Publikationen

2019

  • Ourak, M. Smits, J. Esteveny, L. Borghesan, G. Gijbels, A. Schoevaerdts, L. Douven, Y. Scholtes, J. Lankenau, E. Eixmann, T. Schulz-Hildebrandt, H. Hüttmann, G. Kozlovszky, M. Kronreif, G. Willekens, K. Stalmans, P. Faridpooya, K. Cereda, M. Giani, A. Staurenghi, G. Reynaerts, D. Vander Poorten, E. B.: Combined OCT distance and FBG force sensing cannulation needle for retinal vein cannulation: in vivo animal validation. International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, no. 14, pp. 301-309, Feb, 2019
    BibTeX Link Link
    @Article{Ourak2019,
    author="Ourak, M.
    and Smits, J.
    and Esteveny, L.
    and Borghesan, G.
    and Gijbels, A.
    and Schoevaerdts, L.
    and Douven, Y.
    and Scholtes, J.
    and Lankenau, E.
    and Eixmann, T.
    and Schulz-Hildebrandt, H.
    and H{\"u}ttmann, G.
    and Kozlovszky, M.
    and Kronreif, G.
    and Willekens, K.
    and Stalmans, P.
    and Faridpooya, K.
    and Cereda, M.
    and Giani, A.
    and Staurenghi, G.
    and Reynaerts, D.
    and Vander Poorten, E. B.",
    title="Combined OCT distance and FBG force sensing cannulation needle for retinal vein cannulation: in vivo animal validation",
    journal="International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery",
    year="2019",
    month="Feb",
    day="01",
    volume="14",
    number="2",
    pages="301--309",
    abstract="Retinal vein cannulation is an experimental procedure during which a clot-dissolving drug is injected into an obstructed retinal vein. However, due to the fragility and minute size of retinal veins, such procedure is considered too risky to perform manually. With the aid of surgical robots, key limiting factors such as: unwanted eye rotations, hand tremor and instrument immobilization can be tackled. However, local instrument anatomy distance and force estimation remain unresolved issues. A reliable, real-time local interaction estimation between instrument tip and the retina could be a solution. This paper reports on the development of a combined force and distance sensing cannulation needle, and its experimental validation during in vivo animal trials.",
    issn="1861-6429",
    doi="10.1007/s11548-018-1829-0",
    url="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11548-018-1829-0"
    citation_key = {Ourak2019}
    }

2018

  • Borghesan,G; Ourak,M; Lankenau, E; Hüttmann,G; Schulz-Hildebrandt,H; Willekens,K; Stalmans, K; Reynaerts, D and Vander Poorten,E: Single Scan OCT-based Retina Detection for Robot-assisted Retinal Vein Cannulation. J Med Robot Res 3(2), pp. 184005, 2018
    BibTeX Link Link
    @article{borghesan2018single,
    title = {Single Scan OCT-based Retina Detection for Robot-assisted Retinal Vein Cannulation},
    author = {Borghesan,G; Ourak,M; Lankenau, E; H\"{u}ttmann,G; Schulz-Hildebrandt,H; Willekens,K; Stalmans, K; Reynaerts, D and Vander Poorten,E},
    editor = {World Scientific},
    url = {https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S2424905X18400056},
    doi = {10.1142/S2424905X18400056},
    year = {2018},
    date = {2018-02-12},
    journal = {J Med Robot Res} {3(2)},
    
    pages = {184005},
    abstract = {Vitreoretinal surgery concerns a set of particularly demanding minimal invasive micro-surgical interventions at the retina. Micro-surgeons are targeting sub-millimeter-sized structures here. Tiny vessels or wafer-thin membranes are to be cannulated or need to be peeled off. The greatest care is to be displayed not to damage these fragile structures or to inadvertently injure the underlying retina. Damage to the latter is mostly irreparable and might cause permanent loss of vision. Despite the availability over excellent stereo microscopes, wide-angle lenses and powerful light source visualization remains a problem. Especially, the limited depth perception is still perceived as a major bottle-neck whereas efforts have been conducted to integrate sensing capability in today’s state-of-the-art instruments, so far, little effort has been paid to process the obtained sensor data and turns this into a reliable source of information upon which robot assistive guidance schemes could be endowed upon. This paper proposes a number of processing techniques tailored to Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) measurements. The first results of the proposed algorithms show that it is feasible to extract good and reliable distance estimates from this otherwise rather noisy signal and from a fairly limited dataset. The used data are the so-called A-scans. These are OCT measurements consisting of a single-line image that could be captured by an instrument-mounted fiber through which the OCT signal passes back-and-forth. However, in this work, we perform a pilot study whereby the employed A-scans are extracted from B-scans that are captured by a microscope-mounted OCT scanner, rather than obtained from a probe. The performance of a first embodiment of the algorithm that is based on an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is compared to the performance of a second embodiment that relies on a Particle Filter (PF), focusing on the issues in filter initialization and the tracking quality. Finally, results of UKF and PF executions on a validation dataset are presented. 
    Read More: https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S2424905X18400056},
    keywords = {Endoskope},
    pubstate = {published},
    tppubtype = {article}
    }
  • Smits, J; Ourak, M; Gijbels, A; Esteveny, L; Borghesan, G; Schoevaerdts, L; Willekens; Stalmans, P; Lankenau, E; Schulz-Hildebrandt, H; Hüttmann, G; Reynaerts, D and Vander Poorten, E.B: Development and Experimental Validation of a Combined FBG Force and OCT Distance Sensing Needle for Robot-Assisted Retinal Vein Cannulation. 2018 IEEE Intern Conf Robot a Automation (ICRA), pp. 129-134, 2018
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Smits2018,
    title = {Development and Experimental Validation of a Combined FBG Force and OCT Distance Sensing Needle for Robot-Assisted Retinal Vein Cannulation},
    author = {Smits, J; Ourak, M; Gijbels, A;  Esteveny, L; Borghesan, G; Schoevaerdts, L; Willekens; Stalmans, P; Lankenau, E; Schulz-Hildebrandt, H; H\"{u}ttmann, G; Reynaerts, D and  Vander Poorten, E.B},
    
    doi = {10.1109/ICRA.2018.8460983},
    year = {2018},
    date = {2018-09-20},
    journal = {2018 IEEE Intern Conf Robot a Automation (ICRA)},
    pages = {129-134},
    abstract = {Retinal Vein Occlusion is a common retinal vascular disorder which can cause severe loss of vision. Retinal vein cannulation followed by injection of an anti-coagulant into the affected vein is a promising treatment. However, given the scale and fragility of the surgical workfield, this procedure is considered too high-risk to perform manually. A first successful robot-assisted procedure has been demonstrated. Even though successful, the procedure remains extremely challenging. This paper aims at providing a solution for the limited perception of instrument-tissue interaction forces as well as depth estimation during retinal vein cannulation. The development of a novel combined force and distance sensing cannulation needle relying on Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) A-scan technology is reported. The design, the manufacturing process, the calibration method, and the experimental characterization of the produced sensor are discussed. 
    The functionality of the combined sensing modalities and the real-time distance estimation algorithm are validated respectively on in-vitro and ex-vivo models.},
    keywords = {Endoskope},
    pubstate = {published},
    tppubtype = {inproceedings}
    }
  • Ourak, M; Smits, J; Esteveny, L; Borghesan, G; Gijbels, A; Schoevaerdts, L; Douven, Y, Scholtes, J; Lankenau, E; Eixmann, T; Schulz-Hildebrandt, H; Hüttmann, G; Kozlovszky, M; Kronreif, G; Willekens, K; Stalmans, P; Faridpooya, K; Cereda, M; Giani, A; Staurenghi, G; Reynaerts, D and Vander Poorten, E B: Combined OCT distance and FBG force sensing cannulation needle for retinal vein cannulation: in vivo animal validation. Int J Comp Assis Radiol Surg 13(107), pp. 1-9, 2018
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Ourak2018,
    title = {Combined OCT distance and FBG force sensing cannulation needle for retinal vein cannulation: in vivo animal validation},
    author = {Ourak, M; Smits, J; Esteveny, L; Borghesan, G; Gijbels, A; Schoevaerdts, L;  Douven, Y, Scholtes, J; Lankenau, E;  Eixmann, T; Schulz-Hildebrandt, H; H\"{u}ttmann, G; Kozlovszky, M; Kronreif, G; Willekens, K; Stalmans, P; Faridpooya, K; Cereda, M; Giani, A; Staurenghi, G; Reynaerts, D and Vander Poorten, E B},
    
    doi = {10.1007/s11548-018-1829-0},
    year = {2018},
    date = {2018-07-28},
    journal = {Int J Comp Assis Radiol Surg} {13(107)},
    v
    pages = {1-9},
    keywords = {Endoskope},
    pubstate = {published},
    tppubtype = {article}
    }

2017

  • Gianni Borghesan and Mouloud Ourak and Eva Lankenau and Richard Neffin and Peter Koch and Hinnerk Schulz-Hildebrandt and Koen Willekens and Peter Stalmans and Dominiek Reynaerts and Emmanuel Vander Poorten: Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis and Particle Filtering for real-time retina detection from a single-fiber OCT. in Proceedings of the 7th Joint Workshop on New Technologies for Computer/Robot Assisted Surgery, 2017
    BibTeX
    @conference{Borghesan2017,
    title = {Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis and Particle Filtering for real-time retina detection from a single-fiber OCT},
    author = {Gianni Borghesan and Mouloud Ourak and Eva Lankenau and Richard Neffin and Peter Koch and Hinnerk Schulz-Hildebrandt and Koen Willekens and Peter Stalmans and Dominiek Reynaerts and Emmanuel Vander Poorten},
    year = {2017},
    date = {2017-06-02},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 7th Joint Workshop on New Technologies for Computer/Robot Assisted Surgery},
    abstract = {Vitreo-retinal surgery concerns a set of particularly demanding micro-surgical interventions that take place at the back of the eye. Examples of such procedures are retinal vein cannulation (where the surgeon aims to insert a needle in a vein of the size of human hairs) and epiretinal membrane peeling (where a detached membrane must be removed from the retina). As severe retinal damage can be caused by undesired collisions, good instrument to retina distance perception would be very useful. We propose to use an OCT-fiber instrumented tool, and purposefully designed algorithms to interpret the measurements and extract a reliable real-time distance estimate. This abstract describes the progress that was made and includes a test conducted with a robotic platform on a synthetic eye mockup.},
    keywords = {},
    pubstate = {published},
    tppubtype = {conference}
    }
  • Horstmann, J; Schulz-Hildebrandt, H; Bock, F; Siebelmann, S; Lankenau, E; Hüttmann, G; Steven, P and Cursiefen, C: Label-Free In Vivo Imaging of Corneal Lymphatic Vessels Using Microscopic Optical Coherence Tomography. Investig Ophthal & Vis Scie 58(13), pp. 5880-5886, 2017
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Horstmann2017,
    title = {Label-Free In Vivo Imaging of Corneal Lymphatic Vessels Using Microscopic Optical Coherence Tomography},
    author = {Horstmann, J; Schulz-Hildebrandt, H; Bock, F; Siebelmann, S; Lankenau, E; H\"{u}ttmann, G; Steven, P and  Cursiefen, C},
    editor = {The Association Research for in Vision and Ophthalmology},
    doi = {10.1167/iovs.17-22286},
    isbn = {1552-5783},
    year = {2017},
    date = {2017-12-25},
    journal = { Investig Ophthal & Vis Scie} {58(13)},
    
    pages = {5880-5886},
    abstract = {Purpose: Corneal neovascularization, in particular lymphangiogenesis, is a limiting factor in corneal transplant survival. Novel treatment approaches focus on (selective) inhibition and regression of lymphatic vessels. Imaging clinically invisible corneal lymphatic vessels is a prerequisite for these strategies. Using a murine model, this study investigates whether corneal lymphatic vessels can be imaged using microscopic optical coherence tomography (mOCT). 
    
    Methods: Corneal neovascularization was induced by intrastromal placement of 11.0 nylon sutures in one eye of BALB/c mice. After 2 weeks, cross-sectional images and volumes of the corneas with a 0.5 mm lateral and axial field of view were acquired using a custom-built mOCT system enabling a resolution of 1 μm at a B-scan rate of 165/s. Three of the six animals received an additional intrastromal injection of India ink 24 hours before the measurement to stain the corneal lymphatic system in vivo. Immunohistochemistry using CD31 and LYVE-1 was used to validate the mOCT findings. 
    
    Results: Using mOCT, lymphatic vessels were visible as dark vessel-like structures with the lumen lacking a hyperreflective wall and mostly lacking cells. However, individual, slowly moving particles, which most likely are immune cells, occasionally could be observed inside the lumen. In lymphatic vessels of ink-stained corneas, hyperreflection and shadowing underneath was observed. Ink-filled lymphatic vessels were colocalized in consecutive corneal flat mounts of the same specimen. 
    
    Conclusions: Corneal lymphatic vessels can be imaged using mOCT. This novel approach opens new options for noninvasive clinical imaging of corneal lymphatic vessels for diagnostic and therapeutic indications.},
    keywords = {OCM},
    pubstate = {published},
    tppubtype = {article}
    }

2014

  • Guder, Ellen and Lankenau, Eva and Fleischhauer, F. and Schulz-Hildebrandt, H. and Hüttmann, G. and Pau, H. W. and Just, Tino: Microanatomy of the tympanic membrane in chronic myringitis obtained with optical coherence tomography. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, pp. 1-7, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Guder2014,
       author = {Guder, Ellen and Lankenau, Eva and Fleischhauer, F. and Schulz-Hildebrandt, H. and Hüttmann, G. and Pau, H. W. and Just, Tino},
       title = {Microanatomy of the tympanic membrane in chronic myringitis obtained with optical coherence tomography},
       journal = {European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology},
       pages = {1-7},
       keywords = {Optical coherence tomography
    Tympanic membrane
    Chronic myringitis},
       ISSN = {0937-4477},
       DOI = {10.1007/s00405-014-3373-z},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-014-3373-z},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

2011

  • Just, T. and Pau, H. W. and Lankenau, E. and Huttmann, G.: OCT in the field of laryngology: further perspectives. no. 7883, pp. 78831W, SPIE, 2011
    BibTeX
    @inproceedings{Just2011,
       author = {Just, T. and Pau, H. W. and Lankenau, E. and Huttmann, G.},
       title = {OCT in the field of laryngology: further perspectives},
       editor = {Nikiforos, Kollias and Bernard, Choi and Haishan, Zeng and Hyun Wook, Kang and Bodo, E. Knudsen and Brian, J. Wong and Justus, F. R. Ilgner and Kenton, W. Gregory and Guillermo, J. Tearney and Laura, Marcu and Henry, Hirschberg and Steen, J. Madsen and Andreas, Mandelis and Anita, Mahadevan-Jansen and Jansen, E. Duco},
       publisher = {SPIE},
       volume = {7883},
       pages = {78831W},
    Year = { 2011}
    
    }

2010

  • Mueller, M. and Schulz-Wackerbarth, C. and Steven, P. and Lankenau, E. and Bonin, T. and Mueller, H. and Brueggemann, A. and Birngruber, R. and Grisanti, S. and Huettmann, G.: Slit-lamp-adapted fourier-domain OCT for anterior and posterior segments: preliminary results and comparison to time-domain OCT. Curr Eye Res, no. 35(8), pp. 722-32, 2010
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Müller 2010,
       author = {Mueller, M. and Schulz-Wackerbarth, C. and Steven, P. and Lankenau, E. and Bonin, T. and Mueller, H. and Brueggemann, A. and Birngruber, R. and Grisanti, S. and Huettmann, G.},
       title = {Slit-lamp-adapted fourier-domain OCT for anterior and posterior segments: preliminary results and comparison to time-domain OCT},
       journal = {Curr Eye Res},
       volume = {35(8)},
     DOI = { 10.3109/02713683.2010.481069},
    year = { 2010}
       pages = {722-32},
       note = {Using Smart Source Parsing
    Aug},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic potential of a slit-lamp (SL)-adapted Fourier-domain (= spectral radar, SR) optical coherence tomography (OCT)-SL-SR-OCT-instrument as an in vivo imaging device for use in examinations of the anterior and posterior segments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a pilot study, 88 eyes from 70 healthy volunteers and patients were examined using a prototype Fourier-domain SL-SR-OCT system. Results were compared to those from the following commercially available systems: the 1310-nm SL-OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) for anterior segment and the Stratus OCT (Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) for posterior segment imaging. Our SL-SR-OCT provides 1025 axial scans, 5000 Hz line-scan frequency, scan length of up to 8 mm, axial depth in air of 3.5 mm, and resolution of 9 mum. For posterior visualization, a hand-held 78-diopter ophthalmoscopic lens was used. RESULTS: Our SL-SR-OCT system allowed simultaneous scanning with direct biomicroscopic and SL imaging of anterior and posterior segment structures. Anatomical structures and pathological changes were displayed with high resolution and excellent contrast. Measurements of corneal and retinal thickness were possible. In comparison to images obtained by the SL-OCT, our SL-SR-OCT boasted a higher resolution, thus providing more clinically relevant details of the corneal epithelium, internal structure of filtering blebs, etc. Complete imaging of the chamber angle was limited, however, due to the backscattering properties of the sclera at 830 nm. For posterior segment imaging, excellent delineation of the macula and optic nerve head details, with a distinct portrayal of macular pathology and retinal edema, was possible with SL-SR-OCT. CONCLUSION: SL-SR-OCT enables detailed imaging of physiological and pathological anterior and posterior segment structures. As a multi-purpose device, it offers a wide spectrum of applications, with high-quality OCT-imaging, in a comfortable setting without the need to move the patient.},
      
    }
  • Probst, Joachim and Hillmann, Dierck and Lankenau, Eva and Winter, Christan and Oelckers, Stefan and Koch, Peter and Huttmann, Gereon: Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second. Journal of Biomedical Optics, no. 15, pp. 026014, 2010
    BibTeX
    @article{Probst2010,
       author = {Probst, Joachim and Hillmann, Dierck and Lankenau, Eva and Winter, Christan and Oelckers, Stefan and Koch, Peter and Huttmann, Gereon},
       title = {Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second},
       journal = {Journal of Biomedical Optics},
       volume = {15},
       number = {2},
       pages = {026014},
       keywords = {image resolution
    medical image processing
    optical tomography
    rendering (computer graphics)
    surgery},
       year = {2010}
    }
  • Wiesner, M. and Ihlemann, J. and Muller, H. H. and Lankenau, E. and Huttmann, G.: Optical coherence tomography for process control of laser micromachining. Rev Sci Instrum, no. 81, pp. 033705, 2010
    BibTeX
    @article{Wiesner2010,
       author = {Wiesner, M. and Ihlemann, J. and Muller, H. H. and Lankenau, E. and Huttmann, G.},
       title = {Optical coherence tomography for process control of laser micromachining},
       journal = {Rev Sci Instrum},
       volume = {81},
       number = {3},
       pages = {033705},
       note = {Using Smart Source Parsing
    Mar},
       abstract = {In situ surface imaging for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) before, during, and after ablative laser processing is presented. Furthermore, it is shown that the ability of in situ characterization is beneficial for samples such as optical fibers, which are difficult to handle in the standard analysis. Surface images taken by the OCT are compared with these common analysis tools such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reflected-light, and confocal microscopy. An axial resolution of approximately 126 nm for surface detection and a lateral resolution <2.5 microm are obtained and the potential of the setup to imaging structures with high aspect ratio is demonstrated.},
       year = {2010}
    }
  • Just, T. and Lankenau, E. and Huttmann, G. and Pau, H. W.: An optical coherence tomography study for imaging the round window niche and the promontorium tympani. no. 7548, pp. 754833, SPIE, 2010
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Just 2010,
       author = {Just, T. and Lankenau, E. and Huttmann, G. and Pau, H. W.},
       title = {An optical coherence tomography study for imaging the round window niche and the promontorium tympani},
       editor = {Nikiforos, Kollias and Bernard, Choi and Haishan, Zeng and Reza, S. Malek and Brian, J. Wong and Justus, F. R. Ilgner and Kenton, W. Gregory and Guillermo, J. Tearney and Laura, Marcu and Henry, Hirschberg and Steen, J. Madsen and Andreas, Mandelis and Anita, Mahadevan-Jansen and Jansen, E. Duco},
       publisher = {SPIE},
       volume = {7548},
       pages = {754833},
     url = {https://doi.org/10.1117/12.848384},
       year = { 2010},
    
    
    }

2009

  • Just, T. and Lankenau, E. and Hüttmann, G. and Pau, H. W.: Optische Kohärenztomographie in der Mittelohrchirurgie. HNO, no. 57, pp. 421-427, 2009
    BibTeX
    @article{Just,
       author = {Just, T. and Lankenau, E. and Hüttmann, G. and Pau, H. W.},
       title = {Optische Kohärenztomographie in der Mittelohrchirurgie},
       journal = {HNO},
       volume = {57},
       number = {5},
       pages = {421-427},
       abstract = {Die Anwendung der optischen Kohärenztomographie (OCT) in der Mittelohrchirurgie gilt als vielversprechendes Diagnostikum, insbesondere wenn es um die intraoperative Abklärung der Ursache einer Stapesfixation, die intraoperative Beurteilung der Stapesfußplatte bei Revisionsstapesplastik und zur Orientierung bei der Kochleaimplantation, vorwiegend bei Missbildungen, geht. Die OCT bildet Mittel- und Innenohrstrukturen präzise ab und ermöglicht, diese zur Therapiefestlegung zu nutzen. Aus den eigenen bisherigen Ex- und In-vivo-Untersuchungen mit einem OCT-System, das an ein Operationsmikroskop gekoppelt ist, lassen sich derzeit – unter Berücksichtigung der bislang publizierten experimentellen Arbeiten – potenzielle Anwendungsgebiete definieren: Darstellung der ovalen Fensternische bei Revisionsstapes- und rekonstruktiver Mittelohrchirurgie sowie bei der explorativen Tympanotomie zur Abklärung von Perilymphfisteln und Visualisierung von Strukturen des nicht eröffneten Innenohrs.},
       keywords = {Medizin},
       year = {2009}
    }
  • Huttmann, G. and Lankenau, E. and Schulz-Wackerbarth, C. and Muller, M. and Steven, P. and Birngruber, R.: Optical Coherence Tomography: from Retina Imaging to Intraoperative Use - a Review. Klinische Monatsblatter Fur Augenheilkunde, no. 226, pp. 958-964, 2009
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Hüttmann2009,
       author = {Huttmann, G. and Lankenau, E. and Schulz-Wackerbarth, C. and Muller, M. and Steven, P. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Optical Coherence Tomography: from Retina Imaging to Intraoperative Use - a Review},
       journal = {Klinische Monatsblatter Fur Augenheilkunde},
       volume = {226},
       number = {12},
       pages = {958-964},
       note = {542VT
    Times Cited:6
    Cited References Count:48},
       abstract = {Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is new diagnostic procedure that has rapidly evolved in the last years. The recently developed spectral domain OCT allows one to increase the imaging speed by a hundred times compared to the first generation time domain OCT and enables three-dimensional imaging as well as real-time imaging of fast moving structures. Volumetric imaging improves the quantitative measurement of morphology and the evaluation of temporal changes. In addition, an exact correlation with images acquired with other imaging modalities is possible. Real-time imaging enables also the use of OCT during examinations with the slit-lamp and during ophthalmological surgery.
    Methods: A spectral domain OCT was adapted to a slit lamp. 70 patients (91 eyes) were examined at the anterior or posterior segment of the eye. Images of healthy structures and different pathologies were compared to OCT images obtained with Stratus 3, Spectralis, and the SL-OCT. To demonstrate the feasibility of OCT during surgery, spectral domain OCT devices working with 20000 and 210000 A scans per second were coupled by specially developed optics to the camera port of a surgical microscope. The device was tested with phantoms and enucleated pig eyes.
    Results and Conclusions: A5 kHz spectral domain OCT can image the retina during slit lamp-based indirect ophthalmoscopy with a quality similar to that of the Stratus 3. In addition, relevant structures of the anterior segment were imaged. Here, compared to commercially available devices, the imaged field was smaller and the angle of the anterior chamber was not directly visible due to the 830 nm wavelength, which had to be used for retinal imaging. Through the surgical microscope, a volumetric imaging of epithelium, Bowman's, Descemet's membranes, limbus, iris, lens, conjunctiva and sclera was demonstra-ted with several tens of centimetre working distance. Instruments and incisions in the cornea were visualised with 20 mu m precision. Real-time imaging and visualisation of volumetric OCT data were also demonstrated. In principle, all technical problems of an intraoperative use of OCT have been solved and a clinical trial will start in the near future. OCT has the potential to improve the precision of surgical interventions and may even enable new interventions.},
       keywords = {physiological optics
    cornea
    anatomy
    in-vivo
    ultrahigh-resolution
    anterior segment
    time-domain
    blood-flow
    eye
    surgery
    oct
    cyclophotocoagulation
    cornea},
       ISSN = {0023-2165},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1055/s-0028-1109939},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000273527800005},
       year = {2009},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Just, T. and Lankenau, E and Hüttmann, G and Pau, H.W.: Optical coherence tomography of the oval window niche.. J Laryngol Oto, no. 1, pp. 1-6, 2009
    BibTeX
    @article{Just,
       author = {Just, T. and Lankenau, E and Hüttmann, G and Pau, H.W.},
       title = {Optical coherence tomography of the oval window niche.},
       journal = { J Laryngol Oto},
       volume = {1},
       pages = {1-6},
       year = {2009}
    }
  • Just, T. and Lankenau, E and Hüttmann, G and Pau, H.W.: Intra-operative application of optical coherence tomography with an operating microscope.. J Laryngol Otol, no. 123, pp. 1027-1030, 2009
    BibTeX
    @article{Just,
       author = {Just, T. and Lankenau, E and Hüttmann, G and Pau, H.W.},
       title = {Intra-operative application of optical coherence tomography with an operating microscope.},
       journal = {J Laryngol Otol},
       volume = {123},
       pages = {1027-1030},
       year = {2009}
    }
  • Böhringer, H. J. and Lankenau, E. and Stellmacher, F. and Reusche, E. and Huttmann, G. and Giese, A.: Imaging of human brain tumor tissue by near-infrared laser coherence tomography. Acta Neurochir (Wien), no. 151, pp. 507-17; discussion 517, 2009
    BibTeX
    @article{Böhringer,
       author = {Böhringer, H. J. and Lankenau, E. and Stellmacher, F. and Reusche, E. and Huttmann, G. and Giese, A.},
       title = {Imaging of human brain tumor tissue by near-infrared laser coherence tomography},
       journal = {Acta Neurochir (Wien)},
       volume = {151},
       number = {5},
       pages = {507-17; discussion 517},
       note = {Bohringer, H J
    Lankenau, E
    Stellmacher, F
    Reusche, E
    Huttmann, G
    Giese, A
    Austria
    Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2009 May;151(5):507-17; discussion 517. Epub 2009 Apr 3.},
       abstract = {INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative detection of residual tumor remains an important challenge in surgery to treat gliomas. New developments in optical techniques offer non-invasive high-resolution imaging that may integrate well into the workflow of neurosurgical operations. Using an intracranial glioma model, we have recently shown that time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows discrimination of normal brain, diffusely invaded brain tissue, and solid tumor. OCT imaging allowed acquisition of 2D and 3D data arrays for multiplanar analysis of the tumor to brain interface. In this study we have analyzed biopsy specimens of human brain tumors and we present the first feasibility study of intraoperative OCT and post-image acquisition processing for non-invasive imaging of the brain and brain tumor. METHODS: We used a Sirius 713 Tomograph with a superluminescence diode emitting light at a near infrared central wavelength of 1,310 nm and a coherence length of 15 microm. The light is passed through an optical mono mode fiber to a modified OCT adapter containing a lens system with a working distance of 10 cm and an integrated pilot laser. Navigation-registered tumor biopsies were imaged ex vivo and the intraoperative site of optical tissue analysis was registered by marker acquisition using a neuronavigation system. RESULTS: Optical coherence tomography non-contact measurements of brain and brain tumor tissue produced B-scan images of 4 mm in width and 1.5-2.0 mm in depth at an axial and lateral optical resolution of 15 microm. OCT imaging demonstrated a different microstructure and characteristic signal attenuation profiles of tumor versus normal brain. Post-image acquisition processing and automated detection of the tissue to air interface was used to realign A-scans to compensate for image distortions caused by pulse- and respiration-induced movements of the target volume. Realigned images allowed monitoring of intensity changes within the scan line and facilitated selection of areas for the averaging of A-scans and the calculation of attenuation coefficients for specific regions of interest. CONCLUSION: This feasibility study has demonstrated that OCT analysis of the tissue microstructure and light attenuation characteristics discriminate normal brain, areas of tumor infiltrated brain, solid tumor, and necrosis. The working distance of the OCT adapter and the A-scan acquisition rate conceptually allows integration of the OCT applicator into the optical path of the operating microscopes. This would allow a continuous analysis of the resection plain, providing optical tomography, thereby adding a third dimension to the microscopic view and information on the light attenuation characteristics of the tissue.},
       keywords = {Biopsy
    Brain Neoplasms/*diagnosis/pathology/surgery
    Feasibility Studies
    Glioma/*diagnosis/pathology/surgery
    Humans
    Monitoring, Intraoperative/methods
    Pilot Projects
    Tomography, Optical Coherence/*methods},
       year = {2009}
    }

2008

  • Just, T. and Lankenau, E. and Huettmann, G. and Pau, H.W.: Optical coherence tomography as a guide for cochlear implant surgery. in Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging, pp. F1-F6, SPIE 6842, 2008
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Just 2008,
       author = {Just, T. and Lankenau, E. and Huettmann, G. and Pau, H.W.},
       title = {Optical coherence tomography as a guide for cochlear implant surgery},
       booktitle = {Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging},
       editor = {Nikiforos, K. and Bernard, C. and Haishan, Z.},
       publisher = {SPIE 6842},
       pages = {F1-F6},
    url = { https://doi.org/10.1117/12.771446},
    year = { 2008}
    
    }

2007

  • Löning, M. and Lankenau, E. and Diddens, H. and Krokowski, M. and Diedrich, K. and Hüttmann, G.: Optische Kohärenztomographie in der Gynokologie. Der Gynäkologe, no. 40, 2007
    BibTeX
    @article{Löning,
       author = {Löning, M. and Lankenau, E. and Diddens, H. and Krokowski, M. and Diedrich, K. and Hüttmann, G.},
       title = {Optische Kohärenztomographie in der Gynokologie},
       journal = {Der Gynäkologe},
       volume = {40},
       number = {5},
       year = {2007}
    }
  • Lankenau, E. and Klinger, D. and Winter, C. and Malik, A. and Müller, H.H. and Oelckers, S. and Pau, H.W. and Just, T. and Hüttmann, G.: Combining Optical Coherence Tomographie (OCT) with an operating microscope. in Medical Engineering, pp. pp 343-348, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2007
    BibTeX
    @inbook{Lankenau,
       author = {Lankenau, E. and Klinger, D. and Winter, C. and Malik, A. and Müller, H.H. and Oelckers, S. and Pau, H.W. and Just, T. and Hüttmann, G.},
       title = {Combining Optical Coherence Tomographie (OCT) with an operating microscope},
       booktitle = {Medical Engineering},
       editor = {Buzug, T.M. and Holz, D. and Weber, S.  and Bongartz, J. and Kohl-Bareise, M. and Hartmann, U.},
       publisher = {Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York},
       pages = {pp 343-348},
       year = {2007}
    }

2006

  • Giese, A. and Böhringer, H.J. and Leppert, J. and Kandelhardt, S.R. and Lankenau, E. and Koch, P. and Birngruber, R. and Hüttmann, G.: Non-invasive intraoperative optical coherence tomography of the resection cavity during surgery of intrinsic brain tumors.. Proc SPIE, no. 6078, pp. 495-502, 2006
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Giese2006,
       author = {Giese, A. and Böhringer, H.J. and Leppert, J. and Kandelhardt, S.R. and Lankenau, E. and Koch, P. and Birngruber, R. and Hüttmann, G.},
       title = {Non-invasive intraoperative optical coherence tomography of the resection cavity during surgery of intrinsic brain tumors.},
       journal = {Proc SPIE},
       volume = {6078},
       pages = {495-502},
       year = { 2006},
    url = {https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie/6078/60782Z/Non-invasive-intraoperative-optical-coherence-tomography-of-the-resection-cavity/10.1117/12.674436.short}
       type = {Proceeding}
    }
    

2005

  • Daniltchenko, D. and Sachs, M. and Lankenau, E. and König, F. and Burckhardt, M. and Hüttmann, G. and Kristiansen, G. and Schnorr, D. and Al-Shukri, S. and Löning, S.: Ex vivo and in vivo topographics studies of bladder by optical coherence tomography. in Saratov Fall Meeting 2004: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine VI, no. 5771, pp. 209-14, Proceedings 2005, 2005
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Daniltchenko,
       author = {Daniltchenko, D. and Sachs, M. and Lankenau, E. and König, F. and Burckhardt, M. and Hüttmann, G. and Kristiansen, G. and Schnorr, D. and Al-Shukri, S. and Löning, S.},
       title = {Ex vivo and in vivo topographics studies of bladder by optical coherence tomography},
       booktitle = {Saratov Fall Meeting 2004: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine VI},
       editor = {Tuchin, V.},
       publisher = {Proceedings 2005},
       volume = {5771},
       pages = {209-14},
    year = { 2005},
    URL = {https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie/5771/0000/Ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-topographic-studies-of-bladder-by/10.1117/12.634810.short}
    
    }

2004

  • Daniltchenko, D. and Lankenau, E. and König, F. and Shay, B. and Hüttmann, G. and Sachs, M.D. and Schnorr, D.: In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography in Endoscopic Diagnosis of Bladder Disease. in Clinical technoligies and systems, no. 5316, pp. 473-478, Proc Soc Photo-Opt Instrum Eng, SPIE 2004, 2004
    BibTeX
    @inbook{Daniltchenko,
       author = {Daniltchenko, D. and Lankenau, E. and König, F. and Shay, B. and Hüttmann, G. and Sachs, M.D. and Schnorr, D.},
       title = {In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography in Endoscopic Diagnosis of Bladder Disease},
       booktitle = {Clinical technoligies and systems},
       editor = {Vo-Dinh, Tuan},
       publisher = {Proc Soc Photo-Opt Instrum Eng, SPIE 2004},
       volume = {5316},
       pages = {473-478},
       year = {2004}
    }
  • Lankenau, E. and Schumacher, M. and Koch, P. and König, F. and Daniltchenko, D. and Schmorr, D. and Hüttmann, G.: Dispersion compensation for proximal scanning rigid OCT endoscopes. in SPIE Proc., no. 5316, pp. 172-177, 2004
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Lankenau,
       author = {Lankenau, E. and Schumacher, M. and Koch, P. and König, F. and Daniltchenko, D. and Schmorr, D. and Hüttmann, G.},
       title = {Dispersion compensation for proximal scanning rigid OCT endoscopes},
       booktitle = {SPIE Proc.},
       volume = {5316},
       pages = {172-177},
    Year = { 2004},
    URL = { https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie/5316/0000/Dispersion-compensation-for-proximal-scanning-rigid-OCT-endoscopes/10.1117/12.531312.short}
    
    }

2003

  • Löning, M. and Lankenau, E. and Strunck, C. and Krokowski, M. and Hillbricht, S. and Diedrich, K. and Hüttmann, G.: Optische Kohärenztomographie - ein neues hochauflösendes Schnittbildverfahren als Ergänzung zur Kolposkopie. Geburtsh Frauenheilk, no. 63, pp. 1158-1161, 2003
    BibTeX
    @article{Löning,
       author = {Löning, M. and Lankenau, E. and Strunck, C. and Krokowski, M. and Hillbricht, S. and Diedrich, K. and Hüttmann, G.},
       title = {Optische Kohärenztomographie - ein neues hochauflösendes Schnittbildverfahren als Ergänzung zur Kolposkopie},
       journal = {Geburtsh Frauenheilk},
       volume = {63},
       pages = {1158-1161},
       year = {2003}
    }
    

1998

  • Welzel, J. and Lankenau, E. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.: Optical coherence tomography of the skin. Curr Probl Dermatol, no. 26, pp. 27-37, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Welzel1998,
       author = {Welzel, J. and Lankenau, E. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.},
       title = {Optical coherence tomography of the skin},
       journal = {Curr Probl Dermatol},
       volume = {26},
       pages = {27-37},
       note = {1421-5721 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       keywords = {Biomedical Engineering
    Blister/pathology
    Eczema/pathology
    Epidermis/anatomy & histology/pathology
    Humans
    Melanoma/pathology
    Optics
    Pemphigus/pathology
    Scabies/parasitology/pathology
    Skin/*anatomy & histology/pathology
    Skin Neoplasms/pathology
    Tomography/*methods},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=9597313},
       year = {1998},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1997

  • Koop, Norbert and Brinkmann, Ralf and Lankenau, Eva and Flache, Stefan and Engelhardt, Ralf and Birngruber, Reginald: Optische Kohärenztomographie der Kornea und des vorderen Augenabschnitts. Der Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 481-486, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Koop1997,
       author = {Koop, Norbert and Brinkmann, Ralf and Lankenau, Eva and Flache, Stefan and Engelhardt, Ralf and Birngruber, Reginald},
       title = {Optische Kohärenztomographie der Kornea und des vorderen Augenabschnitts},
       journal = {Der Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       number = {7},
       pages = {481-486},
       ISSN = {1433-0423},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003470050143},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Welzel, J. and Lankenau, E. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.: Optical coherence tomography of the human skin. J Am Acad Dermatol, no. 37, pp. 958-63, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Welzel1997,
       author = {Welzel, J. and Lankenau, E. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.},
       title = {Optical coherence tomography of the human skin},
       journal = {J Am Acad Dermatol},
       volume = {37},
       number = {6},
       pages = {958-63},
       note = {0190-9622 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new diagnostic method for tissue characterization. OBJECTIVE: We investigated normal and pathologic structures in human skin in several locations to evaluate the potential application of this technique to dermatology. METHODS: Based on the principle of low-coherence interferometry, cross-sectional images of the human skin can be obtained in vivo with a high spatial resolution of about 15 microns. Within a penetration depth of 0.5 to 1.5 mm, structures of the stratum corneum, the living epidermis, and the papillary dermis can be distinguished. RESULTS: Different layers could be detected that were differentiated by induction of experimental blisters and by comparison with corresponding histologic sections. Furthermore, OCT images of several skin diseases and tumors were obtained. CONCLUSION: OCT is a promising new imaging method for visualization of morphologic changes of superficial layers of the human skin. It may be useful for noninvasive diagnosis of bullous skin diseases, skin tumors, and in vivo investigation of pharmacologic effects.},
       keywords = {Adult
    Anatomy, Cross-Sectional
    Basement Membrane/pathology
    Blister/diagnosis/pathology
    Epidermis/anatomy & histology
    Evaluation Studies
    Female
    Forearm/anatomy & histology
    Hand/anatomy & histology
    Humans
    Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle/diagnosis/pathology
    Image Enhancement
    Interferometry
    Male
    Melanoma/diagnosis/pathology
    Nails/anatomy & histology
    Optics
    Skin/*anatomy & histology
    Skin Diseases/*diagnosis/pathology
    Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous/diagnosis/pathology
    Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis/pathology
    Tomography/*methods},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=9418764},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Welzel, J. and Lankenau, E. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.: Optical coherence tomography of the human skin. J Am Acad Dermatol, no. 37(6), pp. 958-63, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Welzel,
       author = {Welzel, J. and Lankenau, E. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.},
       title = {Optical coherence tomography of the human skin},
       journal = {J Am Acad Dermatol},
       volume = {37(6)},
      Url = {https://www.jaad.org/article/S0190-9622(97)70072-0/abstract},
    year = { 1997},
       pages = {958-63},
       note = {0190-9622 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new diagnostic method for tissue characterization. OBJECTIVE: We investigated normal and pathologic structures in human skin in several locations to evaluate the potential application of this technique to dermatology. METHODS: Based on the principle of low-coherence interferometry, cross-sectional images of the human skin can be obtained in vivo with a high spatial resolution of about 15 microns. Within a penetration depth of 0.5 to 1.5 mm, structures of the stratum corneum, the living epidermis, and the papillary dermis can be distinguished. RESULTS: Different layers could be detected that were differentiated by induction of experimental blisters and by comparison with corresponding histologic sections. Furthermore, OCT images of several skin diseases and tumors were obtained. CONCLUSION: OCT is a promising new imaging method for visualization of morphologic changes of superficial layers of the human skin. It may be useful for noninvasive diagnosis of bullous skin diseases, skin tumors, and in vivo investigation of pharmacologic effects.},
       keywords = {Adult
    Anatomy, Cross-Sectional
    Basement Membrane/pathology
    Blister/diagnosis/pathology
    Epidermis/anatomy & histology
    Evaluation Studies
    Female
    Forearm/anatomy & histology
    Hand/anatomy & histology
    
  • Koop, N. and Brinkmann, R. and Lankenau, E. and Flache, S. and Engelhardt, R. and Birngruber, R.: Optical coherence tomography of cornea and anterior segment of the eye. Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 481-486, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Koop1997,
       author = {Koop, N. and Brinkmann, R. and Lankenau, E. and Flache, S. and Engelhardt, R. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Optical coherence tomography of cornea and anterior segment of the eye},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       number = {7},
       pages = {481-486},
       note = {Yp140
    Times Cited:34
    Cited References Count:19},
       abstract = {Target: The method of optical coherence tomography (OCT) was investigated regarding its suitability and limits for measuring the cornea and the anterior segment of the eye. Furthermore, the stromal expansion of thermally induced lesions in the cornea directly after irradiation was determined within the scope of the laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK).
    Material and methods: With the experimental scanning OCT system, x-z sections of the anterior eye segment were made with an optical resolution of about 20 mu m axially and 25 mu m laterally. Freshly enucleated, tonicized porcine eyes were used as model eyes. Thermal lesions were applied with a continuously emitting laser diode (lambda=1.86 mu m) and various radiation parameters, Before and after coagulation, the cornea was viewed from limbus to limbus in a central OCT scan and the individual coagulation source was measured,
    Results: Global and local changes of the thickness of the cornea as well as the distance between cornea and lens were measured with high precision. Thermal lesions in their expansion can be clearly presented and matching well with the histologically stained sections, bur are not as exactly defined at the edges due to the limited optical resolution, as known from histological preparations.
    Conclusion: With the OCT method quantitative measuring of the anterior eye segment can be performed in vitro and with reduced resolutions also in vivo. Due to the qualitatively good correspondence regarding the dimensions of thermal damage of the cornea with histologically obtained morphometric results,this method can be used for supervision of coagulation directly after LTK as well as for examination of the individual healing process.},
       keywords = {optical coherence tomography
    pachometry
    laser thermokeratoplasty
    thermal damage
    tissue},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1007/s003470050143},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000071246700003},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1996

  • Pan, Y. and Lankenau, E. and Welzel, J. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.: Optical Coherence - Gated imaging of Biological Tissues. IEEE J Quant Electr, no. 2, pp. 1029-1034, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Pan,
       author = {Pan, Y. and Lankenau, E. and Welzel, J. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.},
       title = {Optical Coherence - Gated imaging of Biological Tissues},
       journal = {IEEE J Quant Electr},
       volume = {2},
       number = {4},
       pages = {1029-1034},
       year = {1996}
    }