/radiation effects
    Choroid/blood supply
    Drug Carriers
    Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects/pathology/radiation effects
    Lipoproteins, LDL/therapeutic use
    *Photochemotherapy/methods
    Photoreceptors/drug effects/pathology/radiation effects
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/drug effects/pathology/radiation effects
    Porphyrins/administration & dosage/*therapeutic use
    Rabbits
    Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/administration & dosage/*therapeutic use
    Retinal Neovascularization/*drug therapy/pathology
    Retinal Vessels/*drug effects/pathology/radiation effects},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7997334},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schirner, G. and Huber, A. and Wordemann, A. and Droge, G. and el-Hifnawi, E. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.: [Experimental studies on the effect of the Er:glass and Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser in thermokeratoplasty]. Ophthalmologe, no. 91, pp. 638-45, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Schirner1994,
       author = {Schirner, G. and Huber, A. and Wordemann, A. and Droge, G. and el-Hifnawi, E. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {[Experimental studies on the effect of the Er:glass and Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser in thermokeratoplasty]},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {91},
       number = {5},
       pages = {638-45},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {So far the dose-effect ratio of the Holmium laser (wavelength 2.12 microns) and the erbium laser (1.54 microns) for laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK) are not defined in detail. Our study was designed not only to compare the erbium contact and the holmium non-contact applications but also to throw light on the influence of different geometrical application patterns, pulse energies, pulses per coagulation site and repetition rates under experimental conditions. Enucleated sheep and pig eyes were used 2-6 h post mortem, pressurized to 25 mmHg and moisturized with saline solution. Before and after LTK, pachymetry and keratometry were performed. Some specimens were prepared for light and scanning microscopy. The coagulation threshold for the erbium laser in a contact mode with a 200-microns fibre was 25 J/cm2 (ca. 8 mJ/pulse) and for the holmium laser 8 J/cm2 (ca. 2.5 mJ/pulse). The erbium laser was used in a single shot per spot mode, the holmium laser in repeated pulse per spot mode. With the single shot per spot mode, we were able to induce a promising hyperopic shift of up to -3.47 +/- 0.61 D, while myopic changes could only be induced up to +1.89 +/- 0.74 D. Higher changes of up to +8.27 +/- 1.3 D could be achieved by means of repeated pulses per spot (20 pulses, 45 mJ, 10 Hz). Our experiments showed an obvious increase of dioptric changes when using a higher repetition rate while pulse energy and number were kept constant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)},
       keywords = {Animals
    Cornea/pathology
    Corneal Transplantation/*instrumentation/pathology
    Laser Coagulation/*instrumentation
    Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
    Myopia/pathology/surgery
    Refraction, Ocular
    Sheep
    Swine},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7812097},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Lin, C. P. and Weaver, Y. K. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Puliafito, C. A.: Intraocular microsurgery with a picosecond Nd:YAG laser. Lasers Surg Med, no. 15, pp. 44-53, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Lin1994,
       author = {Lin, C. P. and Weaver, Y. K. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Puliafito, C. A.},
       title = {Intraocular microsurgery with a picosecond Nd:YAG laser},
       journal = {Lasers Surg Med},
       volume = {15},
       number = {1},
       pages = {44-53},
       note = {0196-8092 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.},
       abstract = {We investigated the use of picosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses for intraocular microsurgery. With a pulse duration of 100 picoseconds, only 70 microJ of pulse energy is required to consistently produce optical breakdown in the deep vitreous. This pulse energy is nearly two orders of magnitude less than the typical pulse energies used in conventional (nanosecond) photodisruptors. The reduced pulse energy results in a smaller zone of tissue damage, an important consideration when operating close to the retina or other sensitive ocular structures. Efficient cutting action is achieved by applying multiple pulses at a moderately high repetition rate of 50-200 Hz. An in vitro model was developed to assess axial confinement of picosecond photodisruption. In vivo vitreous membrane surgery was performed in experimental rabbit eyes to demonstrate a potential clinical application of picosecond laser-induced optical breakdown.},
       keywords = {3T3 Cells
    Animals
    Cell Membrane
    Cells, Cultured
    Disease Models, Animal
    Eye Diseases/pathology/surgery
    Laser Surgery/instrumentation/*methods
    Mice
    Microsurgery/instrumentation/*methods
    Rabbits
    Vitreous Body/pathology/*surgery},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7997047},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Traccoli, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Anderson, R. and Birngruber, R.: Selektiver Gefässverschluss durch repetierende kurze Laserpulse. Ophthalmologe, no. 91, pp. 274-9, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider1994,
       author = {Roider, J. and Traccoli, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Anderson, R. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Selektiver Gefässverschluss durch repetierende kurze Laserpulse},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {91},
       number = {3},
       pages = {274-9},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The occlusion of arterioles and venules (30 microns in diameter) by means of repeated dye laser pulses (577 nm, 160 microseconds, 0.5 Hz) was studied in the hamster cheek pouch model. Microscopically visible changes during and after irradiation were recorded and monitored by a video system. The energy necessary per pulse for vessel occlusion with a single pulse (arterioles 5 J/cm2, venules 3.5 J/cm2) can be lowered more than 50% with 100 pulses (1.8 J/cm2, 1.2 J/cm2). Rupture of vessels, which regularly occurs with a single pulse, can be totally avoided with 100 repetitive laser pulses. Investigations of the temperature dependence of the occlusion rate of arterioles showed different interaction mechanisms with one pulse and 100 pulses (mechanical and thermal respectively). Light and electron microscopic investigations supported this concept of selective occlusion using repeated short laser pulses. Possible clinical applications are portwine stains of the eyelid, neovascularisation on the cornea and subretinal neovascularisation.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Arterioles/pathology
    Cheek/blood supply
    Cricetinae
    *Disease Models, Animal
    Light Coagulation/*instrumentation
    Microscopy, Electron
    Retinal Neovascularization/pathology/*surgery
    Venules/pathology
    Video Recording/*instrumentation},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8086741},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, Alfred and Asiyo-Vogel, M. and Birngruber, R.: [Intrastromal refractive corneal surgery with pico-second Nd:YAG laser pulses]. Ophthalmologe, no. 91, pp. 655-62, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel1994,
       author = {Vogel, Alfred and Asiyo-Vogel, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[Intrastromal refractive corneal surgery with pico-second Nd:YAG laser pulses]},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {91},
       number = {5},
       pages = {655-62},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {Intrastromal laser surgery with picosecond pulses aims to achieve refractive changes of the cornea without damaging the epithelium, Bowman's membrane, or the endothelium. For that, a tissue layer with well-defined thickness has to be evaporated by creating laser plasmas within the corneal stroma. We investigated the plasma formation and the plasma-induced shock wave emission and bubble generation (cavitation) in the cornea, as well as the tissue effects and the range for endothelial damage. The laser light source used was an Nd:YAG laser emitting pulses with a duration of 30 ps at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. Intrastromal plasma formation and cavitation were investigated in sheep eyes in vitro by means of time-resolved macro-photography with 20 ns exposure time. Photographs were taken at various delay times (3 microseconds-2 min) after the release of the Nd:YAG laser pulse. The morphology of the laser effects and the incidence of endothelial damage was investigated by light-microscopic inspection of histological cross sections of the irradiated corneas. The minimal plasma size at energies close to the breakdown threshold was about 40 microns. Using a laser effects could be created without causing microscopically detectable damage to the epithelium, endothelium, or Bowman's membrane. To avoid damage, the distance between endothelium and laser focus had to be larger than 150 microns. Shock wave-induced tissue damage was not observed, although the maximum shock wave pressure was up to 13 kbar. The laser-generated intrastromal cavities are at least 10 times larger than the plasma volume.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)},
       keywords = {Animals
    Corneal Stroma/pathology/*surgery
    Endothelium, Corneal/pathology
    Epithelium/pathology
    Equipment Design
    Laser Surgery/*instrumentation
    *Refraction, Ocular
    Sheep
    Surface Properties},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7812100},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Hee, M. R. and Izatt, J. A. and Swanson, E. A. and Huang, D. and Lin, C. P. and Schuman, J. S. and Puliafito, C. A. and Inderfurth, J. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G.: In-Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 35, pp. 2078-2078, 1994
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Hee1994,
       author = {Hee, M. R. and Izatt, J. A. and Swanson, E. A. and Huang, D. and Lin, C. P. and Schuman, J. S. and Puliafito, C. A. and Inderfurth, J. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G.},
       title = {In-Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {35},
       number = {4},
       pages = {2078-2078},
       note = {Mz585
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1994MZ58503806},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schmidt Erfurth, U. and Diddens, H. and Bamberg, M. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.: Carrier-Mediated Targeting in Photodynamic Therapy of Retinoblastoma Cells. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 35, pp. 2119-2119, 1994
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1994,
       author = {Schmidt Erfurth, U. and Diddens, H. and Bamberg, M. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.},
       title = {Carrier-Mediated Targeting in Photodynamic Therapy of Retinoblastoma Cells},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {35},
       number = {4},
       pages = {2119-2119},
       note = {Mz585
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1994MZ58504004},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Capon, M. R. and Asiyo-Vogel, M. N. and Birngruber, R.: Intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses: tissue effects in cornea, lens, and retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, no. 35, pp. 3032-44, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Capon, M. R. and Asiyo-Vogel, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses: tissue effects in cornea, lens, and retina},
       journal = {Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci},
       volume = {35},
       number = {7},
       pages = {3032-44},
       note = {0146-0404 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {PURPOSE. Nd:YAG laser photodisruption with nanosecond (ns) pulses in the millijoule range is an established tool for intraocular surgery. This study investigates tissue effects in cornea, lens, and retina to assess whether picosecond (ps) pulses with energies in the microjoule range can increase the surgical precision, reduce collateral damage, and allow applications requiring more localized tissue effects than can be achieved with ns pulses. METHODS. Both ps and ns Nd:YAG laser effects on Descemet's membrane, in the corneal stroma, in the lens, and at the retina were investigated in vitro in bovine and sheep eyes and in cataractous human lens nuclei. For each tissue, the optical breakdown threshold was determined. The morphology of the tissue effects and the damage range of the laser pulses were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The cavitation bubble dynamics during the formation of corneal intrastromal laser effects were documented by time-resolved photography. RESULTS. The optical breakdown threshold for ps pulses in clear cornea, lens, and vitreous is, on average, 12 times lower than that for ns pulses. In cataractous lens nuclei, it is lower by a factor of 7. Using ps pulses, Descemet's membrane could be dissected with fewer disruptive side effects than with ns pulses, whereby the damage range decreased by a factor of 3. The range for retinal damage was only 0.5 mm when 200 microJ ps pulses were focused into the vitreous. Picosecond pulses could be used for corneal intrastromal tissue evaporation without damaging the corneal epithelium or endothelium, when the pulses were applied in the anterior part of the stroma. The range for endothelial damage was 150 microns at 80 microJ pulse energy. Intrastromal corneal refractive surgery is compromised by the laser-induced cavitation effects. Tissue displacement during bubble expansion is more pronounced than tissue evaporation, and irregular bubble formation creates difficulties in producing predictable refractive changes. CONCLUSIONS. The use of ps pulses improves the precision of intraocular Nd:YAG laser surgery and diminishes unwanted disruptive side effects, thereby widening the field of potential applications. Promising fields for further studies are intrastromal corneal refractive surgery, cataract fragmentation, membrane cutting, and vitreolysis close to the retina.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Cattle
    Cornea/injuries/surgery/*ultrastructure
    Laser Surgery/adverse effects/instrumentation/*methods
    Lens, Crystalline/injuries/surgery/*ultrastructure
    Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
    Retina/injuries/surgery/*ultrastructure
    Sheep},
       year = {1994}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Dröge, G. and Koop, N. and Wördemann, A. and Schirner, G. and Birngruber, R.: Investigations on laser thermokeratoplasty. Lasers Light Ophthalmol, no. 6, pp. 259 - 270, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Binkmann1994,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Dröge, G. and Koop, N. and Wördemann, A. and Schirner, G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Investigations on laser thermokeratoplasty},
       journal = {Lasers Light Ophthalmol},
       volume = {6},
       number = {4},
       pages = {259 - 270},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Busch, S. and Jungnickel, K. and Birngruber, R.: Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses. Lasers Surg Med, no. 15, pp. 32-43, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Busch, S. and Jungnickel, K. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses},
       journal = {Lasers Surg Med},
       volume = {15},
       number = {1},
       pages = {32-43},
       note = {0196-8092 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {Nd:YAG laser photodisruption with nanosecond (ns) pulses is an established method for intraocular surgery. In order to assess whether an increased precision can be achieved by the use of picosecond (ps) pulses, the plasma size, the shock wave characteristics, and the cavitation bubble expansion after optical breakdown with ps- and ns-laser pulses were investigated by time-resolved photography and acoustic measurements. Nd:YAG laser pulses with a duration of 30 ps and 6 ns, respectively, were focused into a water-filled glass cuvette. Frequency doubled light from the same laser pulses was optically delayed between 2 ns and 136 ns and used as illumination light source for photography. Since the individual events were well reproducible, the shock wave and bubble wall position could be determined as a function of time. From the slope of these r(t) curves, the shock wave and bubble wall velocities were determined, and the shock wave pressure was calculated from the shock velocity. The plasma size at various laser pulse energies was measured from photographs of the plasma radiation. The breakdown thresholds at 30 ps and 6 ns pulse duration were found to be 15 microJ and 200 microJ, respectively. At threshold, ps-plasmas are shorter than ns-plasmas, but at the same pulse energy they are always approximately 2.5 times longer. The initial shock pressures were 17 kbar after ps-pulses with an energy of 50 microJ, and 21 kbar after 1 mJ ns-pulses. The pressure amplitude decayed much faster after the ps-pulses. The maximum expansion velocity of the cavitation bubble was 350 m/s after a 50 microJ ps-pulse, but 1,600 m/s after a 1 mJ ns-pulse. The side effects of intraocular microsurgery associated with shock wave emission and cavitation bubble expansion can be considerably reduced by the use of ps-pulses, and new applications of photodisruption may become possible.},
       keywords = {Eye/*radiation effects
    Humans
    *Laser Surgery/methods
    Models, Structural
    Physics},
       year = {1994}
    }
    
  • VOGEL, A. and ASIYO-VOGEL, M. and BIRNGRUBER, R.: Untersuchungen zur intrastromalen refraktiven Hornhautchirurgie mit Picosekunden-Nd: YAG-Laser-Pulsen. no. 91, Springer, Berlin, ALLEMAGNE, 1994
    BibTeX
    @book{Vogel,
       author = {VOGEL, A. and ASIYO-VOGEL, M. and BIRNGRUBER, R.},
       title = {Untersuchungen zur intrastromalen refraktiven Hornhautchirurgie mit Picosekunden-Nd: YAG-Laser-Pulsen},
       publisher = {Springer},
       address = {Berlin, ALLEMAGNE},
       volume = {91},
       keywords = {Surgery
    Chirurgie
    Cornea
    Corn&#233
    e
    YAG laser
    Laser YAG
    Neodymium
    N&#233
    odyme
    Stroma
    Laser produced plasma
    Plasma produit par laser
    Cavitation bubble
    Bulle cavitation
    Eye
    Oeil
    Sheep
    Mouton
    Animal
    In vitro
    Artiodactyla
    Ungulata
    Mammalia
    Vertebrata},
       year = {1994}
    }
    
  • Pan, Y. and Engelhardt, R. and Rosperich, J. and Hüttmann, G. and Birngruber, R.: Measurement of Optical-Transport-Coefficients of Intralipid in Visible and NIR Range. in Proc. SPIE, no. 2134A, pp. 354-363,
    BibTeX
    @inproceedings{Pan,
       author = {Pan, Y. and Engelhardt, R. and Rosperich, J. and Hüttmann, G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Measurement of Optical-Transport-Coefficients of Intralipid in Visible and NIR Range},
       booktitle = {Proc. SPIE},
       volume = {2134A},
       pages = {354-363},
    
    }
    
  • Hüttmann, G. and Churio, S. and Braslavsky, S.E. and Birngruber, R.: The Possibility of Measuring Thermal Protein Denaturation by an Optoacoustic Method.. in Proc. SPIE, no. 2077, pp. 202-212,
    BibTeX
    @inproceedings{Hüttmann,
       author = {Hüttmann, G. and Churio, S. and Braslavsky, S.E. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {The Possibility of Measuring Thermal Protein Denaturation by an Optoacoustic Method.},
       booktitle = {Proc. SPIE},
       volume = {2077},
       pages = {202-212},
    
    }
    
  • Schmidt Erfurth, U W; Gragoudas, E; Flotte, T J; Michaud, N A; Birngruber, R and Hasan, T: Photodynamic Therapy of Experimental Choroidal Melanoma Using Lipoprotein-Delivered Benzoporphyrin. Ophthal 101(1), pp. 89-99, 1994
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt-'Erfurth1994,
       author = {Schmidt Erfurth, U W; Gragoudas, E; Flotte, T J;  Michaud, N A;  Birngruber, R and Hasan, T},
       title = {Photodynamic Therapy of Experimental Choroidal Melanoma Using Lipoprotein-Delivered Benzoporphyrin},
       journal = {Ophthal} {101(1)},
       
       pages = {89-99},
       note = {Mv308
    Times Cited:81
    Cited References Count:32},
       abstract = {Background: Benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid (BPD) is a new photosensitizer currently undergoing clinical trial for cutaneous malignancies. Compared with the clinically most frequently used sensitizer, Photofrin, BPD may offer higher tumor phototoxicity, better tissue penetration, and absence of significant skin sensitization. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) carriers heighten efficiency and selectivity of BPD because neovascular and tumor cells express an increased number of LBL receptors. Hence, in addition to the vaso-occlusive effects similar to most other photosensitizers, LDL-BPD also has been shown to cause direct tumor cell damage.
    Methods: Benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid was complexed with human LDL and used in photodynamic treatment of choroidal melanomas experimentally induced in eight albino rabbits. Five rabbits served as controls. Three hours after intravenous injection of 2 mg/kg body weight of LDL-BPD, eight tumors were irradiated at 692 nm and 100 J/cm(2) via an argon-pumped dye laser coupled into a slit lamp.
    Results: Angiography and histologic findings showed immediate photothrombosis after disintegration of endothelial membranes. After complete necrosis of tumor cells within 24 hours, a small fibrotic scar slowly developed. No tumor regrowth was noted up to 6 weeks when animals were killed.
    Conclusion: These data suggest that photodynamic treatment with LDL-BPD may be a promising modality for multiple clinical applications, including tumors and neovascularizations II.},
       keywords = {hematoporphyrin photoradiation therapy
    malignant-melanoma
    intraocular tumors
    cells
    photoimmunotherapy
    oxygen
    cancer
    invivo
    agent},
       ISSN = {0161-6420},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1994MV30800018},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1993

  • Schmidterfurth, U. and Jacobs, D. and Flotte, T. J. and Gragoudas, E. and Hasan, T. and Birngruber, R.: Photothrombosis of Ocular Neovascularization Using Benzoporphyrin Derivative (Bpd). Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 34, pp. 1303-1303, 1993
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1993,
       author = {Schmidterfurth, U. and Jacobs, D. and Flotte, T. J. and Gragoudas, E. and Hasan, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Photothrombosis of Ocular Neovascularization Using Benzoporphyrin Derivative (Bpd)},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {34},
       number = {4},
       pages = {1303-1303},
       note = {Kt893
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1993KT89302954},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Obana, A. and Matsumoto, M. and Miki, T. and Eckert, K. G. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.: [Quantification of indocyanine-green enhancement of diode laser photocoagulation]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi, no. 97, pp. 581-6, 1993
    BibTeX
    @article{Obana1993,
       author = {Obana, A. and Matsumoto, M. and Miki, T. and Eckert, K. G. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {[Quantification of indocyanine-green enhancement of diode laser photocoagulation]},
       journal = {Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi},
       volume = {97},
       number = {5},
       pages = {581-6},
       note = {0029-0203 (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The enhancement by indocyanine-green (ICG) of diode laser photocoagulation was quantified. Since ICG concentration in blood increases and decreases rapidly after a single injection, it is difficult to quantify the exact enhancing effect of ICG. A steady-state plasma concentration (about 30 micrograms/ml) of ICG was achieved by injection of 2.5 mg/kg of ICG followed by continuous injection of 0.45 micrograms/kg/min of ICG. The threshold energy values to obtain grayish white retinal burn or choriocapillary occlusion were evaluated at this steady concentration of ICG, and compared with the values in the absence of ICG. The use of ICG decreased the energy values 7% for retinal burn and 8% for choriocapillary occlusion. Although the total dosage of ICG during the continuous injection was high, the enhancement of retinal burn and choriocapillary occlusion was small.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Choroid/pathology/surgery
    Indocyanine Green/administration & dosage/pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology
    Infusions, Intravenous
    *Laser Coagulation
    Rabbits
    Retina/pathology/surgery},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8337962},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Hefetz, Y. and Roider, J. and Schmidt, U. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Puliafito, C. A. and Vogel, Alfred: [Spatial confinement of intraocular picoseconds-photodisruption effects]. Ophthalmologe, no. 90, pp. 387-90, 1993
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1993,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Hefetz, Y. and Roider, J. and Schmidt, U. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Puliafito, C. A. and Vogel, Alfred},
       title = {[Spatial confinement of intraocular picoseconds-photodisruption effects]},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {90},
       number = {4},
       pages = {387-90},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {Laser photodisruption is a routinely performed clinical procedure in intraocular microsurgery of post-cataract membranes, anterior synechies and iridectomies. Damage ranges of several millimeters in diameter, however, limit the use of nanosecond photodisruption close to delicate structures, e.g., in the posterior vitreous. Multiple ps-laser pulses of about 100 microJ pulse energy were used to produce disruptive effects in the anterior lens capsule in rabbit eyes in vivo. Ophthalmoscopical and morphological investigations of these effects were compared with those of minimal ns-disruptions. The direct tissue separation effects as well as the collateral damage zones are about one order of magnitude smaller if ps-laser pulses are used. Minimal sizes of disruptive effects are about 50 microns to 150 microns and 500 microns to 1000 microns for ps- and ns-pulses, respectively. The substantial improvement of spatial confinement of ps-photodisruption enables increased precision of intraocular laser microsurgery and opens up new areas of clinical application in structures like the cornea, anterior chamber angle, and crystalline lens.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Lasers/*adverse effects
    Lens Capsule, Crystalline/*injuries/pathology
    Light Coagulation/*instrumentation
    Microsurgery/instrumentation
    Rabbits},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8374239},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Obana, A. and Lorenz, B. and Gässler, A. and Birngruber, R.: The risk of choroidal hemorrhage with diode laser photocoagulation. Jpn J Ophthalmic Surg, no. 6, pp. 285-290, 1993
    BibTeX
    @article{Obana1993,
       author = {Obana, A. and Lorenz, B. and Gässler, A. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {The risk of choroidal hemorrhage with diode laser photocoagulation},
       journal = {Jpn J Ophthalmic Surg},
       volume = {6},
       number = {2},
       pages = {285-290},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Obana, A. and Lorenz, B. and Birngruber, R.: Transscleral and indirect ophthalmoscope diode laser retinal photocoagulation: experimental quantification of the therapeutic range for their application in the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, no. 231, pp. 378-83, 1993
    BibTeX
    @article{Obana1993,
       author = {Obana, A. and Lorenz, B. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Transscleral and indirect ophthalmoscope diode laser retinal photocoagulation: experimental quantification of the therapeutic range for their application in the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity},
       journal = {Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol},
       volume = {231},
       number = {7},
       pages = {378-83},
       note = {0721-832X (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {Laser indirect ophthalmoscope (LIO) photocoagulation and transscleral photocoagulation through the conjunctiva and subconjunctiva were performed in the fundus of chinchilla gray rabbits using various exposure times and powers, and the thresholds for retinal blanching and choroidal hemorrhage were determined. The therapeutic range was described for both applications as the ratio between energy values to produce grayish white lesions and hemorrhage at 50% probability. The therapeutic range appeared to remain almost constant with different exposure times. The mean ratio with LIO was 3.2 +/- 0.28, similar to that with slit-lamp delivery reported in our previous study. The mean ratio with transscleral photocoagulation through the conjunctiva and subconjunctiva were 2.48 +/- 0.28 and 2.38 +/- 0.26, respectively. The variability of LIO appeared to be a little lower than with transscleral photocoagulation. There was no significant difference between the variability with transscleral photocoagulation through the conjunctiva and subconjunctiva.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Choroid Hemorrhage/etiology/pathology
    Fundus Oculi
    Humans
    Infant, Newborn
    Laser Coagulation/adverse effects/*methods
    Ophthalmoscopy
    Rabbits
    Retina/*surgery
    Retinal Diseases/etiology/pathology
    Retinopathy of Prematurity/*surgery
    Semiconductors},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8406062},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Pan, Y. and Du, C.W. and Liu, X.D. and Li, Z.G. and Birngruber, R.: Monte-carlo simulation of magneto-birefringence in magnetic fluids. J Appl Phys, no. 73, pp. 6142-6144, 1993
    BibTeX
    @article{Pan1993,
       author = {Pan, Y. and Du, C.W. and Liu, X.D. and Li, Z.G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Monte-carlo simulation of magneto-birefringence in magnetic fluids},
       journal = {J Appl Phys},
       volume = {73},
       number = {10},
       pages = {6142-6144},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.: Selective Rpe Photocoagulation by 1 Usec Laser-Pulses. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 34, pp. 960-960, 1993
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roider1993,
       author = {Roider, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Selective Rpe Photocoagulation by 1 Usec Laser-Pulses},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {34},
       number = {4},
       pages = {960-960},
       note = {Kt893
    Times Cited:1
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1993KT89301269},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Pan, Y. and Du, C.W. and Liu, X.D. and Li, Z.G. and Birngruber, R.: Wavelength dependence of the faraday effect and magneto-birefringence in ferrofluid thin films.. J Appl Phys, no. 73, pp. 6139-6141, 1993
    BibTeX
    @article{Pan1993,
       author = {Pan, Y. and Du, C.W. and Liu, X.D. and Li, Z.G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Wavelength dependence of the faraday effect and magneto-birefringence in ferrofluid thin films.},
       journal = {J Appl Phys},
       volume = {73},
       number = {10},
       pages = {6139-6141},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Hillenkamp, F. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.: Microphotocoagulation: selective effects of repetitive short laser pulses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, no. 90, pp. 8643-7, 1993
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider,
       author = {Roider, J. and Hillenkamp, F. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Microphotocoagulation: selective effects of repetitive short laser pulses},
       journal = {Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A},
       volume = {90},
       number = {18},
       pages = {8643-7},
       note = {0027-8424 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.},
       abstract = {Repetitive exposure to short laser pulses is shown to cause selective damage to absorbing structures (cells, organelles, or enzymes) with pulse energies below the threshold energy for single-pulse damage. Directly adjacent structures are spared in vivo. Additivity of (presumably nonphotochemical) subthreshold effects is demonstrated. Selective damage to the retinal pigment epithelium with sparing of the neural retina is shown (514 nm, 5 microseconds, 1-500 pulses at 500 Hz, 2- to 10-microJ pulse energy). A melanin granule model has been developed and applied to the experimental situation. Histological results as well as the basic mechanism for these effects are discussed.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Fluorescein Angiography
    Lasers
    Light Coagulation/adverse effects/*methods
    Microscopy, Electron
    Microsurgery/adverse effects/methods
    Probability
    Rabbits
    Retina/pathology/*radiation effects/ultrastructure
    Time Factors},
       year = {1993}
    }
    
  • Inderfurth, J. H. C. and Frish, M. B. and Ferguson, R. D. and Birngruber, R.: Research Towards Development of a Dynamic Reflectometer for Control of Laser-Induced Retinal Photocoagulation. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 34, pp. 960-960, 1993
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Inderfurth1993,
       author = {Inderfurth, J. H. C. and Frish, M. B. and Ferguson, R. D. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Research Towards Development of a Dynamic Reflectometer for Control of Laser-Induced Retinal Photocoagulation},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {34},
       number = {4},
       pages = {960-960},
       note = {Kt893
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1993KT89301270},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.: Histologie von Netzhautläsionen nach kontinuierlicher Bestrahlung und nach selektiver Mikrokoagulation des retinalen Pigmentepithels. Ophthalmologe, no. 90, pp. 274-8, 1993
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roider1993,
       author = {Roider, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Histologie von Netzhautläsionen nach kontinuierlicher Bestrahlung und nach selektiver Mikrokoagulation des retinalen Pigmentepithels},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {90},
       number = {3},
       pages = {274-8},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {Mild continuous wave (CW) irradiation (100 ms, 20 mW, 514 nm) and irradiation with 100 repetitive 5 microseconds laser pulses (3 or 6 microJ, 514 nm) at a repetition rate of 500 Hz was performed to the regio macularis of chinchilla rabbits. The angiographically visible lesions were histologically followed up to 4 weeks. With both irradiation modalities the original retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was replaced by a monolayer of new RPE cells. Only minimal immediate and no subsequent damage to the photoreceptors was found after selective RPE photocoagulation. Only minimal inflammatory response was found after selective RPE photocoagulation in contrast to CW photocoagulation where macrophages, RPE cells and lymphocytes regularly appear in the damaged photoreceptor layer.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Laser Coagulation/*instrumentation
    Light Coagulation/*instrumentation
    Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
    Microsurgery/*instrumentation
    Photoreceptors/injuries/pathology
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/pathology/*surgery
    Rabbits
    Regeneration/physiology
    Retina/*injuries/pathology
    Wound Healing/physiology},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8334331},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Chaudhry, H. and Lynch, M. and Schomacker, K. and Birngruber, R. and Gregory, K. and Kochevar, I.: Relaxation of vascular smooth muscle induced by low-power laser radiation. Photochem Photobiol, no. 58, pp. 661-9, 1993
    BibTeX
    @article{Chudhry,
       author = {Chaudhry, H. and Lynch, M. and Schomacker, K. and Birngruber, R. and Gregory, K. and Kochevar, I.},
       title = {Relaxation of vascular smooth muscle induced by low-power laser radiation},
       journal = {Photochem Photobiol},
       volume = {58},
       number = {5},
       pages = {661-9},
       note = {0031-8655 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The relaxation of rabbit aorta rings induced by low-power laser radiation was investigated in vitro to determine the location of the chromophore(s) responsible for this response and evaluate possible mechanisms. An action spectrum for relaxation was measured on rabbit thoracic aorta rings precontracted with norepinephrine. The decrease in isometric tension was measured during exposure to laser light (351-625 nm) delivered via a fiber optic to a small spot on the adventitial surface. The shortest UV wavelength (351 nm) was 35-fold more effective than 390 nm and 1700-fold more effective than 460 nm. Ultraviolet wavelengths also produced greater maximum relaxation (0.40-0.45) than visible wavelengths (0.20-0.25), suggesting that photovasorelaxation involves more than one chromophore. The adventitial layer was not necessary for photovasorelaxation, indicating that the light is absorbed by a chromophore in the medial layer. The same degree of relaxation was obtained on rings without adventitia when either one-half of the ring, or a small spot was irradiated indicating that communication between smooth muscle cells spreads a signal from the area illuminated to the entire ring. The mechanism for photovasorelaxation was investigated using potential inhibitors. N-monomethyl-L-arginine and N-amino-L-arginine, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, did not alter photovasorelaxation nor did indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, and zinc protoporphyrin, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Aorta/*radiation effects
    Arginine/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology
    Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
    Indomethacin/pharmacology
    Light
    Models, Chemical
    Muscle Relaxation/drug effects/*physiology
    Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/*radiation effects
    NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester
    Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors
    Protoporphyrins/pharmacology
    Rabbits
    Ultraviolet Rays
    Vasodilation/drug effects/*physiology
    omega-N-Methylarginine},
       year = {1993}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R.: Augenschäden durch Registrierkassen mit Laserscanner. Dtsch. med. Wschr., no. 118, pp. 51-52, 1993
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1993,
       author = {Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Augenschäden durch Registrierkassen mit Laserscanner},
       journal = {Dtsch. med. Wschr.},
       volume = {118},
       pages = {51-52},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1992

  • Schmidt, U. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.: Selektiver Verschluss okularer Neovaskularisationen durch photodynamische Therapie (PDT). Ophthalmologe, no. 89, pp. 391-4, 1992
    BibTeX
    @article{Schmidt1992,
       author = {Schmidt, U. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.},
       title = {Selektiver Verschluss okularer Neovaskularisationen durch photodynamische Therapie (PDT)},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {89},
       number = {5},
       pages = {391-4},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has successfully been used to induce vascular occlusion via endothelial damage and subsequent thrombosis. To increase the selective of this method for neovascularizations, characteristics in the ultrastructure of the proliferative vessel wall allow physiological vessels to be spared and predominantly neovascularizations to be occluded: (a) Due to the disturbance of the blood-retina barrier, free dye molecules accumulate within the vascular wall. Using a dye with prolonged retention, such as phthalocyanine (CASPc), it is possible to thrombose neovascularizations 24 h post injection while leaving the physiological vasculature of the anterior segment of the rabbit eye unaffected. (b) Proliferating endothelial cells express high numbers of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors. Chlorin e6 (Ce6), a potent photosensitizer, is covalently bound to LDL. Intravascularly, ce6-LDL complexes selectively label neovascular walls. Since ce6-LDL is incorporated intracellular into enzymatically active lysosomes, photothrombosis is effectively achieved at low drug and light doses in vivo. In addition, the induced damage is spatially confined to the inner vascular lining. We conclude that carrier-mediated PDT may offer a new and sensitive approach for selective treatment of intraocular neovascularizations.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Blood-Retinal Barrier/drug effects/physiology
    Cell Division/drug effects/physiology
    Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects/pathology
    *Photochemotherapy
    Rabbits
    Retinal Neovascularization/*drug therapy/pathology},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=1304219},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Lin, C. P. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Puliafito, C. A.: Effects of Single and Multiple Picosecond Laser-Pulses on Rpe Cells. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 33, pp. 721-721, 1992
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Lin1992,
       author = {Lin, C. P. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Puliafito, C. A.},
       title = {Effects of Single and Multiple Picosecond Laser-Pulses on Rpe Cells},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {33},
       number = {4},
       pages = {721-721},
       note = {Hk135
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:1},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1992HK13500148},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Obana, A. and Lorenz, B. and Eckert, K. G. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.: Dye-Enhanced Diode-Laser Photocoagulation Using Continuous Injection of Indocyanine Green. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 33, pp. 721-721, 1992
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Obana1992,
       author = {Obana, A. and Lorenz, B. and Eckert, K. G. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {Dye-Enhanced Diode-Laser Photocoagulation Using Continuous Injection of Indocyanine Green},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {33},
       number = {4},
       pages = {721-721},
       note = {Hk135
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1992HK13500144},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Lorenz, B. and Obana, A. and Vogel, Alfred and Birngruber, R.: Problems of clinical application of diode lasers.. Lasers Light Ophthalmol, no. 4, pp. 157-163, 1992
    BibTeX
    @article{Abel1992,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Lorenz, B. and Obana, A. and Vogel, Alfred and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Problems of clinical application of diode lasers.},
       journal = {Lasers Light Ophthalmol},
       volume = {4},
       number = {3/4},
       pages = {157-163},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wetzel, W. and Birngruber, R.: Laser Sclerostomy Abexterno Using the Erbium-Yag Laser and a New Application System. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 33, pp. 1018-1018, 1992
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Wetzel1992,
       author = {Wetzel, W. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser Sclerostomy Abexterno Using the Erbium-Yag Laser and a New Application System},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {33},
       number = {4},
       pages = {1018-1018},
       note = {Hk135
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1992HK13501637},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Ren, Q. and Venugopalan, V. and Schomacker, K. and Deutsch, T. F. and Flotte, T. J. and Puliafito, C. A. and Birngruber, R.: Mid-infrared laser ablation of the cornea: a comparative study. Lasers Surg Med, no. 12, pp. 274-81, 1992
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Ren1992,
       author = {Ren, Q. and Venugopalan, V. and Schomacker, K. and Deutsch, T. F. and Flotte, T. J. and Puliafito, C. A. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Mid-infrared laser ablation of the cornea: a comparative study},
       journal = {Lasers Surg Med},
       volume = {12},
       number = {3},
       pages = {274-81},
       note = {0196-8092 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The ablation thresholds and patterns of collateral damage in cornea produced by Er:YAG (2.94 microns) and Er:YSGG (2.79 microns) lasers were measured. Two different pulse durations, 200 microseconds (normal spiking mode) and 100 ns (Q-switched mode), were used at both wavelengths. In the normal spiking mode, damage zones of 16 +/- 2 microns and 39 +/- 7 microns and ablation thresholds of 250 +/- 20 mJ/cm2 and 420 +/- 35 mJ/cm2 were measured at 2.94 microns and 2.79 microns, respectively. In the Q-switched mode, damage zones of 4 +/- 2 microns and ablation thresholds of 150 +/- 10 mJ/cm2 were found irrespective of the laser used. The similarity between the results using the Er:YAG and Er:YSGG lasers in the Q-switched mode suggest that either laser can be used with equal effectiveness for corneal trephination.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Cattle
    Cornea/pathology/*surgery
    *Light Coagulation/*methods},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=1508021},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schmidt, U. and Bauman, W. and Schomacker, K. and Birngruber, R. and Gragoudas, E. and Hasan, T.: Photosensitizing Potency of Benzoporphyrin Derivative (Bpd) Associated with Human Low-Density-Lipoprotein (Ldl). Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 33, pp. 1253-1253, 1992
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt1992,
       author = {Schmidt, U. and Bauman, W. and Schomacker, K. and Birngruber, R. and Gragoudas, E. and Hasan, T.},
       title = {Photosensitizing Potency of Benzoporphyrin Derivative (Bpd) Associated with Human Low-Density-Lipoprotein (Ldl)},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {33},
       number = {4},
       pages = {1253-1253},
       note = {Hk135
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1992HK13502796},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Obana, A. and Lorenz, B. and Gässler, A. and Birngruber, R.: The therapeutic range of chorioretinal photocoagulation with diode and argon lasers:an experimental comparison. Lasers Light Ophthalmol, no. 4, pp. 147-156, 1992
    BibTeX
    @article{Obana1992,
       author = {Obana, A. and Lorenz, B. and Gässler, A. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {The therapeutic range of chorioretinal photocoagulation with diode and argon lasers:an experimental comparison},
       journal = {Lasers Light Ophthalmol},
       volume = {4},
       number = {3/4},
       pages = {147-156},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Weaver, Y. K. and Lin, C. P. and Schuman, S. and Woods, W. J. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Birngruber, R. and Puliafito, C. A.: Experimental Iridotomy with a Picosecond Neodymium-Ag Laser. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 33, pp. 1265-1265, 1992
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Weaver1992,
       author = {Weaver, Y. K. and Lin, C. P. and Schuman, S. and Woods, W. J. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Birngruber, R. and Puliafito, C. A.},
       title = {Experimental Iridotomy with a Picosecond Neodymium-Ag Laser},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {33},
       number = {4},
       pages = {1265-1265},
       note = {Hk135
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1992HK13502854},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Troccoli, J. and Anderson, R. R. and Flotte, T. J. and Birngruber, R.: Microvasculature Occlusion by Repetitive Short Laser-Pulses. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 33, pp. 722-722, 1992
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roider1992,
       author = {Roider, J. and Troccoli, J. and Anderson, R. R. and Flotte, T. J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Microvasculature Occlusion by Repetitive Short Laser-Pulses},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {33},
       number = {4},
       pages = {722-722},
       note = {Hk135
    Times Cited:1
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1992HK13500151},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Birngruber, R.: Temperature profiles in human retina and choroid during laser coagulation with different wavelengths ranging from 514 to 810 nm.. Lasers Light Ophthalmol, no. 5, pp. 9-16, 1992
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Temperature profiles in human retina and choroid during laser coagulation with different wavelengths ranging from 514 to 810 nm.},
       journal = {Lasers Light Ophthalmol},
       volume = {5},
       number = {1},
       pages = {9-16},
       year = {1992}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Michaud, N. A. and Flotte, T. J. and Birngruber, R.: Response of the retinal pigment epithelium to selective photocoagulation. Arch Ophthalmol, no. 110, pp. 1786-92, 1992
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider,
       author = {Roider, J. and Michaud, N. A. and Flotte, T. J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Response of the retinal pigment epithelium to selective photocoagulation},
       journal = {Arch Ophthalmol},
       volume = {110},
       number = {12},
       pages = {1786-92},
       note = {0003-9950 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.},
       abstract = {Multiple short argon laser pulses can coagulate the retinal pigment epithelium selectively, while sparing the adjacent neural retina and choroid; in contrast, continuous-wave laser irradiation typically damages the neural retina and choroid. The healing response to selective photocoagulation of the retinal pigment epithelium was studied in rabbits during a period of 4 weeks. The lesions were never visible ophthalmoscopically. During the healing period, the epithelium was reformed by a single sheet of hypertrophic retinal pigment epithelial cells. In contrast to continuous-wave photocoagulation, only minimal inflammatory response was found. Retinal pigment epithelial cells showed clear signs of viability, eg, phagocytized outer segments. The local edema in the photoreceptor layer and subretinal space found in the early stage disappeared when the blood-retinal barrier was reestablished. The choriocapillaris remained unaffected. No subsequent damage to the photoreceptors was found. This type of photocoagulation may be useful for retinal pigment epithelium-related diseases, eg, diffuse diabetic macular edema.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Biopsy
    Chinchilla
    Fluorescein Angiography
    Fundus Oculi
    Laser Surgery
    *Light Coagulation
    Microscopy, Electron
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/pathology/radiation effects/*surgery
    Statistics
    Time Factors
    Wound Healing},
       year = {1992}
    }
    
  • Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Vogel, A. and Birngruber, R.: The influence of wavelength on the laser power required for retinal photocoagulation in cataractous human eyes.. Lasers Light Ophthalmol, no. 5, pp. 69-78, 1992
    BibTeX
    @article{Schmidt,
       author = {Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Vogel, A. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {The influence of wavelength on the laser power required for retinal photocoagulation in cataractous human eyes.},
       journal = {Lasers Light Ophthalmol},
       volume = {5},
       number = {2},
       pages = {69-78},
       year = {1992}
    }
    

1991

  • Weaver, Y. K. and Lin, C. P. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Birngruber, R. and Puliafito, C. A.: Intraocular Photoablation by a High Repetition Rate Picosecond Nd-Yag Laser. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 32, pp. 1224-1224, 1991
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Weaver1991,
       author = {Weaver, Y. K. and Lin, C. P. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Birngruber, R. and Puliafito, C. A.},
       title = {Intraocular Photoablation by a High Repetition Rate Picosecond Nd-Yag Laser},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {32},
       number = {4},
       pages = {1224-1224},
       note = {Fc762
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1991FC76202720},
       year = {1991},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.: Selective Damage of the Rpe by Repetitive Laser-Pulses - Healing Studies in Rabbits. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 32, pp. 713-713, 1991
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roider1991,
       author = {Roider, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Selective Damage of the Rpe by Repetitive Laser-Pulses - Healing Studies in Rabbits},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {32},
       number = {4},
       pages = {713-713},
       note = {Fc762
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1991FC76200240},
       year = {1991},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Macfarlane, R. and Teramura, A. and Owen, C. J. and Chase, S. and de la Torre, R. and Gregory, K. W. and Peterson, J. W. and Birngruber, R. and Parrish, J. A. and Zervas, N. T.: Treatment of vasospasm with a 480-nm pulsed-dye laser. J Neurosurg, no. 75, pp. 613-22, 1991
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Macfarlane1991,
       author = {Macfarlane, R. and Teramura, A. and Owen, C. J. and Chase, S. and de la Torre, R. and Gregory, K. W. and Peterson, J. W. and Birngruber, R. and Parrish, J. A. and Zervas, N. T.},
       title = {Treatment of vasospasm with a 480-nm pulsed-dye laser},
       journal = {J Neurosurg},
       volume = {75},
       number = {4},
       pages = {613-22},
       note = {0022-3085 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.},
       abstract = {Laser energy at a wavelength of 480 nm was applied in 1-microseconds pulses of 3 to 10 mJ to two models of vasospasm. Rabbit common carotid arteries (CCA's) were constricted chronically by the application of human blood within a silicone sheath. Peak vasospasm developed 24 to 48 hours later, and persisted for up to 6 days. Endovascular laser treatment was delivered to 40 CCA's via a 200-microns diameter silica quartz fiber introduced through the femoral artery. The CCA caliber increased from 60% of the pre-vasospasm control diameter to a minimum post-laser diameter of 83% of control. No instances of laser-induced perforation or of arterial thrombosis were observed for up to 60 days after treatment. Prophylactic laser application to nine normal vessels was able to attenuate the development of vasospasm if blood was applied immediately thereafter (88% vs. 59% of control diameter, p less than 0.02), but not if blood was applied 7 days later. Studies in 16 normal CCA's established that there was a considerable margin between the laser energy required to induce dilatation and that which caused perforation, providing that the fiber remained relatively central within the artery. Morphological examination demonstrated focal loss of endothelial cells immediately after laser application, followed approximately 7 days later by the development of areas of intimal hyperplasia. Only minimal changes were observed in the medial or adventitial layers. In a second study, the basilar artery of seven dogs was constricted chronically by two intracisternal injections of autologous blood 3 days apart. Five dogs received endovascular laser treatment 7 or 10 days after the first injection, when basilar artery diameter was reduced to a mean of 61% and 77% of control, respectively. Immediately following treatment, basilar artery diameter increased to 104% and 102% of resting diameter, respectively. Both untreated and laser-treated arteries were smaller than the control diameter at 30 days (80% and 82%, respectively), but in each group the vasodilatory response to hypercapnia was preserved. These findings indicate that 1-microsecond laser pulses are well tolerated by systemic and cerebral arteries in two different animal models, and suggest that the 480-nm pulsed-dye laser may have an application for the treatment or prophylaxis of cerebral vasospasm.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Basilar Artery/surgery
    Carotid Arteries/surgery/ultrastructure
    Carotid Artery Diseases/pathology/*surgery
    Chronic Disease
    Constriction, Pathologic/surgery
    Dogs
    Ischemic Attack, Transient/pathology/*surgery
    *Laser Surgery
    Light Coagulation
    Rabbits
    Spasm/pathology/*surgery},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=1885979},
       year = {1991},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Hefetz, Y. and Roider, J. and Puliafito, C. A. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.: Low Repetition Rate Picosecond Photodisruption in Ocular Structures. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 32, pp. 798-798, 1991
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Hefetz1991,
       author = {Hefetz, Y. and Roider, J. and Puliafito, C. A. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Low Repetition Rate Picosecond Photodisruption in Ocular Structures},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {32},
       number = {4},
       pages = {798-798},
       note = {Fc762
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1991FC76200642},
       year = {1991},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Doukas, A.G. and Zweig, A.D. and Frisoli, J.K. and Birngruber, R. and Deutsch, T. F.: Non-invasive determination of shock wave pressure generated by optical breakdown.. Appl Phys B, no. 53, pp. 237-245, 1991
    BibTeX
    @article{Doukas1991,
       author = {Doukas, A.G. and Zweig, A.D. and Frisoli, J.K. and Birngruber, R. and Deutsch, T. F.},
       title = {Non-invasive determination of shock wave pressure generated by optical breakdown.},
       journal = {Appl Phys B},
       volume = {53},
       pages = {237-245},
       year = {1991},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.: [Microcoagulation of the fundus. Experimental results of repeated laser pulse exposure]. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 88, pp. 473-6, 1991
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roider1991,
       author = {Roider, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[Microcoagulation of the fundus. Experimental results of repeated laser pulse exposure]},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {88},
       number = {5},
       pages = {473-6},
       note = {0723-8045 (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {Angiographically visible lesions were produced in the fundus of rabbit eyes with repetitive 5 microseconds pulses and continuous wave exposures with 50-ms to 1-s pulse duration from an modified argon laser (514 nm). The ophthalmoscopic and the fluorescein angiographic findings showed less damage in the neural retina and the choroid after repetitively pulsed irradiation. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the neural retina and the choroid can mostly be spared by using repetitive 5 microseconds pulses, even though the damage to the retinal pigment epithelium is similar to the damage caused by continuous wave irradiation. Possible clinical applications, e.g. for macular edema and central serous retinopathy, are discussed.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Fluorescein Angiography
    Light Coagulation/*adverse effects
    Microscopy, Electron
    Ophthalmoscopy
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/*injuries/pathology
    Rabbits},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=1757035},
       year = {1991},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Teramura, A. and Macfarlane, R. and Owen, C. J. and de la Torre, R. and Gregory, K. W. and Birngruber, R. and Parrish, J. A. and Peterson, J. W. and Zervas, N. T.: Application of the 1-microsecond pulsed-dye laser to the treatment of experimental cerebral vasospasm. J Neurosurg, no. 75, pp. 271-6, 1991
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Teramura1991,
       author = {Teramura, A. and Macfarlane, R. and Owen, C. J. and de la Torre, R. and Gregory, K. W. and Birngruber, R. and Parrish, J. A. and Peterson, J. W. and Zervas, N. T.},
       title = {Application of the 1-microsecond pulsed-dye laser to the treatment of experimental cerebral vasospasm},
       journal = {J Neurosurg},
       volume = {75},
       number = {2},
       pages = {271-6},
       note = {0022-3085 (Print)
    In Vitro
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.},
       abstract = {Laser energy of 480 nm was applied in 1-microsecond pulses varying between 2.2 and 10 mJ to in vitro and in vivo models of cerebral vasospasm. First, the pulsed-dye laser was applied intravascularly via a 320-microns fiber to basilar artery segments from six dogs. The segments were mounted in a vessel-perfusion apparatus and constricted to, on average, 70% of resting diameter by superfusion with dog hemolysate. Immediate increase in basilar artery diameter occurred to a mean of 83% of control. In a second model, the basilar artery was exposed transclivally in the rabbit. In three normal animals, superfusion of the artery with rabbit hemolysate resulted in a reduction of mean vessel diameter to 81% of control. Following extravascular application of the laser, vessels returned to an average of 106% of the resting state. In six rabbits, the basilar artery was constricted by two intracisternal injections of autologous blood. 3 days apart. Two to 4 days after the second injection, the basilar artery was exposed. Extravascular laser treatment from a quartz fiber placed perpendicular to the vessel adventitia resulted in an immediate 53% average increase in caliber to an estimated 107% of control. No reconstriction was observed over a period of up to 5 hours. Morphologically, damage to the arterial wall was slight. This preliminary investigation suggests that the 1-microsecond pulsed-dye laser may be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Basilar Artery/surgery/ultrastructure
    Dogs
    Endothelium, Vascular/ultrastructure
    Female
    Ischemic Attack, Transient/pathology/*surgery
    *Laser Surgery
    Male
    Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
    Rabbits
    Vasodilation},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=2072166},
       year = {1991},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schmidt, U. and Hasan, T. and Schomacker, K. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.: Selective Vessel Occlusion by Photochemically-Induced Thrombogenesis. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 32, pp. 1162-1162, 1991
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt1991,
       author = {Schmidt, U. and Hasan, T. and Schomacker, K. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Selective Vessel Occlusion by Photochemically-Induced Thrombogenesis},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {32},
       number = {4},
       pages = {1162-1162},
       note = {Fc762
    Times Cited:1
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1991FC76202419},
       year = {1991},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Dlugos, C. and Nuffer, R. and Birngruber, R.: Optical properties of human sclera, and their consequences for transscleral laser applications. Lasers Surg Med, no. 11, pp. 331-40, 1991
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel1991,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Dlugos, C. and Nuffer, R. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Optical properties of human sclera, and their consequences for transscleral laser applications},
       journal = {Lasers Surg Med},
       volume = {11},
       number = {4},
       pages = {331-40},
       note = {0196-8092 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The spectral dependence of the optical properties of human sclera adjacent to the limbus was investigated and related to the potentials of transscleral photocoagulation. The total transmission, absorption, and reflection, as well as the angular distribution of the transmitted and reflected light were measured at five laser wavelengths (442 nm, 514 nm, 633 nm, 804 nm, and 1,064 nm), both for noncontact and contact applications. Absorption and scattering coefficients were determined using the Kubelka-Munk model for light propagation through a scattering tissue. The scleral transmission is only 6% at 442 nm but increases to 35% at 804 nm and to 53% at 1,064 nm. The absorption is high at short wavelengths with 40% at 442 nm but it is only 6% at 804 nm and 1,064 nm. The reflection is generally higher than 40% and shows little wavelength dependence. The transmitted light is scattered diffusely at short wavelengths, but at 804 nm and 1,064 nm it exhibits a fairly narrow angular distribution in forward direction. Fiber contact leads to an increase of transmission, with a factor of 3.5 at 442 nm, of 2.0 at 804 nm, and 1.5 at 1,064 nm. Our results indicate that the diode laser (804 nm) and the Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm) with contact delivery are best suited for transscleral photocoagulation.},
       keywords = {Absorption
    Humans
    Lasers/*therapeutic use
    Light
    Optics
    Scattering, Radiation
    Sclera/*anatomy & histology/physiology},
       year = {1991}
    }
    

1990

  • LaMuraglia, GM. and Prince, MR. and Nishioka, NS. and S., Obremski and Birngruber, R.: Optical Properties of Human Arterial Thrombus, Vascular Grafts, and Sutures: Implications for Selective Laser Thrombus Ablation.. IEEE J Quant Electr, no. 26, pp. 2200-2206, 1990
    BibTeX
    @article{LaMuraglia1990,
       author = {LaMuraglia, GM. and Prince, MR. and Nishioka, NS. and S., Obremski and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Optical Properties of Human Arterial Thrombus, Vascular Grafts, and Sutures: Implications for Selective Laser Thrombus Ablation.},
       journal = {IEEE J Quant Electr},
       volume = {26},
       number = {12 Special Issue on Lasers in Biology and Medicine},
       pages = {2200-2206},
       year = {1990},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Chaudhry, H. W. and Kochevar, I. E. and Schomacker, K. T. and Cooke, J. P. and Birngruber, R. and Gregory, K. W.: Laser-Induced Vasorelaxation - an Action Spectrum from 337 Nm to 630 Nm. Circulation, no. 82, pp. 408-408, 1990
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Chaudry1990,
       author = {Chaudhry, H. W. and Kochevar, I. E. and Schomacker, K. T. and Cooke, J. P. and Birngruber, R. and Gregory, K. W.},
       title = {Laser-Induced Vasorelaxation - an Action Spectrum from 337 Nm to 630 Nm},
       journal = {Circulation},
       volume = {82},
       number = {4},
       pages = {408-408},
       note = {Suppl. S
    Ec764
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0009-7322},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1990EC76401635},
       year = {1990},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Balles, M. W. and Puliafito, C. A. and Damico, D. J. and Jacobson, J. J. and Birngruber, R.: Semiconductor Diode-Laser Photocoagulation in Retinal Vascular-Disease. Ophthalmology, no. 97, pp. 1553-1561, 1990
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Balles1990,
       author = {Balles, M. W. and Puliafito, C. A. and Damico, D. J. and Jacobson, J. J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Semiconductor Diode-Laser Photocoagulation in Retinal Vascular-Disease},
       journal = {Ophthalmology},
       volume = {97},
       number = {11},
       pages = {1553-1561},
       note = {Eg630
    Times Cited:32
    Cited References Count:22},
       ISSN = {0161-6420},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1990EG63000032},
       year = {1990},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, Alfred and Schweiger, P. and Frieser, A. and Asiyo, M. and Birngruber, R.: [Mechanism of action, scope of the damage and reduction of side effects in intraocular Nd:YAG laser surgery]. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 87, pp. 675-87, 1990
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Vogel1990,
       author = {Vogel, Alfred and Schweiger, P. and Frieser, A. and Asiyo, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[Mechanism of action, scope of the damage and reduction of side effects in intraocular Nd:YAG laser surgery]},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {87},
       number = {6},
       pages = {675-87},
       note = {0723-8045 (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The damage mechanisms of intraocular Nd:YAG laser surgery and their respective damage ranges were investigated in vitro using bovine cornea specimens as a model tissue. The main damage mechanisms are plasma formation and expansion, emission of acoustic transients, and cavitation with jet formation. When a sequence of laser pulses is applied, the interaction of the acoustic transients with gas bubbles remaining from preceding laser exposures is also important. To distinguish the effects caused by the different physical mechanisms, laser pulses were aimed directly onto the corneal endothelium, and parallel to the cornea at various distances. Simultaneously, the cavitation bubble size was determined. The surface morphology and sections of the same lesions were studied by light and electron microscopy. The primary surgical mechanism is tissue evaporation by the laser plasma, whereas the collateral damage from single laser pulses is mainly caused by the cavitation and jet formation. The damage range after a 4-mJ laser pulse is 0.8 mm which is slightly larger than the corresponding cavitation bubble radius. The damage range of the acoustic transients produced by a 4-mJ laser pulse is several millimeters, when they can interact with small gas bubbles attached to the corneal endothelium. The damage range of the acoustic transients alone is smaller than that of cavitation as far as damage detected by light and scanning electron microscopy is concerned. However, on a subcellular level the acoustic transients may possibly cause damage up to a much larger distance. The damage range observed varies with the cube root of the laser pulse energy. A reduction of collateral effects therefore requires the use of small pulse energies. For energies of less than 1 mJ, the pulse duration has to be reduced to ensure plasma production. It is proposed to use low-energy picosecond pulses with moderate repetition rate instead of single nanosecond pulses to reduce collateral damage effects.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Cattle
    Endothelium, Corneal/*injuries/pathology
    Laser Surgery/*adverse effects/instrumentation
    Microscopy, Electron, Scanning},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=2086418},
       year = {1990},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Ren, Q. and Birngruber, R.: Axicon: A New Laser Beam Delivery System for Corneal Surgery. IEEE J Quant Electr, no. 26, pp. 2200-2206, 1990
    BibTeX
    @article{Ren1990,
       author = {Ren, Q. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Axicon: A New Laser Beam Delivery System for Corneal Surgery},
       journal = {IEEE J Quant Electr},
       volume = {26},
       number = {12 Special Issue on Lasers in Biology and Medicine},
       pages = {2200-2206},
       year = {1990},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R.: Introduction to the Special Issue on Lasers in Biology and Medicine. Ieee Journal of Quantum Electronics, no. 26, pp. 2146-2147, 1990
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Birngruber1990,
       author = {Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Introduction to the Special Issue on Lasers in Biology and Medicine},
       journal = {Ieee Journal of Quantum Electronics},
       volume = {26},
       number = {12},
       pages = {2146-2147},
       note = {Ey439
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0018-9197},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1990EY43900015},
       year = {1990},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Prince, M.R. and LaMuraglia, G.M. and C.E., Seidlitz and Prahl, S.A. and Athanasoulis, C.A. and Birngruber, R.: Ball-Tipped Fibers for Laser Angioplasty with the Pulsed-Dye Laser. IEEE J Quant Electr, no. 26, pp. 2297-2304,, 1990
    BibTeX
    @article{Prince1990,
       author = {Prince, M.R. and LaMuraglia, G.M. and C.E., Seidlitz and Prahl, S.A. and Athanasoulis, C.A. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Ball-Tipped Fibers for Laser Angioplasty with the Pulsed-Dye Laser},
       journal = {IEEE J Quant Electr},
       volume = {26},
       number = {12 Special Issue on Lasers in Biology and Medicine},
       pages = {2297-2304,},
       year = {1990},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Doukas, A.G. and Birngruber, R. and Deutsch, T. F.: Determination of the Shock Wave Pressures Generated by Laser-Induced Breakdown in Water.. Proc. SPIE, no. 1202, pp. 61-70, 1990
    BibTeX
    @article{Doukas1990,
       author = {Doukas, A.G. and Birngruber, R. and Deutsch, T. F.},
       title = {Determination of the Shock Wave Pressures Generated by Laser-Induced Breakdown in Water.},
       journal = {Proc. SPIE},
       volume = {1202},
       pages = {61-70},
       year = {1990},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Schweiger, P. and Frieser, A. and Asiyo, M. and Birngruber, R.: Intraocular Nd:YAG Laser Surgery: Damage Mechanism, Damage Range and Reduction of Collateral Effects.. IEEE J Quant Electr, no. 26, pp. 2240-2260, 1990
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel1990,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Schweiger, P. and Frieser, A. and Asiyo, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Intraocular Nd:YAG Laser Surgery: Damage Mechanism, Damage Range and Reduction of Collateral Effects.},
       journal = {IEEE J Quant Electr},
       volume = {26},
       number = {12 Special Issue on Lasers in Biology and Medicine},
       pages = {2240-2260},
       year = {1990}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Schweiger, P. and Frieser, A. and Asiyo, M. and Birngruber, R.: Wirkungsmechanismen, Schadensreichweite und Reduzierung von Nebenwirkungen bei der intraokularen Nd:YAG-Laserchirurgie. Fortschritte der Ophthalmologie, no. 87, pp. 675-687, 1990
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel1990,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Schweiger, P. and Frieser, A. and Asiyo, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Wirkungsmechanismen, Schadensreichweite und Reduzierung von Nebenwirkungen bei der intraokularen Nd:YAG-Laserchirurgie},
       journal = {Fortschritte der Ophthalmologie},
       volume = {87},
       number = {6},
       pages = {675-687},
       keywords = {Oeil pathologie
    Animal
    Prévention
    Physiopathologie
    Complication
    In vitro
    Cornée
    Oeil
    Néodyme
    Laser YAG
    Laser
    Chirurgie},
       year = {1990}
    }
    
  • Latina, M. A. and Dobrogowski, M. and March, W. F. and Birngruber, R.: Laser sclerostomy by pulsed-dye laser and goniolens. Arch Ophthalmol, no. 108, pp. 1745-50, 1990
    BibTeX
    @article{Latina,
       author = {Latina, M. A. and Dobrogowski, M. and March, W. F. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser sclerostomy by pulsed-dye laser and goniolens},
       journal = {Arch Ophthalmol},
       volume = {108},
       number = {12},
       pages = {1745-50},
       note = {0003-9950 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.},
       abstract = {We describe an ab-interno laser sclerostomy procedure using the method termed dye-enhanced ablation with a slit-lamp delivery system and special goniolens such that only the laser light beam penetrates the anterior chamber. The procedure uses a microsecond-pulsed-dye laser emitting at 666 nm and iontophoresis of methylene blue dye (absorption of 668 nm) into the sclera at the limbus to enhance the absorption of the laser light. We compared the number of pulses needed to perforate excised human sclera at pulse durations of 1.5, 20, and 300 microseconds. Pulse durations of 1.5 and 20 microseconds required 20 pulses or fewer to perforate excised human sclera with pulse energies of 75 to 100 mJ. The ab-interno laser sclerostomy procedure was performed in 54 eyes of Dutch-belted rabbits with pulse durations of 1.5 or 20 microseconds and a 100- or 200-microns incident spot diameter delivered using a CGF goniolens. Full-thickness fistulas were successfully created at both pulse durations in approximately 80% of eyes treated. A range of three to 25 pulses was required to perforate sclera with slightly fewer pulses and lower pulse energies at 1.5 microseconds compared with 20 microseconds. There were no significant complications from the procedure. This technique could permit filtration surgery to be performed on an outpatient basis.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Humans
    Iontophoresis
    *Laser Surgery
    Methylene Blue/administration & dosage
    *Optics
    Rabbits
    Sclera/pathology/radiation effects
    Sclerostomy/instrumentation/*methods},
       year = {1990}
    }
    

1989

  • Stern, D. and Schoenlein, R. W. and Puliafito, C. A. and Dobi, E. T. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G.: Corneal Ablation by Nanosecond, Picosecond, and Femtosecond Lasers at 532 and 625 Nm. Archives of Ophthalmology, no. 107, pp. 587-592, 1989
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Stern1989,
       author = {Stern, D. and Schoenlein, R. W. and Puliafito, C. A. and Dobi, E. T. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G.},
       title = {Corneal Ablation by Nanosecond, Picosecond, and Femtosecond Lasers at 532 and 625 Nm},
       journal = {Archives of Ophthalmology},
       volume = {107},
       number = {4},
       pages = {587-592},
       note = {U0978
    Times Cited:108
    Cited References Count:39},
       ISSN = {0003-9950},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1989U097800031},
       year = {1989},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Gunther-Koszka, H. and Puliafito, C. A.: Nd:YAG laser photodisruption of hemorrhagic detachment of the internal limiting membrane. Am J Ophthalmol, no. 107, pp. 33-7, 1989
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Gabel1989,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Gunther-Koszka, H. and Puliafito, C. A.},
       title = {Nd:YAG laser photodisruption of hemorrhagic detachment of the internal limiting membrane},
       journal = {Am J Ophthalmol},
       volume = {107},
       number = {1},
       pages = {33-7},
       note = {0002-9394 (Print)
    Case Reports
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {We used a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to create an opening in the internal limiting membrane in three eyes with hemorrhagic detachment of the internal limiting membrane. In all instances, after membranotomy blood was rapidly cleared from the preretinal space resulting in prompt improvement in visual acuity. No retinal injury was observed. Nd:YAG laser photodisruption may be useful in the treatment of some cases of subinternal limiting hemorrhages.},
       keywords = {Adult
    Female
    Fundus Oculi
    Humans
    Lasers/therapeutic use
    *Light Coagulation
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Retinal Detachment/pathology/*therapy
    Retinal Hemorrhage/pathology/*therapy},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=2912113},
       year = {1989},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Lorenz, B. and Lang, G. K.: Clinical observations of six cases of laser injury to the eye. Health Phys, no. 56, pp. 705-10, 1989
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Gabel1989,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Lorenz, B. and Lang, G. K.},
       title = {Clinical observations of six cases of laser injury to the eye},
       journal = {Health Phys},
       volume = {56},
       number = {5},
       pages = {705-10},
       note = {0017-9078 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {During the last decade, five patients with laser injuries were examined at the University of Munich Eye Clinic, in addition to one laser-injury patient at the University of Erlangen Eye Clinic. From a review of these cases, it is possible to gain an insight into factors that led to the eye injuries and to predict the clinical sequelae of laser retinal injury. A possible means of treatment, using an ophthalmic Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, is suggested for some types of retinal injury involving vitreal hemorrhage.},
       keywords = {*Accidents, Occupational
    Adult
    Eye Injuries/*etiology
    Female
    Humans
    Lasers/*adverse effects
    Male
    Retinal Hemorrhage/etiology
    Retinal Perforations/etiology},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=2708058},
       year = {1989},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R.: Laser output characteristics. Health Phys, no. 56, pp. 605-11, 1989
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Birngruber1989,
       author = {Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser output characteristics},
       journal = {Health Phys},
       volume = {56},
       number = {5},
       pages = {605-11},
       note = {0017-9078 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Review},
       abstract = {Certain aspects of laser radiation play an important role in laser safety. After a short description of basic laser principles, the unique characteristics of laser light are explained in a phenomenological manner. The enormously wide range of laser output parameters is demonstrated and correlated to typical medical laser applications. Temporal and spatial modes of laser operation are explained in greater detail because of their importance in laser safety.},
       keywords = {Humans
    *Lasers/adverse effects/diagnostic use/therapeutic use
    Technology, Radiologic},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=2651357},
       year = {1989},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Zysset, B. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Puliafito, C. A. and Birngruber, R. and Deutsch, T. F.: Picosecond Optical-Breakdown - Tissue Effects and Reduction of Collateral Damage. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, no. 9, pp. 193-204, 1989
    BibTeX Link Link
    @article{Zysset1989,
       author = {Zysset, B. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Puliafito, C. A. and Birngruber, R. and Deutsch, T. F.},
       title = {Picosecond Optical-Breakdown - Tissue Effects and Reduction of Collateral Damage},
       journal = {Lasers in Surgery and Medicine},
       volume = {9},
       number = {3},
       pages = {193-204},
       note = {U7627
    Times Cited:72
    Cited References Count:36},
       ISSN = {0196-8092},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1002/lsm.1900090302},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1989U762700001},
       year = {1989},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1988

  • Birngruber, R.: Principles of Ophthalmological Laser Applications. Klinische Monatsblatter Fur Augenheilkunde, no. 192, pp. 264-264, 1988
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Birngruber1988,
       author = {Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Principles of Ophthalmological Laser Applications},
       journal = {Klinische Monatsblatter Fur Augenheilkunde},
       volume = {192},
       number = {3},
       pages = {264-264},
       note = {M6889
    Times Cited:1
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0023-2165},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1988M688900037},
       year = {1988},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Heidenkummer, H. P. and Birngruber, R. and Lorenz, B. and Gabel, V. P. and Gao, L. and Tang, S.: [Experimental studies of trans-scleral continuous wave Nd:YAG laser coagulation of the ciliary body]. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 85, pp. 637-41, 1988
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Heidenkummer1988,
       author = {Heidenkummer, H. P. and Birngruber, R. and Lorenz, B. and Gabel, V. P. and Gao, L. and Tang, S.},
       title = {[Experimental studies of trans-scleral continuous wave Nd:YAG laser coagulation of the ciliary body]},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {85},
       number = {6},
       pages = {637-41},
       note = {0723-8045 (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Ciliary Body/pathology/*surgery
    Intraocular Pressure
    Laser Surgery/*methods
    Rabbits
    Sclera/*surgery},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=3220377},
       year = {1988},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Puliafito, C. A. and Schoenlein, R. W. and Lin, W. Z. and Gawande, A.: [Retinal effects produced by femotosecond laser pulse]. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 85, pp. 699-704, 1988
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Birngruber1988,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Puliafito, C. A. and Schoenlein, R. W. and Lin, W. Z. and Gawande, A.},
       title = {[Retinal effects produced by femotosecond laser pulse]},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {85},
       number = {6},
       pages = {699-704},
       note = {0723-8045 (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Fluorescein Angiography
    Lasers/*adverse effects
    Ophthalmoscopy
    Rabbits
    Retina/*injuries/pathology},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=3220388},
       year = {1988},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Nasemann, J. and Birngruber, R.: Fluorescein Angiography with the Laser-Scanning Ophthalmoscope. Klinische Monatsblatter Fur Augenheilkunde, no. 193, pp. 438-438, 1988
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Gabel1988,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Nasemann, J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Fluorescein Angiography with the Laser-Scanning Ophthalmoscope},
       journal = {Klinische Monatsblatter Fur Augenheilkunde},
       volume = {193},
       number = {4},
       pages = {438-438},
       note = {Q9679
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0023-2165},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1988Q967900035},
       year = {1988},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Nasemann, J.: Fluorescein angiography with the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). Lasers Light Ophthalmol, no. 2, pp. 35-40, 1988
    BibTeX
    @article{Gabel1988,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Nasemann, J.},
       title = {Fluorescein angiography with the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO)},
       journal = {Lasers Light Ophthalmol},
       volume = {2},
       number = {1},
       pages = {35-40},
       year = {1988},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R.: Light-Induced Retinal Damage Produced by Equipment Used for Ophthalmological Examination and Treatment. Klinische Monatsblatter Fur Augenheilkunde, no. 192, pp. 265-265, 1988
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Birngruber1988,
       author = {Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Light-Induced Retinal Damage Produced by Equipment Used for Ophthalmological Examination and Treatment},
       journal = {Klinische Monatsblatter Fur Augenheilkunde},
       volume = {192},
       number = {3},
       pages = {265-265},
       note = {M6889
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0023-2165},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1988M688900039},
       year = {1988},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Nasemann, J.: [The scanning laser ophthalmoscope and its use as a fluorescein angiography instrument]. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 85, pp. 569-73, 1988
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Gabel1988,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Nasemann, J.},
       title = {[The scanning laser ophthalmoscope and its use as a fluorescein angiography instrument]},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {85},
       number = {5},
       pages = {569-73},
       note = {0723-8045 (Print)
    Case Reports
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Child
    Fluorescein Angiography/*instrumentation
    Humans
    Lasers/*diagnostic use
    Macular Degeneration/diagnosis
    Male
    *Ophthalmoscopes
    Retinal Diseases/*diagnosis},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=3224934},
       year = {1988},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Lorenz, B. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.: [Experimental studies of the occlusion of choroid blood vessels by infrared coagulation with reference to tumor therapy]. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 85, pp. 726-30, 1988
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Lorenz1988,
       author = {Lorenz, B. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {[Experimental studies of the occlusion of choroid blood vessels by infrared coagulation with reference to tumor therapy]},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {85},
       number = {6},
       pages = {726-30},
       note = {0723-8045 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Arteries/surgery
    Choroid/*blood supply
    Laser Surgery/*methods
    Rabbits},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=3220392},
       year = {1988},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1987

  • Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R.: Retinal photocoagulation with different wavelength. Folia Ophthalmol Jpn, no. 38, pp. 1660-1669, 1987
    BibTeX
    @article{Gabel1987,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Retinal photocoagulation with different wavelength},
       journal = {Folia Ophthalmol Jpn},
       volume = {38},
       pages = {1660-1669},
       year = {1987},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Lorenz, B. and Gabel, V. P.: [Retinal temperature stabilization based on choroid circulation]. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 84, pp. 92-5, 1987
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Birngruber1987,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Lorenz, B. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {[Retinal temperature stabilization based on choroid circulation]},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {84},
       number = {1},
       pages = {92-5},
       note = {0723-8045 (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    *Body Temperature Regulation
    Choroid/*blood supply
    *Laser Surgery
    Rabbits
    Retina/*physiology},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=3583190},
       year = {1987},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Kozma, M. and Zink, H. and Birngruber, R.: [Behavior of postoperative intraocular pressure following iridectomy and capsulotomy using a neodymium:YAG laser with reference to the effect of indomethacin]. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 84, pp. 76-9, 1987
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Gabel1987,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Kozma, M. and Zink, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[Behavior of postoperative intraocular pressure following iridectomy and capsulotomy using a neodymium:YAG laser with reference to the effect of indomethacin]},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {84},
       number = {1},
       pages = {76-9},
       note = {0723-8045 (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {*Cataract Extraction
    Glaucoma/*surgery
    Humans
    Indomethacin/*therapeutic use
    Intraocular Pressure/*drug effects
    Iris/*surgery
    *Laser Surgery
    Ocular Hypertension/drug therapy
    Postoperative Complications/drug therapy},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=3583187},
       year = {1987},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Puliafito, C. A. and Gawande, A. and Lin, W. Z. and Schoenlein, R. W. and Fujimoto, J. G.: Femtosecond Laser Tissue Interactions: Retinal Injury Studies. IEEE J Quant Electr, no. 23, pp. 1836-1844, 1987
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Puliafito, C. A. and Gawande, A. and Lin, W. Z. and Schoenlein, R. W. and Fujimoto, J. G.},
       title = {Femtosecond Laser Tissue Interactions: Retinal Injury Studies},
       journal = {IEEE J Quant Electr},
       volume = {23},
       number = {10},
       pages = {1836-1844},
       year = {1987}
    }
    

1986

  • Lorenz, B. and Ganson, N. and Stein, H. P. and Birngruber, R.: [CW neodymium: YAG laser photocoagulation of the rabbit fundus-effect on the choroid and sclera in comparison to argon laser photocoagulation]. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 83, pp. 436-40, 1986
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Lorenz1986,
       author = {Lorenz, B. and Ganson, N. and Stein, H. P. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[CW neodymium: YAG laser photocoagulation of the rabbit fundus--effect on the choroid and sclera in comparison to argon laser photocoagulation]},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {83},
       number = {4},
       pages = {436-40},
       note = {0723-8045 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Argon
    Choroid/*injuries
    Laser Surgery/*methods
    Neodymium
    Rabbits
    Retina/*injuries
    Sclera/*injuries},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=3770614},
       year = {1986},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Lorenz, B.: Clinical relevance of a dosage device for laser photocoagulation. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd, no. 188, pp. 263-5, 1986
    BibTeX Link Link
    @article{Gabel1986,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Lorenz, B.},
       title = {Clinical relevance of a dosage device for laser photocoagulation},
       journal = {Klin Monbl Augenheilkd},
       volume = {188},
       number = {4},
       pages = {263-5},
       note = {Gabel, V P
    Birngruber, R
    Lorenz, B
    GERMANY, WEST
    Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 1986 Apr;188(4):263-5.},
       abstract = {Fundus reflectometry constitutes a procedure with which dosage can be precisely regulated during the coagulation process. During retinal coagulation, for example, it is possible with this method to administer coagulations of uniform intensity regardless of variations in either the quality of the fundus image or the absorption of the pigmented structures. This can be useful for coagulation procedures which have to be confined for the most part to the pigment epithelium, as for example in the treatment of central serous retinopathy or in panretinal photocoagulation, where the functional therapeutic principle is still not clearly understood. Another area of application for reflectometric laser coagulation will be laser trabeculoplasty, in which barely detectable lesions have to be placed in the trabecular meshwork.},
       keywords = {*Computers
    Diabetic Retinopathy/surgery
    Humans
    *Laser Therapy
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/surgery
    Retinal Detachment/surgery
    Retinal Diseases/*surgery
    Retinal Vein/surgery
    Trabecular Meshwork/surgery
    AutoPhoN},
       ISSN = {0023-2165 (Print)
    0023-2165 (Linking)},
       DOI = {10.1055/s-2008-1050625},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3723965},
       year = {1986},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1985

  • Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F. and Gabel, V. P.: Theoretical investigations of laser thermal retinal injury. Health Phys, no. 48, pp. 781-96, 1985
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {Theoretical investigations of laser thermal retinal injury},
       journal = {Health Phys},
       volume = {48},
       number = {6},
       pages = {781-96},
       note = {0017-9078 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {A thermal damage model including heat conduction for retinal lesions is described to explain thermal threshold damage and compare it to experimental values in the regime of 1 ms to 300 ms. With the aid of these model calculations unspecific thermal damage (denaturation of proteins) could be separated from thermally induced damage to the photoreceptors. Furthermore, the thermal model allows an extrapolation to hazards to the fundus from intense light irradiation that have not been investigated experimentally.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Eye Proteins
    Heat/*adverse effects
    Lasers/*adverse effects
    Macaca
    Mathematics
    Models, Biological
    Protein Denaturation
    Rabbits
    Retina/*injuries},
       year = {1985}
    }
    
  • Neubauer, L. and Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R.: [Corneal endothelial changes in anterior capsulotomy and postcataract membranotomy with the neodymium:YAG laser]. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 82, pp. 80-2, 1985
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Neubauer1985,
       author = {Neubauer, L. and Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[Corneal endothelial changes in anterior capsulotomy and postcataract membranotomy with the neodymium:YAG laser]},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {82},
       number = {1},
       pages = {80-2},
       note = {0723-8045 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Cataract Extraction/*adverse effects/methods
    Cornea/*injuries/pathology
    Endothelium/pathology
    Follow-Up Studies
    Humans
    Lasers/*adverse effects},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=3997004},
       year = {1985},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Hiemer, H. and Hutter, H. and Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R.: [Retinal damage in neodymium:YAG laser surgery in the area of the vitreous body]. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 82, pp. 447-9, 1985
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Hiemer1985,
       author = {Hiemer, H. and Hutter, H. and Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[Retinal damage in neodymium:YAG laser surgery in the area of the vitreous body]},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {82},
       number = {5},
       pages = {447-9},
       note = {0723-8045 (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Lasers/*adverse effects
    Microscopy, Electron
    Rabbits
    Retina/*injuries
    Vitreous Body/*surgery},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=4076966},
       year = {1985},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Neubauer, L. and Zink, H. and Birngruber, R.: Ocular Side-Effects Following Neodymium - Yag Laser Irradiation. International Ophthalmology Clinics, no. 25, pp. 137-149, 1985
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Gabel1985,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Neubauer, L. and Zink, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Ocular Side-Effects Following Neodymium - Yag Laser Irradiation},
       journal = {International Ophthalmology Clinics},
       volume = {25},
       number = {3},
       pages = {137-149},
       note = {Asd03
    Times Cited:4
    Cited References Count:16},
       ISSN = {0020-8167},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1097/00004397-198502530-00011},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1985ASD0300010},
       year = {1985},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Hutter, H. and Hiemer, H. and Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R.: [Thermal neodymium:YAG laser effects on the retina]. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 82, pp. 443-6, 1985
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Hutter1985,
       author = {Hutter, H. and Hiemer, H. and Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[Thermal neodymium:YAG laser effects on the retina]},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {82},
       number = {5},
       pages = {443-6},
       note = {0723-8045 (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Choroid/injuries
    Lasers/*adverse effects
    Rabbits
    Retina/*injuries/pathology
    Retinal Hemorrhage/pathology},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=4076965},
       year = {1985},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1984

  • Scheiffarth, O. F. and Ludwig, K. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and von Meyer, L.: Chemical studies of intraocular lenses after experimental generation of lesions by a short-pulsed Nd-YAG laser. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, no. 222, pp. 43-4, 1984
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Scheiffarth1984,
       author = {Scheiffarth, O. F. and Ludwig, K. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and von Meyer, L.},
       title = {Chemical studies of intraocular lenses after experimental generation of lesions by a short-pulsed Nd-YAG laser},
       journal = {Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol},
       volume = {222},
       number = {1},
       pages = {43-4},
       note = {0721-832X (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {It is theoretically possible that lesions generated by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser could lead to chemical changes in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) intraocular lenses. These changes could be of clinical relevance. Therefore, we measured the residual monomer content of intraocular lenses before and after generation of lesions by means of a short-pulsed Nd-YAG laser. Despite the explosive destruction of the lens surface caused by this type of laser, there is no measurable release of monomer in the sense of a depolymerization of the PMMA material, even when over 100 lesions are generated. The lesions generated on intraocular PMMA lenses with the Nd-YAG laser are predominantly of a mechanical nature and include the chipping away of small particles from the intraocular lens.},
       keywords = {Lasers/*adverse effects
    *Lenses, Intraocular
    Methylmethacrylates/*radiation effects},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=6510725},
       year = {1984},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Yoshimoto, H. and Kampik, A. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.: Vitreous morphology after carbon dioxide laser irradiation. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, no. 221, pp. 276-81, 1984
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Yoshimoto1984,
       author = {Yoshimoto, H. and Kampik, A. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {Vitreous morphology after carbon dioxide laser irradiation},
       journal = {Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol},
       volume = {221},
       number = {6},
       pages = {276-81},
       note = {0721-832X (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The immediate vitreous changes produced by a continuous-wave carbon-dioxide laser beam in freshly enucleated bovine and pig eyes were studied by gross examination with a dissecting microscope, and histopathologically by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The lesions produced by the laser beam on the vitreous in an air tissue interface technique were remarkable for their ring-shaped vitreous condensations. The diameter and density of these condensations increased with irradiance. With the same irradiation parameters the lesions at the anterior hyaloid membranes showed greater size and density than those in the central area of the vitreous. These vitreous condensations were demonstrated to consist of heat-denatured collagen fibrils. For light microscopic evaluation of the vitreous a modified method of tissue processing according to Szent Gyorgi has proven optimal in reducing vitreous shrinkage from dehydration. This method of fixation and tissue processing appeared to be useful in evaluating lesions of the vitreous and their relationship to their surroundings.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Carbon Dioxide
    Cattle
    Histological Techniques
    *Lasers
    Microscopy, Electron
    Swine
    Vitreous Body/anatomy & histology/*radiation effects/ultrastructure},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=6434376},
       year = {1984},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Lachenmayr, B.: Ist der Krypton-Laser anderen Lichtquellen zur Koagulation der Netzhaut überlegen?. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 81, pp. 150-153, 1984
    BibTeX
    @article{Gabel1984,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Lachenmayr, B.},
       title = {Ist der Krypton-Laser anderen Lichtquellen zur Koagulation der Netzhaut überlegen?},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {81},
       pages = {150-153},
       year = {1984},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, Reginald: Die Lichtbelastung unbehandelter Netzhautareale bei der Photokoagulation. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 81, pp. 147-9, 1984
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Birngruber1984,
       author = {Birngruber, Reginald},
       title = {Die Lichtbelastung unbehandelter Netzhautareale bei der Photokoagulation},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {81},
       number = {2},
       pages = {147-9},
       note = {0723-8045 (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Humans
    Light Coagulation/*adverse effects
    Retina/*injuries},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=6735303},
       year = {1984},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.: Augengefährdung durch Lasereffekte in Diskotheken. Sozialpädiatrie Prax Klin, no. 6, pp. 487-494, 1984
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1984,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {Augengefährdung durch Lasereffekte in Diskotheken},
       journal = {Sozialpädiatrie Prax Klin},
       volume = {6},
       number = {9},
       pages = {487-494},
       year = {1984},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1983

  • Birngruber, Reginald and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F.: Experimental studies of laser thermal retinal injury. Health Phys, no. 44, pp. 519-31, 1983
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Birngruber1983,
       author = {Birngruber, Reginald and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {Experimental studies of laser thermal retinal injury},
       journal = {Health Phys},
       volume = {44},
       number = {5},
       pages = {519-31},
       note = {0017-9078 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {In damage tests conducted on rabbit and monkey eyes, the threshold values for retinal damage resulting from different laser radiation were determined. The reproduction of the "worst-case" situation was ensured by the test apparatus. All physical parameters, such as power/energy, exposure time, and retinal spot, were carefully controlled. Probit analysis showed a very precise determination of the threshold values based on ophthalmoscopical visibility. The attempt of a simple physical interpretation of the thresholds leads to contradictions in major points, so a detailed calculation of damage functions and thermal model calculations are necessary.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Lasers/*adverse effects
    Macaca
    Rabbits
    Retina/*injuries
    AutoPhoN},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=6853172},
       year = {1983},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Lorenz, B. and Weinberg, W. and Greite, J. H. and Gabel, V. P.: [Complications in laser coagulation with the panfunduscope]. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 79, pp. 434-7, 1983
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Birngruber1983,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Lorenz, B. and Weinberg, W. and Greite, J. H. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {[Complications in laser coagulation with the panfunduscope]},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {79},
       number = {5},
       pages = {434-7},
       note = {0723-8045 (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Fluorescein Angiography/adverse effects/*instrumentation
    Humans
    Iris/injuries
    Lasers/*adverse effects
    Lens Nucleus, Crystalline/injuries
    Lens, Crystalline/injuries
    Rabbits
    Retina/*surgery},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=6873800},
       year = {1983},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.: Thermal versus photochemical damage in the retina-thermal calculations for exposure limits. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K, no. 103 ( Pt 4), pp. 422-7, 1983
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Birngruber1983,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {Thermal versus photochemical damage in the retina--thermal calculations for exposure limits},
       journal = {Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K},
       volume = {103 ( Pt 4)},
       pages = {422-7},
       note = {0078-5334 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {Different kinds of damage can be produced by intense light irradiation of the retina. These types of damage can be separated into changes which are induced by photochemical or thermal effects in the tissue. Photochemical damage occurs mainly with intense irradiation of a few seconds or longer whereas thermal effects appear to prevail at irradiation times in the 1 ms to 1000 ms-range. Distinction between photochemical and thermal damage is very difficult because both types of injury appear as disorders in the retinal pigment epithelium and the outer segments of the photoreceptors. A thermal model has therefore been developed which takes into account the light absorption in the different layers of RPE and choroid and allows the calculation of the temporal development of temperature at each site and depth of the fundus. Model calculations are used to correlate exposure parameters (wavelength, irradiance, exposure time etc.) with the resulting temperature profiles. This correlation leads to a better distinction between exposure limits for thermal and photochemical damage of the retina.},
       keywords = {Burns/etiology
    Heat/*adverse effects
    Humans
    Light/*adverse effects
    Models, Biological
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/injuries/radiation effects
    Retina/*injuries/radiation effects
    Temperature},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=6600144},
       year = {1983},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1982

  • Lorenz, B. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and May, S. and Weinberg, W.: Die Beeinflussung der Aderhautdurchblutung durch Argonlaserkoagulation. Ein Vergleich zwischen Kaninchen und Affe.. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 79, pp. 159-62, 1982
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Lorenz1982,
       author = {Lorenz, B. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and May, S. and Weinberg, W.},
       title = {Die Beeinflussung der Aderhautdurchblutung durch Argonlaserkoagulation. Ein Vergleich zwischen Kaninchen und Affe.},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {79},
       number = {2},
       pages = {159-62},
       note = {0723-8045 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Choroid/*blood supply/pathology
    Humans
    Lasers/*methods/*therapeutic use
    Macaca mulatta
    Rabbits
    Radiation Dosage},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=6892217},
       year = {1982},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Weinberg, W and Lorenz, B. and Birngruber, R and Gabel, V P: Automatisch dosierte Photokoagulation zur Erzielung reproduzierbarer Efekte am Augenhintergrund. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 79, pp. 155-8, 1982
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Birngruber1982,
       author = {Weinberg, W and Lorenz, B. and Birngruber, R and Gabel, V P},
       title = {Automatisch dosierte Photokoagulation zur Erzielung reproduzierbarer Efekte am Augenhintergrund},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {79},
       number = {2},
       pages = {155-8},
       note = {0723-8045 (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Disease Models, Animal
    Light Coagulation/*methods
    Rabbits
    Retina/*pathology
    Retinal Diseases/*surgery},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7184835},
       year = {1982},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1981

  • Boergen, K. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F.: Laser-induced Endovascular Thrombosis as a Possibility of Selective Vessel Closure. Ophthalmic Res, no. 13, 1981
    BibTeX
    @article{Boergen1981,
       author = {Boergen, K. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {Laser-induced Endovascular Thrombosis as a Possibility of Selective Vessel Closure},
       journal = {Ophthalmic Res},
       volume = {13},
       number = {139-150},
       year = {1981},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Weinberg, W. and Hillenkamp, F.: Thermal Modeling in Retinal Photo-Coagulation. Ophthalmic Research, no. 13, pp. 273-273, 1981
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1981,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Weinberg, W. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {Thermal Modeling in Retinal Photo-Coagulation},
       journal = {Ophthalmic Research},
       volume = {13},
       number = {5},
       pages = {273-273},
       note = {Mc979
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0030-3747},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1981MC97900062},
       year = {1981},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.: Gefahren und Schutzmöglichkeiten beim Umgang mit Lasern.. Z prakt Augenheilkd, no. 2, pp. 17-19, 1981
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1981,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {Gefahren und Schutzmöglichkeiten beim Umgang mit Lasern.},
       journal = {Z prakt Augenheilkd},
       volume = {2},
       number = {1},
       pages = {17-19},
       year = {1981},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Lorenz, B. and Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R.: Functional and Morphological-Studies on the Choroid inside Ring-Shaped Laser Coagulations. Ophthalmic Research, no. 13, pp. 267-267, 1981
    BibTeX
    @article{Lorenz1981,
       author = {Lorenz, B. and Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Functional and Morphological-Studies on the Choroid inside Ring-Shaped Laser Coagulations},
       journal = {Ophthalmic Research},
       volume = {13},
       number = {5},
       pages = {267-267},
       note = {Mc979
    Times Cited:2
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0030-3747},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1981MC97900044},
       year = {1981},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R.: A comparative study of threshold laser lesions in the retinae of human volunteers and rabbits. Health Phys, no. 40, pp. 238-40, 1981
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Gabel1981,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {A comparative study of threshold laser lesions in the retinae of human volunteers and rabbits},
       journal = {Health Phys},
       volume = {40},
       number = {2},
       pages = {238-40},
       note = {0017-9078 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Adult
    Animals
    Humans
    Lasers/*adverse effects
    Middle Aged
    Rabbits
    Retina/*injuries},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7216803},
       year = {1981},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Weinberg, W and Gabel, V P and Birngruber, Reginald and Lorenz, B and Müller, W: Die zeitliche Entwicklung der Weißfärbung in Korrelation zur Schadensausdehnung bei der Photokoagulation der Netzhaut. Ber Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges, no. 78, pp. 603-606, 1981
    BibTeX
    @article{Weinberg1981,
       author = {Weinberg, W and Gabel, V P and Birngruber, Reginald and Lorenz, B and Müller, W},
       title = {Die zeitliche Entwicklung der Weißfärbung in Korrelation zur Schadensausdehnung bei der Photokoagulation der Netzhaut},
       journal = {Ber Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges},
       volume = {78},
       pages = {603-606},
       year = {1981},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Weinberg, W. and Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F.: Correlation of the Extent of Lesions with Exposition Parameters in Retinal Photo-Coagulation. Ophthalmic Research, no. 13, pp. 273-273, 1981
    BibTeX
    @article{Weinberg1981,
       author = {Weinberg, W. and Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {Correlation of the Extent of Lesions with Exposition Parameters in Retinal Photo-Coagulation},
       journal = {Ophthalmic Research},
       volume = {13},
       number = {5},
       pages = {273-273},
       note = {Mc979
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0030-3747},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1981MC97900061},
       year = {1981},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Weinberg, W. and Gabel, V. P.: Der Einfluß der Expositionsparameter auf die Schadensausdehnung bei der Netzhautkoagulation, dargestellt anhand eines thermischen Modells.. Ber Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges, no. 78, pp. 599-602, 1981
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1981,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Weinberg, W. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {Der Einfluß der Expositionsparameter auf die Schadensausdehnung bei der Netzhautkoagulation, dargestellt anhand eines thermischen Modells.},
       journal = {Ber Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges},
       volume = {78},
       pages = {599-602},
       year = {1981},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Lorenz, B. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Kampik, A.: Netzhautveränderungen innerhalb von ringförmigen Laserkoagulationen aufgrund von Zirkulationsstörungen in der Aderhaut.. Ber Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges, no. 78, pp. 607-611, 1981
    BibTeX
    @article{Lorenz1981,
       author = {Lorenz, B. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Kampik, A.},
       title = {Netzhautveränderungen innerhalb von ringförmigen Laserkoagulationen aufgrund von Zirkulationsstörungen in der Aderhaut.},
       journal = {Ber Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges},
       volume = {78},
       pages = {607-611},
       year = {1981},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.: Ophthalmology as a Pioneer in the Use of Lasers in Medicine. Klinische Monatsblatter Fur Augenheilkunde, no. 178, pp. 229-229, 1981
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1981,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {Ophthalmology as a Pioneer in the Use of Lasers in Medicine},
       journal = {Klinische Monatsblatter Fur Augenheilkunde},
       volume = {178},
       number = {3},
       pages = {229-229},
       note = {Lq030
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0023-2165},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1981LQ03000039},
       year = {1981},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1980

  • Birngruber, R. and Weinberg, W. and Gabel, V. P. and Kain, H.: Heat Convection in the Choroid during Laser Coagulation. Ophthalmic Research, no. 12, pp. 157-157, 1980
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1980,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Weinberg, W. and Gabel, V. P. and Kain, H.},
       title = {Heat Convection in the Choroid during Laser Coagulation},
       journal = {Ophthalmic Research},
       volume = {12},
       number = {3},
       pages = {157-157},
       note = {Ju200
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0030-3747},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1980JU20000072},
       year = {1980},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Boergen, K. P. and Birngruber, R. and Gorisch, W.: Laser-Induced Endovascular Thrombosis as a Possibility of Selective Vessel Closure. Ophthalmic Research, no. 12, pp. 157-157, 1980
    BibTeX
    @article{Boergen1980,
       author = {Boergen, K. P. and Birngruber, R. and Gorisch, W.},
       title = {Laser-Induced Endovascular Thrombosis as a Possibility of Selective Vessel Closure},
       journal = {Ophthalmic Research},
       volume = {12},
       number = {3},
       pages = {157-157},
       note = {Ju200
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0030-3747},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1980JU20000073},
       year = {1980},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Boergen, K. P. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Göttinger, W.: [Possibilities for ocular vessel coagulation (author`s transl)]. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd, no. 177, pp. 492-9, 1980
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Boergen1980,
       author = {Boergen, K. P. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Göttinger, W.},
       title = {[Possibilities for ocular vessel coagulation (author's transl)]},
       journal = {Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd},
       volume = {177},
       number = {4},
       pages = {492-9},
       note = {0023-2165 (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {Present-day possibilities of influencing pathological ocular vessels using an argon laser are presented. A distinction is made here between indirect methods such as area coagulation and direct methods with which specific vessels are treated. Whereas clinical tests involving vessel coagulation with pigmented epithelium absorption have already been carried out more or less successfully, selective vessel coagulation with hemoglobin absorption is still largely at the experimental stage. Our own experiments on animals have shown, however, that with the selection of a suitable coagulation technique and the use of suitable exposure parameters, vessel occlusion can be induced with the argon laser. To achieve this, shortening of the exposure times is particularly necessary.},
       keywords = {Aged
    Animals
    Diabetic Retinopathy/*surgery
    Humans
    Lasers/*methods/*therapeutic use
    Mesentery/blood supply
    Middle Aged
    Neovascularization, Pathologic
    Rats
    Retinal Vessels/*radiation effects},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=6166787},
       year = {1980},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, Reginald and Weinberg, W. and Gabel, V. P. and Kain, H.: Der Einfluß der Aderhautdurchblutung auf die Entstehung von thermischen Läsionen am Augenhintergrund. Ber Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges, no. 77, pp. 705-710, 1980
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1980,
       author = {Birngruber, Reginald and Weinberg, W. and Gabel, V. P. and Kain, H.},
       title = {Der Einfluß der Aderhautdurchblutung auf die Entstehung von thermischen Läsionen am Augenhintergrund},
       journal = {Ber Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges},
       volume = {77},
       pages = {705-710},
       year = {1980}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R.: Nichtionisiernde Strahlung: anwendung, Wirkungen, Schutzmaßnahmen, Strahlenbelastung bei speziellen diagnostischen und therapeutischen Eingriffen, Strahlenexposition bei der Computertomographie. Strahlenschutz Forsch Prax, Sonderdruck, no. 20, pp. 57-64, 1980
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Gabel1980,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Nichtionisiernde Strahlung: anwendung, Wirkungen, Schutzmaßnahmen, Strahlenbelastung bei speziellen diagnostischen und therapeutischen Eingriffen, Strahlenexposition bei der Computertomographie},
       journal = {Strahlenschutz Forsch Prax, Sonderdruck},
       volume = {20},
       pages = {57-64},
       note = {0081-5888 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Eye Injuries/etiology/prevention & control
    Humans
    Lasers/*adverse effects
    Occupational Diseases/prevention & control
    Rabbits
    Radiation Effects
    *Radiation Protection},
       year = {1980}
    }
    

1979

  • Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Weinberg, W. and McCord, R. and Hillenkamp, F.: Comparison of temperature measurements and fundus reflectometry in laser coagulation. Mod Probl Ophthalmol, no. 20, pp. 169-73, 1979
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Gabel1979,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Weinberg, W. and McCord, R. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {Comparison of temperature measurements and fundus reflectometry in laser coagulation},
       journal = {Mod Probl Ophthalmol},
       volume = {20},
       pages = {169-73},
       note = {0077-0078 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Color
    *Fundus Oculi
    *Heat
    Lasers/*methods/*therapeutic use
    Rabbits
    Retina/*surgery
    Time Factors},
       year = {1979}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R.: Physical and Medical Aspects of Laser Safety. in Laser 79, Opto-Electronics Conference proceedings, pp. 6555-6591, IPC Science and Technology Press Ltd.,
    BibTeX
    @inproceedings{Gabel1979,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Physical and Medical Aspects of Laser Safety},
       booktitle = {Laser 79, Opto-Electronics Conference proceedings},
       editor = {Waidlich, W.},
       publisher = {IPC Science and Technology Press Ltd.},
       pages = {6555-6591},
    
    }
    
  • Boergen, K. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F.: Möglichkeiten einer selektiven Gefäßkoagulation am Augenhintergrund - Konsequenzen aus tierexperimentellen Modelluntersuchungen. Ber Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges, no. 76, pp. 561, 1979
    BibTeX
    @article{Boergen1979,
       author = {Boergen, K. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {Möglichkeiten einer selektiven Gefäßkoagulation am Augenhintergrund - Konsequenzen aus tierexperimentellen Modelluntersuchungen},
       journal = {Ber Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges},
       volume = {76},
       pages = {561},
       year = {1979},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Boergen, K. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F.: Experimental studies on argon laser coagulation of small blood vessels. Mod Probl Ophthalmol, no. 20, pp. 174-83, 1979
    BibTeX
    @article{Boergen1979,
       author = {Boergen, K. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {Experimental studies on argon laser coagulation of small blood vessels},
       journal = {Mod Probl Ophthalmol},
       volume = {20},
       pages = {174-83},
       note = {0077-0078 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Argon
    Arteries/*surgery
    Arterioles/*surgery/ultrastructure
    Blood Coagulation
    Lasers/*methods/*therapeutic use
    Microscopy/methods
    Neovascularization, Pathologic
    Rats
    Retinal Vessels/surgery},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=95029},
       year = {1979},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Weinberg, W. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F.: Fundusreflektometrie, thermische Modellrechnungen und Temperaturmessungen als Hilfsmittel zur Optimierung der Bestrahlungsparameter bei der Photokoagulation der Netzhaut.. Ber Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges, no. 76, pp. 563-567, 1979
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1979,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Weinberg, W. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {Fundusreflektometrie, thermische Modellrechnungen und Temperaturmessungen als Hilfsmittel zur Optimierung der Bestrahlungsparameter bei der Photokoagulation der Netzhaut.},
       journal = {Ber Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges},
       volume = {76},
       pages = {563-567},
       year = {1979}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Drechsel, E. and Hillenkamp, F. and Gabel, V. P.: Minimal spot size on the retina formed by the optical system of the eye. Int Ophthalmol, no. 1, pp. 175-8, 1979
    BibTeX Link
    @article{BGB1979,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Drechsel, E. and Hillenkamp, F. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {Minimal spot size on the retina formed by the optical system of the eye},
       journal = {Int Ophthalmol},
       volume = {1},
       number = {3},
       pages = {175-8},
       note = {0165-5701 (Print)
    In Vitro
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {A knowledge of the quality of the ocular optical system is of primary importance in light- and laser-photocoagulation of the fundus. A study was therefore undertaken to determine the minimal spot size of a Helium-Neon laser focused on the retina of rabbits: freshly enucleated eyes were carefully mounted in a specially designed eye holder. A small hole was then trepanized through the sclera and neural retina in the macular region. A minimal spot was produced on the retina and the spot size was measured by scanning the intensity distribution of an enlarged image. It was shown that a diffraction limited spot size can be obtained under certain circumstances. The light scattering out of the focus, however, is about fify percent.},
       keywords = {Animals
    *Lasers/therapeutic use
    *Ocular Physiology
    *Optics
    Rabbits
    Retina},
       year = {1979}
    }
    

1978

  • Weinberg, W. and McCord, R. C. and Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Boergen, K. P. and Hillenkamp, F.: Simultanmessung von Temperaturverlauf und Weißfärbungen am Augenhintergrund während Laserkoagulationen. Sonderdruck aus Deutsche Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft, Bericht über die 75. Zusammenkunft in Heidelberg 1977, pp. 411-4, 1978
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Weinberg1978,
       author = {Weinberg, W. and McCord, R. C. and Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Boergen, K. P. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {Simultanmessung von Temperaturverlauf und Weißfärbungen am Augenhintergrund während Laserkoagulationen},
       journal = {Sonderdruck aus Deutsche Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft, Bericht über die 75. Zusammenkunft in Heidelberg 1977},
       pages = {411-4},
       note = {0070-427X (Print)
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    *Fundus Oculi
    *Lasers/*therapeutic use
    Methods
    Rabbits
    *Temperature},
       year = {1978}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F.: Visible and near infrared light absorption in pigment epithelium and choroid.. in XXIII Concilium Ophthalmologicum, pp. 658-662,
    BibTeX
    @inproceedings{Gabel1978,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {Visible and near infrared light absorption in pigment epithelium and choroid.},
       booktitle = {XXIII Concilium Ophthalmologicum},
       editor = {Shimizu, Koichi},
       series = {International Congress Series No. 450},
       pages = {658-662},
    
    }
    
  • Boergen, K. P. and Birngruber, R. and Brandl, H. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F.: [The significance of hemoglobin absorption for selective vascular coagulation]. Ber Zusammenkunft Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges, pp. 416-20, 1978
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Boergen1978,
       author = {Boergen, K. P. and Birngruber, R. and Brandl, H. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {[The significance of hemoglobin absorption for selective vascular coagulation]},
       journal = {Ber Zusammenkunft Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges},
       number = {75},
       pages = {416-20},
       note = {0070-427X (Print)
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Arteries/*radiation effects
    Arterioles/*radiation effects
    Hemoglobins/*radiation effects
    *Lasers/*therapeutic use
    Rats},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=570389},
       year = {1978},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Stefani, F. H. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F. and Gabel, V. P.: Q-switched ruby laser induced damage of the adult rabbit lens capsule. Albrecht Von Graefes Arch Klin Exp Ophthalmol, no. 206, pp. 49-55, 1978
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Stefani1978,
       author = {Stefani, F. H. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {Q-switched ruby laser induced damage of the adult rabbit lens capsule},
       journal = {Albrecht Von Graefes Arch Klin Exp Ophthalmol},
       volume = {206},
       number = {1},
       pages = {49-55},
       note = {0065-6100 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The technique of Q-switched ruby laser induced mechanical destruction of the lens capsule was used to study the reactions of the adult rabbit lens. The defect produced in the anterior lens capsule was larger than the 40-60 micrometer focus, which was due to rolled-up edges of the capsule. Long-term observations revealed some decrease in size of developing localized opacification and a healing of the defect by outgrowing lens epithelium with the formation of a new capsule. The rupture of the posterior capsule led to a slowly progressive opacification with little intraocular macrophage reaction.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Lasers/*adverse effects
    Lens, Crystalline/*injuries/pathology
    Macrophages/physiology
    Rabbits
    Time Factors},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=306208},
       year = {1978},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Welsch, H. and Birngruber, R. and Boergen, K. P. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F.: [Spectral light absorption in whole blood with reference to the dispersion]. Ber Zusammenkunft Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges, pp. 415, 1978
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Welscg1978,
       author = {Welsch, H. and Birngruber, R. and Boergen, K. P. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {[Spectral light absorption in whole blood with reference to the dispersion]},
       journal = {Ber Zusammenkunft Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges},
       number = {75},
       pages = {415},
       note = {0070-427X (Print)
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Blood/*radiation effects
    *Light
    Scattering, Radiation},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=743131},
       year = {1978},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1977

  • Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F.: [Individual differences in light absorption in the fundus oculi in the visible and the infrared spectral region]. Ber Zusammenkunft Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges, no. 74, pp. 418-21, 1977
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Gabel1977,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {[Individual differences in light absorption in the fundus oculi in the visible and the infrared spectral region]},
       journal = {Ber Zusammenkunft Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges},
       volume = {74},
       pages = {418-21},
       note = {0070-427X (Print)
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Absorption
    Fundus Oculi/*physiology
    Humans
    Infrared Rays
    Light},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=577765},
       year = {1977},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Drechsel, E. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F.: [Measurement of the size of the focus in the rabbit]. Ber Zusammenkunft Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges, no. 74, pp. 413-7, 1977
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Drechsel1977,
       author = {Drechsel, E. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {[Measurement of the size of the focus in the rabbit]},
       journal = {Ber Zusammenkunft Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges},
       volume = {74},
       pages = {413-7},
       note = {0070-427X (Print)
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Biophysics
    Eye/*radiation effects
    Lasers
    Light
    Rabbits},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=577764},
       year = {1977},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Ippi, F.: Fernsehanlage in der Augenklinik der Universität München - ein Mittel zur Intensivierung von Forschung und Lehre in der Medizin.. Grundig Techn Info 6, Fernseh- und Kintechn, no. 31/7, pp. 245-247, 1977
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1977,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Ippi, F.},
       title = {Fernsehanlage in der Augenklinik der Universität München - ein Mittel zur Intensivierung von Forschung und Lehre in der Medizin.},
       journal = {Grundig Techn Info 6, Fernseh- und Kintechn},
       volume = {31/7},
       pages = {245-247},
       year = {1977},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F.: Fundusreflektometrie während Laserkoagulationen. Sonderdruck aus Bericht über die 74. Zusammenkunft der Deutschen Opghthalmologischen Gesellschaft, pp. 422-7, 1977
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Birngruber1977,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {Fundusreflektometrie während Laserkoagulationen},
       journal = {Sonderdruck aus "Bericht über die 74. Zusammenkunft der Deutschen Opghthalmologischen Gesellschaft},
       pages = {422-7},
       note = {0070-427X (Print)
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Biophysics
    Fundus Oculi
    *Lasers/*therapeutic use
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/radiation effects
    Rabbits
    *Refraction, Ocular},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=577766},
       year = {1977},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Rauhut, D and Gabel, V P and Birngruber, Reginald and Hillenkamp, F: Licht- und elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen von Neodymlaserläsionen bei Kaninchen. Bericht über die 74. Zusammenkunft der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft, no. Sonderdruck, pp. 407-12, 1977
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Rauhut1977,
       author = {Rauhut, D and Gabel, V P and Birngruber, Reginald and Hillenkamp, F},
       title = {Licht- und elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen von Neodymlaserläsionen bei Kaninchen},
       journal = {Bericht über die 74. Zusammenkunft der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft},
       volume = {Sonderdruck},
       pages = {407-12},
       note = {0070-427X (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Argon
    Choroid/radiation effects
    Lasers/*adverse effects/*therapeutic use
    Melanocytes
    Microscopy, Electron
    Sclera/radiation effects},
       year = {1977}
    }
    
  • Stefani, F. H. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F. and Gabel, V. P.: [Lens injuries due to rubin laser giant impulses]. Ber Zusammenkunft Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges, no. 74, pp. 403-6, 1977
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Stefani1977,
       author = {Stefani, F. H. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {[Lens injuries due to rubin laser giant impulses]},
       journal = {Ber Zusammenkunft Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges},
       volume = {74},
       pages = {403-6},
       note = {0070-427X (Print)
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Lasers/*adverse effects/*therapeutic use
    Lens, Crystalline/*injuries
    Rabbits},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=577762},
       year = {1977},
       type = {Journal Article}
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F. and Stefani, F. H. and Gabel, V. P.: Q-switched ruby laser damage of the rabbit eye lens. Adv Ophthalmol, no. 34, pp. 158-63, 1977
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Birngruber1977,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F. and Stefani, F. H. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {Q-switched ruby laser damage of the rabbit eye lens},
       journal = {Adv Ophthalmol},
       volume = {34},
       pages = {158-63},
       note = {0065-3004 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {Results on Q-switched ruby laser damage to lenses of Chinchilla grey rabbits are reported. Threshold irradiances of about 10(10)W/cm2 are shown to be necessary for lens damage. The minimal lesions consist of empty bubbles about 1 mm in diameter. Energy consideration as well as histologic investigation of the lesions indicate a mechanical damage process following a light-induced absorption in the focus. Retinal damage accompanied lenticular damage in all cases},
       keywords = {Animals
    Lasers/*adverse effects
    Lens, Crystalline/*injuries/ultrastructure
    Rabbits},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=868688},
       year = {1977},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Lund, O. E. and Birngruber, R.: [A colour-television-system for lectures and clinical training in ophthalmology (author`s transl)]. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd, no. 171, pp. 287-93, 1977
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Lund1977,
       author = {Lund, O. E. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[A colour-television-system for lectures and clinical training in ophthalmology (author's transl)]},
       journal = {Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd},
       volume = {171},
       number = {2},
       pages = {287-93},
       note = {0023-2165 (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {First experiences with a new Colour-TV-System in the University Eye-Clinic Munich are reported. The system is described in detail and special problems of fitting the TV-cameras to the ophthalmological instruments such as operation microscopes, slit lamps and fundus cameras are described.},
       keywords = {Color
    *Education, Medical, Graduate
    Germany, West
    Hospitals, University
    Humans
    Ophthalmology/*education
    *Television},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=916612},
       year = {1977},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F.: Fundus reflectometry: a step towards optimization of the retina photocoagulation. Mod Probl Ophthalmol, no. 18, pp. 383-90, 1977
    BibTeX Link
    @article{BGB1977,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {Fundus reflectometry: a step towards optimization of the retina photocoagulation},
       journal = {Mod Probl Ophthalmol},
       volume = {18},
       pages = {383-90},
       note = {Birngruber, R
    Gabel, V P
    Hillenkamp, F
    SWITZERLAND
    Mod Probl Ophthalmol. 1977;18:383-90.},
       abstract = {A method is described for monitoring the light reflected from exposed areas during and after argon laser photocoagulation of rabbit eyes. The light serves as a measure of the retinal blanching and thus of the tissue reaction. It is shown, that the reflected light changes its time-dependent behavior qualitatively if hemorrhages occur. The energy necessary for a therapeutic coagulation is shown to decrease with decreasing exposure time as does the therapeutic band width for clinical coagulations. A relationship between exposure time and therapeutic band width was found and is discussed.},
       keywords = {Animals
    *Fundus Oculi
    *Laser Therapy
    Lasers/adverse effects/*methods
    Photometry/*methods
    Rabbits
    Retina/*surgery
    Retinal Hemorrhage/etiology
    AutoPhoN},
       year = {1977}
    }
    
  • Boergen, K. P. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F.: [Intravital microscopic studies on the selective coagulation of small vessels by means of the argon laser]. Ber Zusammenkunft Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges, no. 74, pp. 428-34, 1977
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Boergen1977,
       author = {Boergen, K. P. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {[Intravital microscopic studies on the selective coagulation of small vessels by means of the argon laser]},
       journal = {Ber Zusammenkunft Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges},
       volume = {74},
       pages = {428-34},
       note = {0070-427X (Print)
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Argon
    Capillaries/*surgery
    Hematoma/etiology
    Hemorrhage/etiology
    Lasers/*standards/*therapeutic use
    Microscopy
    Rats
    Thrombosis/etiology},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=577767},
       year = {1977},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1976

  • Lund, O. E. and Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, Reginald: Diathermieverfahren, Licht-/Laserkoagulation, Kryokoagulation. Experimentelle und klinische Uberlegungen. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd, no. 168, pp. 603-12, 1976
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Lund1976,
       author = {Lund, O. E. and Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, Reginald},
       title = {Diathermieverfahren, Licht-/Laserkoagulation, Kryokoagulation. Experimentelle und klinische Uberlegungen},
       journal = {Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd},
       volume = {168},
       number = {05},
       pages = {603-12},
       note = {0023-2165 (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The clinical and experimental results from the methods of coagulation currently in use are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of trans-scleral methods (diathermy and cryopexy) and trans-ocular methods (Xenon arc and argon laser) are discussed. Experiments on absorption, the mode of action of intense light, the optimal time and method of application, the necessary intensity and the extent of the coagulated area are communicated. Of the trans-scleral methods, cryopexy is to be prefered. The trans-ocular methods have the advantage of a more exact localisation and dosage. Either route can often be chosen in any particular case, though at present no overriding advantage has been shown for either.},
       keywords = {*Cryosurgery/adverse effects/methods
    *Diathermy/adverse effects/methods
    Humans
    Lasers/adverse effects/methods/therapeutic use
    *Light Coagulation/adverse effects/methods
    Retina/pathology
    Retinal Detachment/*surgery
    Time Factors},
       year = {1976}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R.: Audivisuelle Anlage der Augenklinik München. Grundig-Electronic-Information, 1976
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1976,
       author = {Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Audivisuelle Anlage der Augenklinik München},
       journal = {Grundig-Electronic-Information},
       year = {1976},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F.: Die Lichtabsorption am Augenhintergrund. Ges f Strahlen- und Umweltforschung, München, 1976
    BibTeX
    @book{Gabel1976,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {Die Lichtabsorption am Augenhintergrund},
       publisher = {Ges f Strahlen- und Umweltforschung},
       address = {München},
       series = {GSF-Bericht A 55},
       year = {1976}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F. and Boergen, K. P.: Ophthalmoscopic Therapeutic Problems and Laser Personnel. Klinische Monatsblatter Fur Augenheilkunde, no. 169, pp. 669-669, 1976
    BibTeX
    @article{Gabel1976,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F. and Boergen, K. P.},
       title = {Ophthalmoscopic Therapeutic Problems and Laser Personnel},
       journal = {Klinische Monatsblatter Fur Augenheilkunde},
       volume = {169},
       number = {5},
       pages = {669-669},
       note = {Cq473
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0023-2165},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1976CQ47300042},
       year = {1976},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1975

  • Wallow, I. H. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F. and Lund, O. I.: Netzhautreaktionen nach Intensivlichtbestrahlung. Teil I: Schwellenlasionen. Experimentelle, morphologische und klinische Untersuchungen uber pathologische und therapeutische Wirkungen von Laserlicht und von weissem Licht. Adv Ophthalmol, no. 31, pp. 159-232, 1975
    BibTeX Link
    @article{BGB1975,
       author = {Wallow, I. H. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F. and Lund, O. I.},
       title = {Netzhautreaktionen nach Intensivlichtbestrahlung. Teil I: Schwellenlasionen. Experimentelle, morphologische und klinische Untersuchungen uber pathologische und therapeutische Wirkungen von Laserlicht und von weissem Licht
    },
       journal = {Adv Ophthalmol},
       volume = {31},
       pages = {159-232},
       note = {0065-3004 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The effects of intense light produced by an argon laser, a helium-neon laser and a xenon are photocoagulator in the retinas of gray chinchilla rabbits, cynomolgus monkeys, and rhesus monkeys were studied clinically and histopathologically including electron microscopy. An improved experimental set-up was used allowing a very good consistency of the inflicted lesions. Threshold lesions were produced in chinchilla rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys by an argon laser and a helium-neon laser. The lesions were evaluated ophthalmoscopically and histograms were drawn indicating ophthalmoscopic ED50 values. For the two lasers examined these values were 12 and 17 mW, respectively, for exposure durations in the range of the blink reflex (125-150 msec). Histopathologically, ophthalmoscopic threshold lesions of both laser types showed evidence of thermal damage of the outer retinal half. This damage was principally identical in both species involving the retinal pigment epithelium and the full extension of the photoreceptor cells up to their synapses within the outer plexiform layer. The ophthalmoscopic threshold value was associated, therefore, with an irreversible loss of visual function within the retinal area concerned. No evidence for primary sites of significant energy absorption within the neural retina was found. The width of ophthalmoscopic threshold lesions was determined by measuring within the histologic sections with a microscope and a calibrated graticule the extension of damage at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium and at the level of the outer nuclear layer. In the cynomolgus monkey for ophthalmoscopic argon laser threshold lesions the extension at the level of the RPE was 70-80 mum in diameter and at the level of the outer nuclear layer it was 40-50 mum in diameter. Laser lesions that had a diameter of 60 mum at the level of the RPE and of 30 mum at the level of the outer nuclear layer were ophthalmoscopically subvisible. It is concluded that probably also in man such laser lesions, as well as various other pathologic changes of this size or smaller, cannot be evaluated by clinical ophthalmoscopy. The ophthalmoscopic threshold was correlated with a histopathologic threshold as defined by minimal histopathologic damage. Very likely, such damage lies within the range of functional recovery, and the histopathologic threshold demarcates at the same time the decisive functional threshold. The conversion ratio between histopathologic-functional and ophthalmoscopic threshold for argon lesions in cynomolgus monkeys was somewhat greater than 3, e.i. the ophthalmoscopic threshold was more than 3 times higher than the histopathologic-functional threshold. Using this data together with additional biologic and optical considerations, a safety threshold for man for cw-lasers within the visible spectrum was estimated to be 1-2 mW.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Argon
    Fundus Oculi
    Haplorhini
    Helium
    Humans
    *Lasers/methods/*therapeutic use
    Macaca
    Macaca fascicularis
    Neon
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/pathology/ultrastructure
    Rabbits
    Retina/pathology/*surgery/ultrastructure
    Retinal Diseases/*etiology/pathology},
       year = {1975}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Wallow, I. H. and Hillenkamp, F.: Über Rubin-Laserschwellenwertuntersuchungen an der Netzhaut. Sonderdruck aus Bericht über die 73. Zusammenkunft der Deutschen Ophthalm. Gesellschaft in Heidelberg 1973, pp. 367-74, 1975
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Birngruber1977,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Wallow, I. H. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {Über Rubin-Laserschwellenwertuntersuchungen an der Netzhaut},
       journal = {Sonderdruck aus "Bericht über die 73. Zusammenkunft der Deutschen Ophthalm. Gesellschaft in Heidelberg 1973"},
       number = {73},
       pages = {367-74},
       note = {0070-427X (Print)
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Haplorhini
    Lasers/adverse effects/*standards
    Rabbits
    Retina/injuries/*physiology},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=812473},
       year = {1975},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Lund, O. E. and Wallow, I. H. and Hillenkamp, F. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.: Zur experimentellen Laser-Einwirkung am Auge. Sonderdruck aus Bericht über die 73. Zusammenkunft der Deutschen Ophthalm. Gesellschaft in Heidelbert 1973, pp. 360-362, 1975
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Lund1975,
       author = {Lund, O. E. and Wallow, I. H. and Hillenkamp, F. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {Zur experimentellen Laser-Einwirkung am Auge},
       journal = {Sonderdruck aus "Bericht über die 73. Zusammenkunft der Deutschen Ophthalm. Gesellschaft in Heidelbert 1973"},
       number = {73},
       pages = {360-362},
       note = {0070-427X (Print)
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {*Accident Prevention
    Eye Injuries/*prevention & control
    Humans
    Lasers/*adverse effects/standards},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=1242947},
       year = {1975},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Greite, J. H. and Birngruber, R.: Low intensity argon laser coagulation in central serous retinopathy (csr). Ophthalmologica, no. 171, pp. 214-43, 1975
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Greite1975,
       author = {Greite, J. H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Low intensity argon laser coagulation in central serous retinopathy (csr)},
       journal = {Ophthalmologica},
       volume = {171},
       number = {3},
       pages = {214-43},
       note = {0030-3755 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {Mechanisms of light coagulation effects in RPE and detached retina are discussed. 25 cases of CSR are presented in which the leaking point in the RPE was coagulated with an argon laser coagulator, the exposure parameters being set to avoid a whitening of the retina. The results suggest that the retinal whitening and consequently retinal damage does not constitute a criterium for coagulation effectiveness in CSR.},
       keywords = {Adult
    *Argon
    Fluorescein Angiography
    Fundus Oculi
    Humans
    *Lasers/*therapeutic use
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Retinal Artery/radiography
    Retinal Detachment/*therapy
    Retinal Vein/radiography
    Retinal Vessels/radiography},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=1169740},
       year = {1975},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F. and Wallow, I. H. and Schmolke, W.: Über die Lichtabsorption am Augenhintergrund. Sonderdruck aus Bericht über die 73. Zusammenkunt der Deutschen Ophthalm. Gesellschaft in Heidelberg 1973, pp. 362-7, 1975
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Gabel1975,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F. and Wallow, I. H. and Schmolke, W.},
       title = {Über die Lichtabsorption am Augenhintergrund},
       journal = {Sonderdruck aus "Bericht über die 73. Zusammenkunt der Deutschen Ophthalm. Gesellschaft in Heidelberg 1973"},
       number = {73},
       pages = {362-7},
       note = {0070-427X (Print)
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Absorption
    Animals
    Choroid/physiology
    *Fundus Oculi
    Haplorhini
    Humans
    *Light
    Rabbits
    Retina/physiology},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=812472},
       year = {1975},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F.: Development of Laser Lesions in Fundus. Klinische Monatsblatter Fur Augenheilkunde, no. 167, pp. 624-624, 1975
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1975,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {Development of Laser Lesions in Fundus},
       journal = {Klinische Monatsblatter Fur Augenheilkunde},
       volume = {167},
       number = {4},
       pages = {624-624},
       note = {Ay079
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0023-2165},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1975AY07900026},
       year = {1975},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Kinder, J. and Hutzler, P. and Birngruber, R.: Fernsehübertragung stereoskopischer Bilder. Biomed Techn, no. 20, pp. 297-298, 1975
    BibTeX
    @article{Kinder1975,
       author = {Kinder, J. and Hutzler, P. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Fernsehübertragung stereoskopischer Bilder},
       journal = {Biomed Techn},
       volume = {20},
       pages = {297-298},
       year = {1975},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wallow, I. H. and Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F.: [Clinical and histological studies following argon-laser effect on the retina. -Histo-pathological evaluation of laser injuries for the assessment of a functional injury threshold for lasers]. Ber Zusammenkunft Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges, pp. 374-86, 1975
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Wallow1975,
       author = {Wallow, I. H. and Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {[Clinical and histological studies following argon-laser effect on the retina. --Histo-pathological evaluation of laser injuries for the assessment of a functional injury threshold for lasers]},
       journal = {Ber Zusammenkunft Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges},
       number = {73},
       pages = {374-86},
       note = {0070-427X (Print)
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Argon
    Eye Injuries/*etiology/pathology
    Haplorhini
    Lasers/*adverse effects
    Retina/*injuries/pathology},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=812474},
       year = {1975},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wallow, I. H. L. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F. and Lund, O. E.: Retinal Reactions to Intense Light .1. Threshold Lesions - Experimental, Morphological and Clinical Studies of Pathological and Therapeutic Effects of Laser-Light and White-Light. Advances in Ophthalmology, no. 31, pp. 159-232, 1975
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Wallow1975,
       author = {Wallow, I. H. L. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Hillenkamp, F. and Lund, O. E.},
       title = {Retinal Reactions to Intense Light .1. Threshold Lesions - Experimental, Morphological and Clinical Studies of Pathological and Therapeutic Effects of Laser-Light and White-Light},
       journal = {Advances in Ophthalmology},
       volume = {31},
       pages = {159-232},
       note = {Cz545
    Times Cited:23
    Cited References Count:151},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1975CZ54500004},
       year = {1975},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1974

  • Wallow, I. H. and Lund, O. E. and Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F.: A comparison of retinal argon laser lesions in man and in cynomolgus monkey. Graefes Arch Klin Exp Ophthalmol, no. 189, pp. 159-64, 1974
    BibTeX Link
    @article{BGB1974,
       author = {Wallow, I. H. and Lund, O. E. and Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {A comparison of retinal argon laser lesions in man and in cynomolgus monkey},
       journal = {Graefes Arch Klin Exp Ophthalmol},
       volume = {189},
       number = {3},
       pages = {159-64},
       note = {0065-6100 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Animals
    Argon
    Choroid Neoplasms
    Diabetic Retinopathy/surgery
    Disease Models, Animal
    Epithelium/pathology
    Eye Injuries/pathology
    Fundus Oculi
    Haplorhini
    Humans
    *Lasers/*therapeutic use
    *Macaca
    Male
    Melanoma
    Middle Aged
    Ophthalmoscopy
    Photoreceptors/pathology
    Retina/*injuries},
       year = {1974}
    }
    

1973

  • Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Wallow, I. H. and Hillenkamp, F.: Über Rubin-Laserschwellenwertuntersuchungen an der Netzhaut. Sonderdruck aus Bericht über die 73. Zusammenkunft der Deutschen Ophthalm. Gesellschaft in Heidelberg 1973, pp. 367-74, 1973
    BibTeX
    @article{BGB1973,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P. and Wallow, I. H. and Hillenkamp, F.},
       title = {Über Rubin-Laserschwellenwertuntersuchungen an der Netzhaut},
       journal = {Sonderdruck aus "Bericht über die 73. Zusammenkunft der Deutschen Ophthalm. Gesellschaft in Heidelberg 1973"},
       number = {73},
       pages = {367-74},
       note = {0070-427X (Print)
    Journal Article},
    year = { 1973 },
       keywords = {Animals
    Haplorhini
    Lasers/adverse effects/*standards
    Rabbits
    Retina/injuries/*physiology},
       year = { 1973}
    }
    
  • Lund, O. E. and Wallow, I. H. and Hillenkamp, F. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.: Zur experimentellen Laser-Einwirkung am Auge. Sonderdruck aus Bericht über die 73. Zusammenkunft der Deutschen Ophthalm. Gesellschaft in Heidelbert 1973, pp. 360-362, 1973
    BibTeX
    @article{BGB1973,
       author = {Lund, O. E. and Wallow, I. H. and Hillenkamp, F. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {Zur experimentellen Laser-Einwirkung am Auge},
       journal = {Sonderdruck aus "Bericht über die 73. Zusammenkunft der Deutschen Ophthalm. Gesellschaft in Heidelbert 1973"},
       number = {73},
       pages = {360-362},
       note = {0070-427X (Print)
    Journal Article},
    Year = { 1973 },
       keywords = {*Accident Prevention
    Eye Injuries/*prevention & control
    Humans
    Lasers/*adverse effects/standards},
       year = { 1973}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V P; Birngruber, R; Hillenkamp, F; Wallow, I H and Schmolke, W: Über die Lichtabsorption am Augenhintergrund. Sonderdruck aus Bericht über die 73. Zusammenkunt der Deutschen Ophthalm. Gesellschaft in Heidelberg 1973, pp. 362-7, 1973
    BibTeX
    @article{BGB1973,
       author = {Gabel, V P; Birngruber, R; Hillenkamp, F; Wallow, I H and Schmolke, W},
       title = {Über die Lichtabsorption am Augenhintergrund},
       journal = {Sonderdruck aus "Bericht über die 73. Zusammenkunt der Deutschen Ophthalm. Gesellschaft in Heidelberg 1973"},
    year ={ 1973 },
       number = {73},
       pages = {362-7},
       note = {0070-427X (Print)
    Journal Article},
       keywords = {Absorption
    Animals
    Choroid/physiology
    *Fundus Oculi
    Haplorhini
    Humans
    *Light
    Rabbits
    Retina/physiology},
       year = { 1973}
    }