Publikationen 2014-2015

2015

  • Reznicek, Lukas and Kolb, Jan P. and Klein, Thomas and Mohler, Kathrin J. and Wieser, Wolfgang and Huber, Robert and Kernt, Marcus and Märtz, Josef and Neubauer, Aljoscha S.: Wide-Field Megahertz OCT Imaging of Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy. Journal of Diabetes Research, no. 2015, Article ID 305084, pp. 1-5, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Reznicek2015,
       author = {Reznicek, Lukas and Kolb, Jan P. and Klein, Thomas and Mohler, Kathrin J. and Wieser, Wolfgang and Huber, Robert and Kernt, Marcus and Märtz, Josef and Neubauer, Aljoscha S.},
       title = {Wide-Field Megahertz OCT Imaging of Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy},
       journal = {Journal of Diabetes Research},
       volume = {2015, Article ID 305084},
       pages = {1-5},
       DOI = {10.1155/2015/305084},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/305084},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    
    }
    
    
  • Jirauschek, Christian and Huber, Robert: Wavelength shifting of intra-cavity photons: Adiabatic wavelength tuning in rapidly wavelength-swept lasers. Biomedical Optics Express, no. 6, pp. 2448-2465, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Jirauschek2015,
       author = {Jirauschek, Christian and Huber, Robert},
       title = {Wavelength shifting of intra-cavity photons: Adiabatic wavelength tuning in rapidly wavelength-swept lasers},
       journal = {Biomedical Optics Express},
       volume = {6},
       number = {7},
       pages = {2448-2465},
       abstract = {We analyze the physics behind the newest generation of rapidly wavelength tunable sources for optical coherence tomography (OCT), retaining a single longitudinal cavity mode during operation without repeated build up of lasing. In this context, we theoretically investigate the currently existing concepts of rapidly wavelength-swept lasers based on tuning of the cavity length or refractive index, leading to an altered optical path length inside the resonator. Specifically, we consider vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirrors as well as Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) and Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg reflector (VT-DBR) lasers. Based on heuristic arguments and exact analytical solutions of Maxwell’s equations for a fundamental laser resonator model, we show that adiabatic wavelength tuning is achieved, i.e., hopping between cavity modes associated with a repeated build up of lasing is avoided, and the photon number is conserved. As a consequence, no fundamental limit exists for the wavelength tuning speed, in principle enabling wide-range wavelength sweeps at arbitrary tuning speeds with narrow instantaneous linewidth.},
       keywords = {Laser theory
    Lasers, tunable
    Optical coherence tomography
    Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers},
       DOI = {10.1364/BOE.6.002448},
       url = {http://www.osapublishing.org/boe/abstract.cfm?URI=boe-6-7-2448},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Linz, Norbert and Freidank, Sebastian and Liang, Xiao-Xuan and Vogelmann, Hannes and Trickl, Thomas and Vogel, Alfred: Wavelength dependence of nanosecond infrared laser-induced breakdown in water: Evidence for multiphoton initiation via an intermediate state. Physical Review B, no. 91, pp. 134114, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Linz2015,
       author = {Linz, Norbert and Freidank, Sebastian and Liang, Xiao-Xuan and Vogelmann, Hannes and Trickl, Thomas and Vogel, Alfred},
       title = {Wavelength dependence of nanosecond infrared laser-induced breakdown in water: Evidence for multiphoton initiation via an intermediate state},
       journal = {Physical Review B},
       volume = {91},
       number = {13},
       pages = {134114},
       note = {PRB},
       DOI = {doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.91.134114},
       url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.91.134114},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Jan Philip Kolb and Thomas Klein and Corinna L. Kufner and Wolfgang Wieser and Aljoscha S. Neubauer and Huber, Robert: Ultra-widefield retinal MHz-OCT imaging with up to 100 degrees viewing angle. Biomed. Opt. Express, no. 6, pp. 1534-1552, May, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{HU_2015_Kolb_c, 
    author = {Jan Philip Kolb and Thomas Klein and Corinna L. Kufner and Wolfgang Wieser and Aljoscha S. Neubauer and Huber, Robert}, 
    journal = {Biomed. Opt. Express}, 
    number = {5}, 
    pages = {1534--1552}, 
    title = {Ultra-widefield retinal MHz-OCT imaging with up to 100 degrees viewing angle}, 
    Keywords = {OCT},
    volume = {6}, 
    month = {May},
    year = {2015},
    doi = {10.1364/BOE.6.001534}
    }
    
    
    
  • Steiner, Patrick and Ebneter, Andreas and Berger, Lieselotte Erika and Zinkernagel, Martin and Považay, Boris and Meier, Christoph and Kowal, Jens H. and Framme, Carsten and Brinkmann, Ralf and Wolf, Sebastian and Sznitman, Raphael: Time-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Real-Time Monitoring of Selective Retina TherapyTime-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution OCT During SRT. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 56, pp. 6654-6662, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Steiner2015,
       author = {Steiner, Patrick and Ebneter, Andreas and Berger, Lieselotte Erika and Zinkernagel, Martin and Považay, Boris and Meier, Christoph and Kowal, Jens H. and Framme, Carsten and Brinkmann, Ralf and Wolf, Sebastian and Sznitman, Raphael},
       title = {Time-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Real-Time Monitoring of Selective Retina TherapyTime-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution OCT During SRT},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {56},
       number = {11},
       pages = {6654-6662},
       note = {10.1167/iovs.15-17151},
       abstract = {Abstract Purpose: Selective retina therapy (SRT) is a novel treatment for retinal pathologies, solely targeting the RPE. During SRT, the detection of an immediate tissue reaction is challenging, as tissue effects remain limited to intracellular RPE photodisruption. Time-resolved ultra-high axial resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) is thus evaluated for the monitoring of dynamic optical changes at and around the RPE during SRT. Methods: An experimental OCT system with an ultra-high axial resolution of 1.78 μm was combined with an SRT system and time-resolved OCT M-scans of the target area were recorded from four patients undergoing SRT. Optical coherence tomography scans were analyzed and OCT morphology was correlated with findings in fluorescein angiography, fundus photography, and cross-sectional OCT. Results: In cases in which the irradiation caused RPE damage proven by fluorescein angiography, the lesions were well discernible in time-resolved OCT images but remained invisible in fundus photography and cross-sectional OCT acquired after treatment. If RPE damage was introduced, all applied SRT pulses led to detectable signal changes in the time-resolved OCT images. The extent of optical signal variation seen in the OCT data appeared to scale with the applied SRT pulse energy. Conclusions: The first clinical results proved that successful SRT irradiation induces detectable changes in the OCT M-scan signal while it remains invisible in conventional ophthalmoscopic imaging. Thus, real-time high-resolution OCT is a promising modality to monitor and analyze tissue effects introduced by selective retina therapy and may be used to guide SRT in an automatic feedback mode (www.swissmedic.ch number, 2011-MD-0006).},
       ISSN = {1552-5783},
       DOI = {10.1167/iovs.15-17151},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Karpf, Sebastian and Eibl, Matthias and Wieser, Wolfgang and Klein, Thomas and Huber, Robert: Time-encoded Raman scattering (TICO-Raman) with Fourier domain mode locked (FDML) lasers. in Proc. SPIE, no. 9541, pp. 95410F-95410F-6, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{HU_2015_Karpf_b,
    author = {Karpf, Sebastian and Eibl, Matthias and Wieser, Wolfgang and Klein, Thomas and Huber, Robert},
    title = { Time-encoded Raman scattering (TICO-Raman) with Fourier domain mode locked (FDML) lasers },
    booktitle = {Proc. SPIE },
    volume = {9541},
    type = {Conference Proceedings},
    pages = {95410F-95410F-6},
    year = {2015},
    doi = {10.1117/12.2183859}
    }
  • Koinzer, S. and Baade, A. and Schlott, K. and Hesse, C. and Caliebe, A. and Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R.: Temperature-Controlled Retinal Photocoagulation Reliably Generates Uniform Subvisible, Mild, or Moderate Lesions. Transl Vis Sci Technol, no. 4, pp. 9, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Koinzer2015,
       author = {Koinzer, S. and Baade, A. and Schlott, K. and Hesse, C. and Caliebe, A. and Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Temperature-Controlled Retinal Photocoagulation Reliably Generates Uniform Subvisible, Mild, or Moderate Lesions},
       journal = {Transl Vis Sci Technol},
       volume = {4},
       number = {5},
       pages = {9},
       note = {Koinzer, Stefan
    Baade, Alexander
    Schlott, Kerstin
    Hesse, Carola
    Caliebe, Amke
    Roider, Johann
    Brinkmann, Ralf
    Journal article
    Transl Vis Sci Technol. 2015 Oct 6;4(5):9. eCollection 2015 Oct.},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: Conventional retinal photocoagulation produces irregular lesions and does not allow reliable control of ophthalmoscopically invisible lesions. We applied automatically controlled retinal photocoagulation, which allows to apply uniform lesions without titration, and aimed at five different predictable lesion intensities in a study on rabbit eyes. METHODS: A conventional 532-nm photocoagulation laser was used in combination with a pulsed probe laser. They facilitated real-time fundus temperature measurements and automatic exposure time control for different predefined time/temperature dependent characteristics (TTC). We applied 225 control lesions (exposure time 200 ms) and 794 TTC lesions (5 intensities, exposure times 7-800 ms) in six rabbit eyes with variable laser power (20-66.4 mW). Starting after 2 hours, we examined fundus color and optical coherence tomographic (OCT) images over 3 months and classified lesion morphologies according to a seven-stage OCT classifier. RESULTS: Visibility rates in funduscopy (OCT) after 2 hours were 17% (68%) for TTC intensity group 1, 38% (90%) for TTC group 2 and greater than 94% (>98%) for all consecutive groups. TTC groups 1 through 4 correlated to increasing morphological lesion intensities and increasing median funduscopic and OCT diameters. Group 5 lesions were as large as, but more intense than group 4 lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Automatic, temperature controlled photocoagulation allows to apply predictable subvisible, mild, or moderate lesions without manual power titration. TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE: The technique will facilitate standardized, automatically controlled low and early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) intensity photocoagulation independently of the treating physician, the treated eye and lesion location.},
       keywords = {Oct
    animal model
    laser photocoagulation
    optoacoustics
    real-time temperature measurement
    spectral domain
    sub-visible},
       ISSN = {2164-2591 (Print)
    2164-2591},
       DOI = {10.1167/tvst.4.5.9},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Lange, B. and Cordes, J. and Brinkmann, R.: Stone/tissue differentiation for holmium laser lithotripsy using autofluorescence. Lasers Surg Med, no. 47, pp. 737-44, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Lange2015,
       author = {Lange, B. and Cordes, J. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Stone/tissue differentiation for holmium laser lithotripsy using autofluorescence},
       journal = {Lasers Surg Med},
       volume = {47},
       number = {9},
       pages = {737-44},
       note = {1096-9101
    Lange, Birgit
    Cordes, Jens
    Brinkmann, Ralf
    Journal Article
    United States
    Lasers Surg Med. 2015 Nov;47(9):737-44. doi: 10.1002/lsm.22418. Epub 2015 Sep 22.},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Holmium laser lithotripsy is a safe and effective method to disintegrate urinary stones of all compositions in an endoscopic procedure. However, handling and safety could be improved by a real-time feedback system permanently monitoring the position of the treatment fiber. The laser is fired only when the fiber is identified as being placed in front of stone. This work evaluates the potential of fluorescence detection with an excitation wavelength of 532 nm for this purpose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A fiber-based fluorescence measurement was set-up to acquire autofluorescence signals from several human renal calculi, artificial stones, and porcine tissue samples (renal calix and ureter). Three different approaches were investigated. First, experiments were performed with a pulsed laser source with a wavelength of 532 nm, pulse energy 36.5 +/- 1 muJ, pulse duration 1.2 +/- 0.5 nanoseconds, and a repetition rate of 1 kHz with 15 urinary concretions. In the second step, a series of measurements on 42 human urinary calculi samples was carried out using low power continuous wave excitation of 0.4 +/- 0.1 mW. Fluorescence was also measured simultaneously to stone fragmentation by holmium laser pulses (pulse energy 240 +/- 50 mJ, repetition rate 10 Hz). Finally, a modulated excitation/detection scheme (lock-in technique) was implemented to render fluorescence detection insensitive to white background light. RESULTS: Unlike porcine renal calix, ureter, and artificial stone human urinary calculi show a strong fluorescence signal when excited with 532 nm. With pulsed excitation on urinary stone (20,000 +/- 11,000) counts were registered at 587 nm with the CCD-array of a grating spectrometer in an integration time of 50 milliseconds. Tissue gave lower count rates of </=(5,500 +/- 1,100) even with longer integration times (500 milliseconds/1 second). With a cw excitation power of 0.4 mW (13,000 +/- 11,000) counts were registered in an integration time of 200 milliseconds at 587 nm (porcine renal calix: (770 +/- 340)). Modulated excitation (66 Hz) with an average power of 0.3 mW and detection with a photodiode resulted in a lock-in amplifier signal of 1.5-4.3V on stone (background and skin: <0.5V). CONCLUSION: With the lock-in technique, autofluorescence from stones can be detected with only the average excitation power of a green aiming beam overlaid to the Ho:YAG-laser beam (power </= 1 mW). Since tissue shows very little autofluorescence when excited with 532 nm, this fluorescence signal enables monitoring of the correct position of the treatment fiber during ureteroscopic procedures. Lasers Surg. Med. 47:737-744, 2015. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.},
       keywords = {Holmium laser
    feedback control
    fluorescence
    laser lithotripsy},
       ISSN = {0196-8092},
       DOI = {10.1002/lsm.22418},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Buj, C and Horstmann, J and Münter, M and Brinkman, R: Speckle-based off-axis holographic detection for non-contact photoacoustic tomography. Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering, no. 1, pp. 356-360, 2015
    BibTeX
    @article{Buj2015,
       author = {Buj, C and Horstmann, J and Münter, M and Brinkman, R},
       title = {Speckle-based off-axis holographic detection for non-contact photoacoustic tomography},
       journal = {Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering},
       volume = {1},
       pages = {356-360},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Framme, C. and Walter, A. and Berger, L. and Prahs, P. and Alt, C. and Theisen-Kunde, D. and Kowal, J. and Brinkmann, R.: Selective Retina Therapy in Acute and Chronic-Recurrent Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. Ophthalmologica, no. 234, pp. 177-88, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Framme2015,
       author = {Framme, C. and Walter, A. and Berger, L. and Prahs, P. and Alt, C. and Theisen-Kunde, D. and Kowal, J. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Selective Retina Therapy in Acute and Chronic-Recurrent Central Serous Chorioretinopathy},
       journal = {Ophthalmologica},
       volume = {234},
       number = {4},
       pages = {177-88},
       note = {1423-0267
    Framme, Carsten
    Walter, Andreas
    Berger, Lieselotte
    Prahs, Philipp
    Alt, Clemens
    Theisen-Kunde, Dirk
    Kowal, Jens
    Brinkmann, Ralf
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Switzerland
    Ophthalmologica. 2015;234(4):177-88. doi: 10.1159/000439188. Epub 2015 Sep 15.},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: Selective retina therapy (SRT), the confined laser heating and destruction of retinal pigment epithelial cells, has been shown to treat acute types of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) successfully without damaging the photoreceptors and thus avoiding laser-induced scotoma. However, a benefit of laser treatment for chronic forms of CSC is questionable. In this study, the efficacy of SRT by means of the previously used 1.7-micros and shorter 300-ns pulse duration was evaluated for both types of CSC, also considering re-treatment for nonresponders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a two-center trial, 26 patients were treated with SRT for acute (n = 10) and chronic-recurrent CSC (n = 16). All patients presented with subretinal fluid (SRF) in OCT and leakage in fluorescein angiography (FA). SRT was performed using a prototype SRT laser system (frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd:YLF-laser, wavelength 527 nm) with adjustable pulse duration. The following irradiation settings were used: a train of 30 laser pulses with a repetition rate of 100 Hz and pulse durations of 300 ns and 1.7 micros, pulse energy 120-200 microJ, retinal spot size 200 microm. Because SRT lesions are invisible, FA was always performed 1 h after treatment to demonstrate laser outcome (5-8 single spots in the area of leakage). In cases where energy was too low, as indicated by missing FA leakage, energy was adjusted and the patient re-treated immediately. Observation intervals were after 4 weeks and 3 months. In case of nonimprovement of the disease after 3 months, re-treatment was considered. RESULTS: Of 10 patients with active CSC that presents focal leakage in FA, 5 had completely resolved fluid after 4 weeks and all 10 after 3 months. Mean visual acuity increased from 76.6 ETDRS letters to 85.0 ETDRS letters 3 months after SRT. Chronic-recurrent CSC was characterized by less severe SRF at baseline in OCT and weaker leakage in FA than in acute types. Visual acuity changed from baseline 71.6 to 72.8 ETDRS letters after 3 months. At this time, SRF was absent in 3 out of 16 patients (19%), FA leakage had come to a complete stop in 6 out of 16 patients (38%). In 6 of the remaining chronic CSC patients, repeated SRT with higher pulse energy was considered because of persistent leakage activity. After the re-treatment, SRF resolved completely in 5 patients (83.3%) after only 25 days. CONCLUSION: SRT showed promising results in treating acute CSC, but was less effective in chronic cases. Interestingly, re-treatment resulted in enhanced fluid resolution and dry conditions after a considerably shorter time in most patients. Therefore, SRT including re-treatment if necessary might be a valuable CSC treatment alternative even in chronic-recurrent cases.},
       ISSN = {0030-3755},
       DOI = {10.1159/000439188},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Huttmann, Gereon and Koinzer, Stefan Otto Johannes and Müller, Heike and Ellerkamp, Iris and Baade, Alex and Moltmann, Moritz and Theisen-Kunde, Dirk and Lange, Birgit and Brinkmann, Ralf and Birngruber, Reginald: Predicting ophthalmoscopic visibility of retinal photocoagulation lesions byhigh-speedOCT: an animal studyinrabbits. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 56, pp. 5980-5980, 2015
    BibTeX
    @article{Hüttmann2015,
       author = {Huttmann, Gereon and Koinzer, Stefan Otto Johannes and Müller, Heike and Ellerkamp, Iris and Baade, Alex and Moltmann, Moritz and Theisen-Kunde, Dirk and Lange, Birgit and Brinkmann, Ralf and Birngruber, Reginald},
       title = {Predicting ophthalmoscopic visibility of retinal photocoagulation lesions byhigh-speedOCT: an animal studyinrabbits},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {56},
       number = {7},
       pages = {5980-5980},
       ISSN = {1552-5783},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Niu, C. J. and Fisher, C. and Scheffler, K. and Wan, R. and Maleki, H. and Liu, H. and Sun, Y. and C, A. Simmons and Birngruber, R. and Lilge, L.: Polyacrylamide gel substrates that simulate the mechanical stiffness of normal and malignant neuronal tissues increase protoporphyin IX synthesis in glioma cells. J Biomed Opt, no. 20, pp. 098002, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Niu2015,
       author = {Niu, C. J. and Fisher, C. and Scheffler, K. and Wan, R. and Maleki, H. and Liu, H. and Sun, Y. and C, A. Simmons and Birngruber, R. and Lilge, L.},
       title = {Polyacrylamide gel substrates that simulate the mechanical stiffness of normal and malignant neuronal tissues increase protoporphyin IX synthesis in glioma cells},
       journal = {J Biomed Opt},
       volume = {20},
       number = {9},
       pages = {098002},
       note = {1560-2281
    Niu, Carolyn J
    Fisher, Carl
    Scheffler, Kira
    Wan, Rachel
    Maleki, Hoda
    Liu, Haijiao
    Sun, Yu
    A Simmons, Craig
    Birngruber, Reginald
    Lilge, Lothar
    Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    United States
    J Biomed Opt. 2015 Sep;20(9):098002. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.20.9.098002.},
       abstract = {Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) produced following the administration of exogenous 5d-aminolevulinic acid is clinically approved for photodynamic therapy and fluorescence-guided resection in various jurisdictions around the world. For both applications, quantification of PPIX forms the basis for accurate therapeutic dose calculation and identification of malignant tissues for resection. While it is well established that the PPIX synthesis and accumulation rates are subject to the cell's biochemical microenvironment, the effect of the physical microenvironment, such as matrix stiffness, has received little attention to date. Here we studied the proliferation rate and PPIX synthesis and accumulation in two glioma cell lines U373 and U118 cultured under five different substrate conditions, including the conventional tissue culture plastic and polyacrylamide gels that simulated tissue stiffness of normal brain (1 kPa) and glioblastoma tumors (12 kPa). We found that the proliferation rate increased with substrate stiffness for both cell lines, but not in a linear fashion. PPIX concentration was significantly higher in cells cultured on tissue-simulating gels than on the much stiffer tissue culture plastic for both cell lines. These findings, albeit preliminary, suggest that the physical microenvironment might be an important determinant of tumor aggressiveness and PPIX synthesis in glioma cells.},
       ISSN = {1083-3668},
       DOI = {10.1117/1.jbo.20.9.098002},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Karpf, Sebastian and Eibl, Matthias and Huber, Robert: Nanosecond two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging with a multi color fiber MOPA laser. in Proc. SPIE, no. 9536, pp. 953616-953616-5, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{HU_2015_Karpf_c,
    author = {Karpf, Sebastian and Eibl, Matthias and Huber, Robert},
    title = { Nanosecond two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging with a multi color fiber MOPA laser },
    booktitle = {Proc. SPIE },
    type = {Conference Proceedings},
    volume = {9536},
    pages = {953616-953616-5},
    year = {2015},
    doi = {10.1117/12.2183854}
    }
  • Jirauschek, Christian and Huber, Robert: Modeling and analysis of polarization effects in Fourier domain mode-locked lasers. Optics Letters, no. 40, pp. 2385-2388, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Jirauschek2015,
       author = {Jirauschek, Christian and Huber, Robert},
       title = {Modeling and analysis of polarization effects in Fourier domain mode-locked lasers},
       journal = {Optics Letters},
       volume = {40},
       number = {10},
       pages = {2385-2388},
       abstract = {We develop a theoretical model for Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) lasers in a non-polarization-maintaining configuration, which is the most widely used type of FDML source. This theoretical approach is applied to analyze a widely wavelength-swept FDML setup, as used for picosecond pulse generation by temporal compression of the sweeps. We demonstrate that good agreement between simulation and experiment can only be obtained by including polarization effects due to fiber bending birefringence, polarization mode dispersion, and cross-phase modulation into the theoretical model. Notably, the polarization dynamics are shown to have a beneficial effect on the instantaneous linewidth, resulting in improved coherence and thus compressibility of the wavelength-swept FDML output.},
       DOI = {10.1364/OL.40.002385},
       url = {http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-40-10-2385},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Ansari, R. and Buj, C. and Pieper, M. and Konig, P. and Schweikard, A. and Huttmann, G.: Micro-anatomical and functional assessment of ciliated epithelium in mouse trachea using optical coherence phase microscopy. Opt Express, no. 23, pp. 23217-24, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Ansari2015,
       author = {Ansari, R. and Buj, C. and Pieper, M. and Konig, P. and Schweikard, A. and Huttmann, G.},
       title = {Micro-anatomical and functional assessment of ciliated epithelium in mouse trachea using optical coherence phase microscopy},
       journal = {Opt Express},
       volume = {23},
       number = {18},
       pages = {23217-24},
       note = {1094-4087
    Ansari, Rehman
    Buj, Christian
    Pieper, Mario
    Konig, Peter
    Schweikard, Achim
    Huttmann, Gereon
    Journal Article
    United States
    Opt Express. 2015 Sep 7;23(18):23217-24. doi: 10.1364/OE.23.023217.},
       abstract = {Motile cilia perform a range of important mechanosensory and chemosensory functions, along with expulsion of mucus and inhaled pathogens from the lungs. Here we demonstrate that spectral domain optical coherence phase microscopy (SD-OCPM), which combines the principles of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal microscopy, is particularly well-suited for characterization of both morphology and the ciliary dynamics of mouse trachea. We present micro-anatomical images of mouse trachea, where different cell types can be clearly visualized. The phase contrast, which measures the sub-nanometer changes in axial optical pathlength is used to determine the frequency and direction of cilia beatings.},
       ISSN = {1094-4087},
       DOI = {10.1364/oe.23.023217},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Diddens-Tschoeke, Heyke C. and Hüttmann, Gereon and Gruber, Achim D. and Pottier, Roy H. and Hanken, Henning: Localized thermal tumor destruction using dye-enhanced photothermal tumor therapy. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, pp. n/a-n/a, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Diddens-Tschoeke2015,
       author = {Diddens-Tschoeke, Heyke C. and Hüttmann, Gereon and Gruber, Achim D. and Pottier, Roy H. and Hanken, Henning},
       title = {Localized thermal tumor destruction using dye-enhanced photothermal tumor therapy},
       journal = {Lasers in Surgery and Medicine},
       pages = {n/a-n/a},
       keywords = {photothermal therapy
    naphthalocyanine derivative
    in-vivo
    laser
    dye-enhanced},
       ISSN = {1096-9101},
       DOI = {10.1002/lsm.22356},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.22356},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
    
  • Wang, S. and Huttmann, G. and Zhang, Z. and Vogel, A. and Birngruber, R. and Tangutoori, S. and Hasan, T. and Rahmanzadeh, R.: Light-Controlled Delivery of Monoclonal Antibodies for Targeted Photoinactivation of Ki-67. Mol Pharm, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Wang2015,
       author = {Wang, S. and Huttmann, G. and Zhang, Z. and Vogel, A. and Birngruber, R. and Tangutoori, S. and Hasan, T. and Rahmanzadeh, R.},
       title = {Light-Controlled Delivery of Monoclonal Antibodies for Targeted Photoinactivation of Ki-67},
       journal = {Mol Pharm},
       note = {1543-8392
    Wang, Sijia
    Huttmann, Gereon
    Zhang, Zhenxi
    Vogel, Alfred
    Birngruber, Reginald
    Tangutoori, Shifalika
    Hasan, Tayyaba
    Rahmanzadeh, Ramtin
    Journal article
    Mol Pharm. 2015 Aug 13.},
       abstract = {The selective inhibition of intracellular and nuclear molecules such as Ki-67 holds great promise for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. However, the choice of the target protein and the intracellular delivery of the functional agent remain crucial challenges. Main hurdles are (a) an effective delivery into cells, (b) endosomal escape of the delivered agents, and (c) an effective, externally triggered destruction of cells. Here we show a light-controlled two-step approach for selective cellular delivery and cell elimination of proliferating cells. Three different cell-penetrating nano constructs, including liposomes, conjugates with the nuclear localization sequence (NLS), and conjugates with the cell penetrating peptide Pep-1, delivered the light activatable antibody conjugate TuBB-9-FITC, which targets the proliferation associated protein Ki-67. HeLa cells were treated with the photosensitizer benzoporphyrin monoacid derivative (BPD) and the antibody constructs. In the first optically controlled step, activation of BPD at 690 nm triggered a controlled endosomal escape of the TuBB-9-FITC constructs. In more than 75% of Ki-67 positive, irradiated cells TuBB-9-FITC antibodies relocated within 24 h from cytoplasmic organelles to the cell nucleus and bound to Ki-67. After a second light irradiation at 490 nm, which activated FITC, cell viability decreased to approximately 13%. Our study shows an effective targeting strategy, which uses light-controlled endosomal escape and the light inactivation of Ki-67 for cell elimination. The fact that liposomal or peptide-assisted delivery give similar results leads to the additional conclusion that an effective mechanism for endosomal escape leaves greater variability for the choice of the delivery agent.},
       keywords = {endosomal entrapment
    liposome
    nanotechnology
    nuclear localization sequence (NLS)
    photodynamic therapy},
       ISSN = {1543-8384},
       DOI = {10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.5b00260},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Zarnescu, Livia and Leung, Michael C. and Abeyta, Michael and Sudkamp, Helge and Baer, Thomas and Behr, Barry and Ellerbee, Audrey K.: Label-free characterization of vitrification-induced morphology changes in single-cell embryos with full-field optical coherence tomography. Journal of Biomedical Optics, no. 20, pp. 096004-096004, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Zarnescu2015,
       author = {Zarnescu, Livia and Leung, Michael C. and Abeyta, Michael and Sudkamp, Helge and Baer, Thomas and Behr, Barry and Ellerbee, Audrey K.},
       title = {Label-free characterization of vitrification-induced morphology changes in single-cell embryos with full-field optical coherence tomography},
       journal = {Journal of Biomedical Optics},
       volume = {20},
       number = {9},
       pages = {096004-096004},
       note = {10.1117/1.JBO.20.9.096004},
       abstract = {Abstract.  Vitrification is an increasingly popular method of embryo cryopreservation that is used in assisted reproductive technology. Although vitrification has high post-thaw survival rates compared to other freezing techniques, its long-term effects on embryo development are still poorly understood. We demonstrate an application of full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) to visualize the effects of vitrification on live single-cell (2 pronuclear) mouse embryos without harmful labels. Using FF-OCT, we observed that vitrification causes a significant increase in the aggregation of structures within the embryo cytoplasm, consistent with reports in literature based on fluorescence techniques. We quantify the degree of aggregation with an objective metric, the cytoplasmic aggregation (CA) score, and observe a high degree of correlation between the CA scores of FF-OCT images of embryos and of fluorescence images of their mitochondria. Our results indicate that FF-OCT shows promise as a label-free assessment of the effects of vitrification on embryo mitochondria distribution. The CA score provides a quantitative metric to describe the degree to which embryos have been affected by vitrification and could aid clinicians in selecting embryos for transfer.},
       ISSN = {1083-3668},
       DOI = {10.1117/1.JBO.20.9.096004},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.20.9.096004},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Klinger, A. and Krapf, L. and Orzekowsky-Schroeder, R. and Koop, N. and Vogel, A. and Huttmann, G.: Intravital autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy of murine intestinal mucosa with ultra-broadband femtosecond laser pulse excitation: image quality, photodamage, and inflammation. J Biomed Opt, no. 20, pp. 116001, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Klinger2017,
       author = {Klinger, A. and Krapf, L. and Orzekowsky-Schroeder, R. and Koop, N. and Vogel, A. and Huttmann, G.},
       title = {Intravital autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy of murine intestinal mucosa with ultra-broadband femtosecond laser pulse excitation: image quality, photodamage, and inflammation},
       journal = {J Biomed Opt},
       volume = {20},
       number = {11},
       pages = {116001},
       ISSN = {1083-3668},
       DOI = {10.1117/1.jbo.20.11.116001},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schulz-Hildebrandt, H. and Pieper, M. and König, P. and Hüttmann, G.: Improved endoscopic optical coherence microscopy for imaging of humans airways in patients. Pneumologie, no. 69, pp. A49, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schulz-Hildebrandt2015,
       author = {Schulz-Hildebrandt, H. and Pieper, M. and König, P. and Hüttmann, G.},
       title = {Improved endoscopic optical coherence microscopy for imaging of humans airways in patients},
       journal = {Pneumologie},
       volume = {69},
       number = {07},
       pages = {A49},
       ISSN = {0934-8387},
       DOI = {10.1055/s-0035-1556641},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Spahr, Hendrik and Hillmann, Dierck and Hain, Carola and Pfäffle, Clara and Sudkamp, Helge and Franke, Gesa and Hüttmann, Gereon: Imaging pulse wave propagation in human retinal vessels using full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography. Optics Letters, no. 40, pp. 4771-4774, 2015
    BibTeX Link Link
    @article{Spahr2015,
       author = {Spahr, Hendrik and Hillmann, Dierck and Hain, Carola and Pfäffle, Clara and Sudkamp, Helge and Franke, Gesa and Hüttmann, Gereon},
       title = {Imaging pulse wave propagation in human retinal vessels using full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography},
       journal = {Optics Letters},
       volume = {40},
       number = {20},
       pages = {4771-4774},
       abstract = {We demonstrate a new noninvasive method to assess biomechanical properties of the retinal vascular system. Phase-sensitive full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography (PhS-FF-SS-OCT) is used to investigate retinal vascular dynamics at unprecedented temporal resolution. The motion of retinal tissue that is induced by expansion of the vessels therein is measured with an accuracy of about 10 nm. The pulse shapes of arterial and venous pulsations, their temporal delays, as well as the frequency-dependent pulse propagation through the capillary bed, are determined. For the first time, imaging speed and motion sensitivity are sufficient for a direct measurement of pulse waves propagating with more than 600 mm/s in retinal vessels of a healthy young subject.},
       keywords = {Optical coherence tomography
    Ophthalmology
    Time-resolved imaging
    Functional monitoring and imaging},
       DOI = {10.1364/OL.40.004771},
       url = {http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-40-20-4771},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Eibl, Matthias and Karpf, Sebastian and Wieser, Wolfgang and Klein, Thomas and Huber, Robert: Hyperspectral stimulated Raman microscopy with two fiber laser sources. in Proc. SPIE, no. 9536, pp. 953604-953604-6, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{HU_2015_Eibl_a,
    author = {Eibl, Matthias and Karpf, Sebastian and Wieser, Wolfgang and Klein, Thomas and Huber, Robert},
    title = {Hyperspectral stimulated Raman microscopy with two fiber laser sources },
    booktitle = {Proc. SPIE },
    type = {Conference Proceedings},
    volume = {9536},
    pages = {953604-953604-6},
    year = {2015},
    doi = {10.1117/12.2183822}
    }
  • Kolb, Jan Philip and Klein, Thomas and Wieser, Wolfgang and Draxinger, Wolfgang and Huber, Robert: High definition in vivo retinal volumetric video rate OCT at 0.6 Giga-voxels per second. in Proc. SPIE, no. 9541, pp. 95410Z-95410Z-8, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{HU_2015_Kolb_d,
    author = {Kolb, Jan Philip and Klein, Thomas and Wieser, Wolfgang and Draxinger, Wolfgang and Huber, Robert},
    title = {High definition in vivo retinal volumetric video rate OCT at 0.6 Giga-voxels per second },
    booktitle = {Proc. SPIE },
    type = {Conference Proceedings},
    volume = {9541},
    pages = {95410Z-95410Z-8},
    year = {2015},
    doi = {10.1117/12.2183768}
    }
  • Wang, Tianshi and Pfeiffer, Tom and Regar, Evelyn and Wieser, Wolfgang and van Beusekom, Heleen and Lancee, Charles T. and Springeling, Geert and Krabbendam, Ilona and van der Steen, Antonius F. W. and Huber, Robert and van Soest, Gijs: Heartbeat OCT: in vivo intravascular megahertz-optical coherence tomography. Biomedical Optics Express, no. 6, pp. 5021-5032, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{HU_2015_Wang,
       author = {Wang, Tianshi and Pfeiffer, Tom and Regar, Evelyn and Wieser, Wolfgang and van Beusekom, Heleen and Lancee, Charles T. and Springeling, Geert and Krabbendam, Ilona and van der Steen, Antonius F. W. and Huber, Robert and van Soest, Gijs},
       title = {Heartbeat OCT: in vivo intravascular megahertz-optical coherence tomography},
       journal = {Biomedical Optics Express},
       volume = {6},
       number = {12},
       pages = {5021-5032},
       abstract = {Cardiac motion artifacts, non-uniform rotational distortion and undersampling affect the image quality and the diagnostic impact of intravascular optical coherence tomography (IV-OCT). In this study we demonstrate how these limitations of IV-OCT can be addressed by using an imaging system that we called &#x201C;Heartbeat OCT&#x201D;, combining a fast Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser, fast pullback, and a micromotor actuated catheter, designed to examine a coronary vessel in less than one cardiac cycle. We acquired in vivo data sets of two coronary arteries in a porcine heart with both Heartbeat OCT, working at 2.88 MHz A-line rate, 4000 frames/s and 100 mm/s pullback speed, and with a commercial system. The in vivo results show that Heartbeat OCT provides faithfully rendered, motion-artifact free, fully sampled vessel wall architecture, unlike the conventional IV-OCT data. We present the Heartbeat OCT system in full technical detail and discuss the steps needed for clinical translation of the technology.},
       keywords = {Fiber optics imaging
    Three-dimensional image acquisition
    Medical optics instrumentation
    Scanners
    Endoscopic imaging
    Medical and biological imaging
    Optical coherence tomography},
       DOI = {10.1364/BOE.6.005021},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Spahr, Hendrik and Hain, Carola and Sudkamp, Helge and Franke, Gesa and Hillmann, Dierck and Huttmann, Gereon: Functional Microangiography of in vivo human retina by Full-Field OCT. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 56, pp. 5974-5974, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Spahr2015,
       author = {Spahr, Hendrik and Hain, Carola and Sudkamp, Helge and Franke, Gesa and Hillmann, Dierck and Huttmann, Gereon},
       title = {Functional Microangiography of in vivo human retina by Full-Field OCT},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {56},
       number = {7},
       pages = {5974-5974},
       abstract = { PurposeOCT based functional microangiography of the retina requires high speed acquisition of a large number of volumetric datasets. Imaging speed of conventional scanning OCT devices is limited by the applicable radiant power and the mechanics used to scan the focused beam over the desired field of view. Full-Field Swept-Source OCT (FF-SS-OCT) resolves both issues, using an areal illumination, which dramatically increases the allowed amount of radiation, and an ultrafast camera for a highly parallelized acquisition.  MethodsThe retina of healthy volunteers was illuminated with wavelengths between 816 and 867 nm by the extended beam of a tunable laser (Broadsweeper, Superlum). Retinal irradiance was below the maximum permissable exposure (MPE). Light backscattered from the retina was imaged onto an ultrafast CMOS camera (SA-Z, Photron), where it interfered with an extended reference beam. From a series of interference images at different wavelengths, volumetric OCT images of the retina were reconstructed.  ResultsWe demonstrate in vivo retinal imaging at 9.9 billion voxels per second (40 million A-scans/s with 256 axial pixels). Sacrificing depth resolution by reducing the number of axial pixels, the A-scan rate was increased to more than 1 billion A-scans per second. FF-SS-OCT allowed imaging of all important retinal structures with good quality at unprecedented imaging speed (see fig. 1). Fast volumetric imaging at up to 3000 volumes/s was used to visualize small capillaries and to analyze the pulsation of retinal arteries and veins (see fig. 2). Imaging time for an area of 4 mm x 2 mm (896 x 368 A-scans) was only 316 µs. The high volume rate and the inherent phase stability enabled quantitative measurement of the change of retinal thickness due to blood pulsation with approx. 10 nm precision. A delay of the venous pulsation with respect to the arteries was observed (approx. 11 ms). The amplitudes of higher frequency components of the venous pulsation were considerably attenuated.  ConclusionsFF-SS-OCT provides fast volumetric imaging of the retina with good image quality. The capillary network can be analyzed with high spatial and temporal resolution. Analysis of retinal pulsation may provide information on pathological changes of vessels and capillaries. Angiographic OCT acquired with the FF-SS-OCT setup. Functional angiography showing the pulsation of retinal artery and vein.},
       ISSN = {1552-5783},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Kim, H. D. and Han, J. W. and Ohn, Y. H. and Brinkmann, R. and Park, T. K.: Functional evaluation using multifocal electroretinogram after selective retina therapy with a microsecond-pulsed laser. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, no. 56, pp. 122-31, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Kim2015,
       author = {Kim, H. D. and Han, J. W. and Ohn, Y. H. and Brinkmann, R. and Park, T. K.},
       title = {Functional evaluation using multifocal electroretinogram after selective retina therapy with a microsecond-pulsed laser},
       journal = {Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci},
       volume = {56},
       number = {1},
       pages = {122-31},
       note = {1552-5783
    Kim, Hoon Dong
    Han, Jung Woo
    Ohn, Young-Hoon
    Brinkmann, Ralf
    Park, Tae Kwann
    Journal Article
    United States
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Dec 11;56(1):122-31. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-15132.},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes of retinal function with multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG), and estimate the association between functional and structural changes after selective retina therapy (SRT) with microsecond-pulsed laser in comparison to continuous wave laser photocoagulation (cwPC). METHODS: Selective retina therapy and cwPC were applied with 10 x 10 shots and 1/2 lesion-width on the retina in the right and left eyes of 20 healthy Chinchilla Bastard rabbits, respectively. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), and mfERG were performed before, and on days 1, 7, and 30 after both laser treatments. The mean ratios of amplitudes and implicit times of N1 and P1 from eight hexagons covering laser-treated retinal lesions/total retina were measured. Histology was obtained after killing three rabbits at each time period to observe the anatomic changes after both laser treatments. RESULTS: The mean ratios of amplitudes of N1 and P1 in SRT lesions did not change significantly for 30 days after laser treatment. Only subtle reductions of the mean ratios of N1 and P1 amplitudes on day 1, thereafter the amplitudes showed the trend to recover toward baseline values. Histology and OCT revealed temporary and reversible morphologic changes after SRT, which restored to normal within 1 month. However, the mean ratios of N1 amplitudes on days 7 and 30 (P = 0.010, P < 0.001, respectively), and P1 amplitudes on days 7 and 30 (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively) declined significantly in cwPC lesions compared with baseline. Disorganization and atrophic changes were identified on histology and OCT after cwPC. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that SRT preserved retinal function as well as anatomical structure after treatment.},
       keywords = {continuous wave laser photocoagulation (cwPC)
    multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG)
    selective retina therapy (SRT)},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       DOI = {10.1167/iovs.14-15132},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wieser, Wolfgang and Klein, Thomas and Draxinger, Wolfgang and Huber, Robert: Fully automated 1.5 MHz FDML laser with more than 100mW output power at 1310 nm. in Proc. SPIE, no. 9541, pp. 954116-954116-7, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{HU_2015_Wieser_a,
    author = {Wieser, Wolfgang and Klein, Thomas and Draxinger, Wolfgang and Huber, Robert},
    title = { Fully automated 1.5 MHz FDML laser with more than 100mW output power at 1310 nm },
    booktitle = {Proc. SPIE },
    type = {Conference Proceedings},
    volume = {9541},
    pages = {954116-954116-7},
    year = {2015},
    doi = {10.1117/12.2183431}
    }
  • Horstmann, J. and Spahr, H. and Buj, C. and Munter, M. and Brinkmann, R.: Full-field speckle interferometry for non-contact photoacoustic tomography. Phys Med Biol, no. 60, pp. 4045-58, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Horstmann2015,
       author = {Horstmann, J. and Spahr, H. and Buj, C. and Munter, M. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Full-field speckle interferometry for non-contact photoacoustic tomography},
       journal = {Phys Med Biol},
       volume = {60},
       number = {10},
       pages = {4045-58},
       note = {1361-6560
       abstract = {A full-field speckle interferometry method for non-contact and prospectively high speed Photoacoustic Tomography is introduced and evaluated as proof of concept. Thermoelastic pressure induced changes of the objects topography are acquired in a repetitive mode without any physical contact to the object. In order to obtain high acquisition speed, the object surface is illuminated by laser pulses and imaged onto a high speed camera chip. In a repetitive triple pulse mode, surface displacements can be acquired with nanometre sensitivity and an adjustable sampling rate of e.g. 20 MHz with a total acquisition time far below one second using kHz repetition rate lasers. Due to recurring interferometric referencing, the method is insensitive to thermal drift of the object due to previous pulses or other motion. The size of the investigated area and the spatial and temporal resolution of the detection are scalable. In this study, the approach is validated by measuring a silicone phantom and a porcine skin phantom with embedded silicone absorbers. The reconstruction of the absorbers is presented in 2D and 3D. The sensitivity of the measurement with respect to the photoacoustic detection is discussed. Potentially, Photoacoustic Imaging can be brought a step closer towards non-anaesthetized in vivo imaging and new medical applications not allowing acoustic contact, such as neurosurgical monitoring or burnt skin investigation.},
       ISSN = {0031-9155},
       DOI = {10.1088/0031-9155/60/10/4045},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Kolb, Jan Philip and Klein, Thomas and Wieser, Wolfgang and Draxinger, Wolfgang and Huber, Robert: Full volumetric video rate OCT of the posterior eye with up to 195.2 volumes/s. in Proc. SPIE, no. 9312, pp. 931202-931202-7, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Kolb2015 ,
       author = {Kolb, Jan Philip and Klein, Thomas and Wieser, Wolfgang and Draxinger, Wolfgang and Huber, Robert },
       title = {Full volumetric video rate OCT of the posterior eye with up to 195.2 volumes/s},
       volume = {9312},
    Year={2015},
       pages = {931202-931202-7 },
       DOI = {10.1117/12.2077147 },
       booktitle = {Proc. SPIE },
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Han, Bing and Köhler, Karsten and Jungnickel, Kerstin and Mettin, Robert and Lauterborn, Werner and Vogel, Alfred: Dynamics of laser-induced bubble pairs. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, no. 771, pp. 706-742, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Han2015,
       author = {Han, Bing and Köhler, Karsten and Jungnickel, Kerstin and Mettin, Robert and Lauterborn, Werner and Vogel, Alfred},
       title = {Dynamics of laser-induced bubble pairs},
       journal = {Journal of Fluid Mechanics},
       volume = {771},
       pages = {706-742},
       keywords = {bubble dynamics,cavitation,jets},
       ISSN = {1469-7645},
       DOI = {doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.183},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2015.183},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Kolb, Jan Philip and Schwarz, Philipp and Klein, Thomas and Wieser, Wolfgang and Huber, Robert: Dual parametric compounding approach for speckle reduction in OCT. in Proc. SPIE, no. 9312, pp. 93123G-93123G-7, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @inproceedings{Kolb2015,
       author = {Kolb, Jan Philip and Schwarz, Philipp and Klein, Thomas and Wieser, Wolfgang and Huber, Robert},
       title = {Dual parametric compounding approach for speckle reduction in OCT},
    Year={2015},
       volume = {9312},
       pages = {93123G-93123G-7},
       DOI = {10.1117/12.2077659},
       booktitle = {Proc. SPIE},
       type = {Conference Proceedings}
    }
    
  • Mohler, Kathrin J. and Draxinger, Wolfgang and Klein, Thomas and Kolb, Jan Philip and Wieser, Wolfgang and Haritoglou, Christos and Kampik, Anselm and Fujimoto, James G. and Neubauer, Aljoscha S. and Huber, Robert and Wolf, Armin: Combined 60° Wide-Field Choroidal Thickness Maps and High-Definition En Face Vasculature Visualization Using Swept-Source Megahertz OCT at 1050 nm60° High-Definition MHz-OCT Imaging of the Choroid. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 56, pp. 6284-6293, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{HU_Mohler_2015,
    author = {Mohler, Kathrin J. and Draxinger, Wolfgang and Klein, Thomas and Kolb, Jan Philip and Wieser, Wolfgang and Haritoglou, Christos and Kampik, Anselm and Fujimoto, James G. and Neubauer, Aljoscha S. and Huber, Robert and Wolf, Armin},
    title = {Combined 60° Wide-Field Choroidal Thickness Maps and High-Definition En Face Vasculature Visualization Using Swept-Source Megahertz OCT at 1050 nm60° High-Definition MHz-OCT Imaging of the Choroid},
    journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
    volume = {56},
    number = {11},
    pages = {6284--6293},
    year = {2015},
    doi = {10.1167/iovs.15-16670},
    eprint = {/data/Journals/IOVS/934564/i1552-5783-56-11-6284.pdf}
    }
  • Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela and Tearney, Guillermo J. and Birngruber, Reginald and Hasan, Tayyaba and Anderson, Richard Rox: Anatomy and physiology of translation: the academic research imperative. Clinical Investigation, no. 5, pp. 797-804, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Apiou-Sbirlea2015,
       author = {Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela and Tearney, Guillermo J. and Birngruber, Reginald and Hasan, Tayyaba and Anderson, Richard Rox},
       title = {Anatomy and physiology of translation: the academic research imperative},
       journal = {Clinical Investigation},
       volume = {5},
       number = {10},
       pages = {797-804},
       ISSN = {2041-6792},
       DOI = {10.4155/cli.15.46},
     ,
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Karpf, Sebastian and Eibl, Matthias and Wieser, Wolfgang and Klein, Thomas and Huber, Robert: A Time-Encoded Technique for fibre-based hyperspectral broadband stimulated Raman microscopy. Nature Communications, no. 6, pp. 6784 1-6;, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @Article{HU_2015_Karpf_a,
      Title                    = {A Time-Encoded Technique for fibre-based hyperspectral broadband stimulated Raman microscopy},
      Author                   = {Karpf, Sebastian and Eibl, Matthias and Wieser, Wolfgang and Klein, Thomas and Huber, Robert},
      Journal                  = {Nature Communications},
      Year                     = {2015},
      Volume = {6},
      pages = {6784 1--6};
      Doi                      = {10.1038/ncomms7784}
    }
    
  • Park, Young Gun and Kang, Seungbum and Brinkmann, Ralf and Roh, Young-Jung: A Comparative Study of Retinal Function in Rabbits after Panretinal Selective Retina Therapy versus Conventional Panretinal Photocoagulation. Journal of Ophthalmology, no. 2015, pp. 8, 2015
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Park2015,
       author = {Park, Young Gun and Kang, Seungbum and Brinkmann, Ralf and Roh, Young-Jung},
       title = {A Comparative Study of Retinal Function in Rabbits after Panretinal Selective Retina Therapy versus Conventional Panretinal Photocoagulation},
       journal = {Journal of Ophthalmology},
       volume = {2015},
       pages = {8},
       DOI = {10.1155/2015/247259},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/247259},
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Huber, Robert: 4-D Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography. Optics & Photonics News, no. 06, pp. 32-39, 2015
    BibTeX
    @article{Huber2015,
       author = {Huber, Robert},
       title = {4-D Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography },
       journal = {Optics & Photonics News},
       volume = {06},
       pages = {32-39},
       url = {http://www.osa-opn.org/home/articles/volume_26/june_2015/features/4-d_real-time_optical_coherence_tomography/ 6/1/2015 3:19:13 PM },
       year = {2015},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

2014

  • Kolb, Jan Philip and Klein, Thomas and Mohler, Kathrin and Wieser, Wolfgang and Reznicek, Lukas and Kernt, Marcus and Kampik, Anselm and Neubauer, Aljoscha S. and Huber, Robert: Widefield Megahertz (MHz) OCT of diabetic retinopathy. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 55, pp. 5018-5018, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Kolb2014,
       author = {Kolb, Jan Philip and Klein, Thomas and Mohler, Kathrin and Wieser, Wolfgang and Reznicek, Lukas and Kernt, Marcus and Kampik, Anselm and Neubauer, Aljoscha S. and Huber, Robert},
       title = {Widefield Megahertz (MHz) OCT of diabetic retinopathy},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {55},
       number = {13},
       pages = {5018-5018},
       abstract = { PurposeTo investigate morphological appearance of diabetic retinopathy and laser effects in panretinal laser photocoagulation with a widefield MHz OCT (60° field of view, 120° center angle).  MethodsA custom swept-source OCT device with a 1060nm Fourier-domain mode-locked laser source achieving a line rate of 1.68MHz was used to investigate 15 consecutive patients with diabetic retinopathy. Within 1.82s datasets consisting of 2088x1024 A-scans over 60° were acquired. The densely sampled three dimensional datasets were investigated in various B-Scan cross-sections as well as en-face images and 3D reconstructions. Selected findings were compared with SLO images from a widefield SLO (Optos, Dunfermeline, UK).  ResultsOn the densely sampled 3D and en-face images, hard exsudates, peripheral laser spots as well as proliferative neovascularization were readily detected. Characteristic structural changes resulting from laser burns could easily be visualized across the whole field of view in the OCT datasets. In addition, depth-scans and B-scans allowed to identify additional structural changes including IS/OS disruption, RPE detachment or neovascularisation reaching into the vitreous across the field of view.  ConclusionsThree dimensional visualization of the retina over 60° field of view with a MHz OCT is feasible in patients with diabetic retinopathy. It might allow additional clinical insights in peripheral changes such as laser spots or retinal neovascularisation. 3D reconstruction of OCT dataset of patient with diabetic retinopathy with neovascularization (green), hard exsudates (yellow), epiretinal membrane and peripheral retinal scars after panretinal laser treatment (blue). Indications with arrows are examplatory. Top: En-face of same patient as in figure 1. Red line indicates the position of B-Frame below. Retinal scars due to focal laser coagulation temporal of the fovea visible. Bottom: Neovascularisation (green) reaching into the vitreous is visible on the left side. Retinal scars especially on RPE level due to panretinal laser treatment (blue) are observable.},
       ISSN = {1552-5783},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Klein, Thomas and Draxinger, Wolfgang and Mohler, Kathrin and Kolb, Jan Philip and Wieser, Wolfgang and Kampik, Anselm and Neubauer, Aljoscha S. and Wolf, Armin and Huber, Robert: Wide-field choroidal thickness and en-face maps of patients created with MHz-OCT. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 55, pp. 1620-1620, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Klein2014,
       author = {Klein, Thomas and Draxinger, Wolfgang and Mohler, Kathrin and Kolb, Jan Philip and Wieser, Wolfgang and Kampik, Anselm and Neubauer, Aljoscha S. and Wolf, Armin and Huber, Robert},
       title = {Wide-field choroidal thickness and en-face maps of patients created with MHz-OCT},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {55},
       number = {13},
       pages = {1620-1620},
       abstract = { PurposeTo study the feasibility of simultaneous peripheral and central choroidal thickness measurement and en-face visualization in patients with a variety of diseases, using a single high-resolution wide-field MHz-OCT dataset spanning more than 50 degrees field of view.  MethodsIn this retrospective study, choroidal morphology of 29 patients imaged with MHz-OCT was assessed. MHz-OCT is a custom SS-OCT operating at 1060nm and an axial line rate of 1.68MHz. The high speed, more than 30 times faster than current commercial devices, enabled a very high resolution scan protocol of 2088x1024 A-scans over a wide field of ~60 degrees. However, due to the very high speed, signal strength is lower compared to slower devices. Hence, thickness and structure maps were only created for selected datasets: The positions of Bruch’s membrane and choroid sclera junction were determined manually by a trained observer a subset of all A-scans, from which thickness and intensity maps were created.  ResultsDespite relative low signal strength, the choroid sclera junction could be clearly observed over the entire unshadowed image area in 15 of 29 patients. Apart from shadowing, visibility of this junction shows strong variation even within a single dataset due to varying retinal thickness, eye-blinks, saccades and retinal curvature. Thus, thickness could be evaluated at least in some areas for all 29 patients, especially in the periphery. Moreover, choroidal thickness varied considerably intra- and interindividually. In two patients, abrupt changes of the choroid were observed in the temporal periphery, which may resemble morphology or imaging artifact. In addition to thickness, en-face choroidal structure maps were extracted from the segmented OCT datasets. Visibility of choroidal vasculature in these maps correlates with choroidal thickness.  ConclusionsChoroidal thickness and structure in patients could be visualized over large areas for the first time. Due to focal choroidal thickness changes with large thickness gradients, high-density scan protocols may be favorable for OCT-based investigations of the choroid. En-face images of the choroid can be extracted from these high-resolution datasets, but the influence of choroidal thickness on the image information should be taken into account. Choroidal en-face image (top), color-coded thickness map with superimposed structural image (middle) and OCT B-frame (bottom) for two eyes (A,B).},
       ISSN = {1552-5783},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Kortuem, Karsten Ulrich and Kolb, Jan Philip and Klein, Thomas and Mohler, Kathrin and Kampik, Anselm and Neubauer, Aljoscha S. and Wieser, Wolfgang and Huber, Robert and Haritoglou, Christos: Wide Field MHz OCT imaging of the vitreoretinal interface. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 55, pp. 1619-1619, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Kortuem2014,
       author = {Kortuem, Karsten Ulrich and Kolb, Jan Philip and Klein, Thomas and Mohler, Kathrin and Kampik, Anselm and Neubauer, Aljoscha S. and Wieser, Wolfgang and Huber, Robert and Haritoglou, Christos},
       title = {Wide Field MHz OCT imaging of the vitreoretinal interface},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {55},
       number = {13},
       pages = {1619-1619},
       abstract = { PurposeTo investigate changes caused by vitreoretinal interface disease with a multi-MHz OCT over a wide field of view of 60°.  MethodsWe used custom swept-source OCT device with a 1060nm Fourier-domain mode-locked laser source achieving a line rate of 1.68MHz. Within 1.82s datasets consisting of 2088x1024 A-scans over 60° were acquired from 5 patients with vitreoretinal traction due to VMTS and 3 patients with vascular pathology. The densely sampled three dimensional datasets were investigated in B-Scan cross-sections as well as en-face images and 3D reconstructions.  ResultsVitreoretinal traction could be imaged well in most of the cases, although the current sensitivity of the system limited image quality. Across the whole 60° field of view in the OCT datasets vitreoretinal tractions could be topographically assessed, always including the macula and optic disc, where vitreous anchorage could be shown. By means of the depth-scans as part of the 3D OCT volume we could image traction-associated retinal changes such as retinal elevation or RPE detachment.  ConclusionsThis unique three dimensional visualization of the retina over 60° field of view with a MHz OCT is feasible in patients with vitreoretinal interface disease and might offer additional clinical insights on the three-dimensional topology of tractional changes. Three dimensional Wide Field MHz OCT retinal and vitreous visualization.},
       ISSN = {1552-5783},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Evers, M. and Ha, L. and Welford, D. and Birngruber, R. and Manstein, D.: Wavelength-Dependence of Fractional Ablations in Biological Materials Using a Tunable Cr2+:Znse/S Infrared Laser. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, no. 46, pp. 38-39, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Evers2014,
       author = {Evers, M. and Ha, L. and Welford, D. and Birngruber, R. and Manstein, D.},
       title = {Wavelength-Dependence of Fractional Ablations in Biological Materials Using a Tunable Cr2+:Znse/S Infrared Laser},
       journal = {Lasers in Surgery and Medicine},
       volume = {46},
       pages = {38-39},
       note = {Suppl. 25
    Ad2hq
    119
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0196-8092},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000333055800109},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Ansari, Rehman and Myrtus, Christian and Aherrahrou, Redouane and Erdmann, Jeanette and Schweikard, Achim and Hüttmann, Gereon: Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed spectral domain optical coherence phase microscopy. Optics Letters, no. 39, pp. 45-47, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Ansari2014,
       author = {Ansari, Rehman and Myrtus, Christian and Aherrahrou, Redouane and Erdmann, Jeanette and Schweikard, Achim and Hüttmann, Gereon},
       title = {Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed spectral domain optical coherence phase microscopy},
       journal = {Optics Letters},
       volume = {39},
       number = {1},
       pages = {45-47},
       abstract = {We present an ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed spectral domain optical coherence phase microscopy (SD-OCPM) system that combines submicrometer transverse spatial resolution and subnanometer optical path length sensitivity, with an acquisition speed of over 217,000&#x2009;&#x2009;voxels/s. The proposed SD-OCPM system overcomes two significant drawbacks of traditional common-path interferometers&#x2014;limited transverse spatial resolution and suboptimal detection sensitivity&#x2014;while maintaining phase stability that is comparable with common-path interferometer setups. The transverse and axial spatial resolution of the setup is measured to be 0.6 and 1.9&#xA0;&#x3BC;m, respectively, with a phase sensitivity of 0.0027&#xA0;rad (corresponds to optical path length sensitivity of 110&#xA0;pm). High-speed acquisition allows for phase-sensitive 4D imaging of biological samples with subcellular resolution.},
       keywords = {Microscopy
    Coherence imaging
    Three-dimensional microscopy},
       DOI = {10.1364/OL.39.000045},
       url = {http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-39-1-45},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Ansari, Rehman and Myrtus, Christian and Aherrahrou, Redouane and Erdmann, Jeanette and Schweikard, Achim and Hüttmann, Gereon: Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed spectral domain optical coherence phase microscopy. Optics Letters, no. 39, pp. 45-47, 2014
    BibTeX Link Link
    @article{Ansari2014,
       author = {Ansari, Rehman and Myrtus, Christian and Aherrahrou, Redouane and Erdmann, Jeanette and Schweikard, Achim and Hüttmann, Gereon},
       title = {Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed spectral domain optical coherence phase microscopy},
       journal = {Optics Letters},
       volume = {39},
       number = {1},
       pages = {45-47},
       abstract = {We present an ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed spectral domain optical coherence phase microscopy (SD-OCPM) system that combines submicrometer transverse spatial resolution and subnanometer optical path length sensitivity, with an acquisition speed of over 217,000&#x2009;&#x2009;voxels/s. The proposed SD-OCPM system overcomes two significant drawbacks of traditional common-path interferometers&#x2014;limited transverse spatial resolution and suboptimal detection sensitivity&#x2014;while maintaining phase stability that is comparable with common-path interferometer setups. The transverse and axial spatial resolution of the setup is measured to be 0.6 and 1.9&#xA0;&#x3BC;m, respectively, with a phase sensitivity of 0.0027&#xA0;rad (corresponds to optical path length sensitivity of 110&#xA0;pm). High-speed acquisition allows for phase-sensitive 4D imaging of biological samples with subcellular resolution.},
       keywords = {Microscopy
    Coherence imaging
    Three-dimensional microscopy},
       DOI = {10.1364/OL.39.000045},
       url = {http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-39-1-45},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Yoko, Miura: Retinal Laser Therapy: Recent Unique Developments Behind the Brilliant Front Stage of Anti-VEGF Treatment. J Clin Exp Ophthalmol, no. 5, pp. 1-2, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Miura2014,
       author = {Yoko, Miura},
       title = {Retinal Laser Therapy: Recent Unique Developments Behind the Brilliant Front Stage of Anti-VEGF Treatment},
       journal = {J Clin Exp Ophthalmol},
       volume = {5},
       number = {6},
       pages = {1-2},
       note = {-},
       DOI = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2155-9570.1000e114},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
    
  • Rohde, I. and Masch, J. M. and Theisen-Kunde, D. and Marczynski-Bühlow, M. and Bombien Quaden, R. and Lutter, G. and Brinkmann, R.: Resection of Calcified Aortic Heart Leaflets In Vitro by Q-Switched 2 µm Microsecond Laser Radiation. Journal of Cardiac Surgery, no. 30, pp. 157-162, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Rohde2014,
       author = {Rohde, I. and Masch, J. M. and Theisen-Kunde, D. and Marczynski-Bühlow, M. and Bombien Quaden, R. and Lutter, G. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Resection of Calcified Aortic Heart Leaflets In Vitro by Q-Switched 2 µm Microsecond Laser Radiation},
       journal = {Journal of Cardiac Surgery},
       volume = {30},
       number = {2},
       pages = {157-162},
       ISSN = {1540-8191},
       DOI = {10.1111/jocs.12481},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocs.12481},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Iwami, H. and Pruessner, J. and Shiraki, K. and Brinkmann, R. and Miura, Y.: Protective effect of a laser-induced sub-lethal temperature rise on RPE cells from oxidative stress. Exp Eye Res, no. 124c, pp. 37-47, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Iwami2014,
       author = {Iwami, H. and Pruessner, J. and Shiraki, K. and Brinkmann, R. and Miura, Y.},
       title = {Protective effect of a laser-induced sub-lethal temperature rise on RPE cells from oxidative stress},
       journal = {Exp Eye Res},
       volume = {124c},
       pages = {37-47},
       note = {1096-0007
    Iwami, Hisashi
    Pruessner, Joachim
    Shiraki, Kunihiko
    Brinkmann, Ralf
    Miura, Yoko
    Journal article
    Exp Eye Res. 2014 May 5;124C:37-47. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2014.04.014.},
       abstract = {Recently introduced new technologies that enable temperature-controlled laser irradiation on the RPE allowed us to investigate temperature-resolved RPE cell responses. In this study we aimed primarily to establish an experimental setup that can realize laser irradiation on RPE cell culture with the similar temperature distribution as in the clinical application, with a precise time/temperature history. With this setup, we conducted investigations to elucidate the temperature-dependent RPE cell biochemical responses and the effect of transient hyperthermia on the responses of RPE cells to the secondary-exposed oxidative stress. Porcine RPE cells cultivated in a culture dish (inner diameter = 30 mm) with culture medium were used, on which laser radiation (lambda = 1940 nm, spot diameter = 30 mm) over 10 s was applied as a heat source. The irradiation provides a radially decreasing temperature profile which is close to a Gaussian shape with the highest temperature in the center. Power setting for irradiation was determined such that the peak temperature (Tmax) in the center of the laser spot at the cells reaches from 40 degrees C to 58 degrees C (40, 43, 46, 50, 58 degrees C). Cell viability was investigated with ethidium homodimer III staining at the time points of 3 and 24 h following laser irradiation. Twenty four hours after laser irradiation the cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 5 h, followed by the measurement of intracellular glutathione, intracellular 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) protein adducts, and secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The mean temperature threshold for RPE cell death after 3 h was found to be around 52 degrees C, and for 24 h around 50 degrees C with the current irradiation setting. A sub-lethal preconditioning on Tmax = 43 degrees C significantly induced the reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, and decreased H2O2-induced increase of intracellular 4-HNE protein adducts. Although sub-lethal hyperthermia (Tmax = 40 degrees C, 43 degrees C, and 46 degrees C) caused a slight increase of VEGF secretion in 6 h directly following irradiation, secondary exposed H2O2-induced VEGF secretion was significantly reduced in the sub-lethally preheated groups, where the largest effect was seen following the irradiation with Tmax = 43 degrees C. In summary, the current results suggest that sub-lethal thermal laser irradiation on the RPE at Tmax = 43 degrees C for 10 s enhances cell defense system against oxidative stress, with increasing the GSH/GSSG ratio. Together with the results that the decreased amount of H2O2-induced 4-HNE in sub-lethally preheated RPE cells was accompanied by the lower secretion of VEGF, it is also strongly suggested that the sub-lethal hyperthermia may modify RPE cell functionality to protect RPE cells from oxidative stress and associated functional decrease, which are considered to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration and other chorioretinal degenerative diseases.},
       ISSN = {0014-4835},
       DOI = {10.1016/j.exer.2014.04.014},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Zhang, Yaokun and Pfeiffer, Tom and Weller, Marcel and Wieser, Wolfgang and Huber, Robert and Raczkowsky, Jörg and Schipper, Jörg and Wörn, Heinz and Klenzner, Thomas: Optical coherence tomography guided laser cochleostomy: towards the accuracy on tens of micrometer scale. BioMed research international, no. 2014, pp. 251814-24, jan,, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @Article{HU_2014_Zhang_a,
      Title                    = {{Optical coherence tomography guided laser cochleostomy: towards the accuracy on tens of micrometer scale}},
      Author                   = {Zhang, Yaokun and Pfeiffer, Tom and Weller, Marcel and Wieser, Wolfgang and Huber, Robert and Raczkowsky, J\"{o}rg and Schipper, J\"{o}rg and W\"{o}rn, Heinz and Klenzner, Thomas},
      Journal                  = {BioMed research international},
      Year                     = {2014},
      Month                    = jan,
      Pages                    = {251814--24},
      Volume                   = {2014},
      Doi                      = {10.1155/2014/251814},
      ISSN                     = {2314-6141},
      Url                      = {http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/251814/}
    }
  • Li, Z. and Roussakis, E. and Koolen, P. G. and Ibrahim, A. M. and Kim, K. and Rose, L. F. and Wu, J. and Nichols, A. J. and Baek, Y. and Birngruber, R. and Apiou-Sbirlea, G. and Matyal, R. and Huang, T. and Chan, R. and Lin, S. J. and Evans, C. L.: Non-invasive transdermal two-dimensional mapping of cutaneous oxygenation with a rapid-drying liquid bandage. Biomed Opt Express, no. 5, pp. 3748-64, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Li2014,
       author = {Li, Z. and Roussakis, E. and Koolen, P. G. and Ibrahim, A. M. and Kim, K. and Rose, L. F. and Wu, J. and Nichols, A. J. and Baek, Y. and Birngruber, R. and Apiou-Sbirlea, G. and Matyal, R. and Huang, T. and Chan, R. and Lin, S. J. and Evans, C. L.},
       title = {Non-invasive transdermal two-dimensional mapping of cutaneous oxygenation with a rapid-drying liquid bandage},
       journal = {Biomed Opt Express},
       volume = {5},
       number = {11},
       pages = {3748-64},
       note = {2156-7085
    Li, Zongxi
    Roussakis, Emmanuel
    Koolen, Pieter G L
    Ibrahim, Ahmed M S
    Kim, Kuylhee
    Rose, Lloyd F
    Wu, Jesse
    Nichols, Alexander J
    Baek, Yunjung
    Birngruber, Reginald
    Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela
    Matyal, Robina
    Huang, Thomas
    Chan, Rodney
    Lin, Samuel J
    Evans, Conor L
    Journal Article
    United States
    Biomed Opt Express. 2014 Oct 1;5(11):3748-64. doi: 10.1364/BOE.5.003748. eCollection 2014 Nov 1.},
       abstract = {Oxygen plays an important role in wound healing, as it is essential to biological functions such as cell proliferation, immune responses and collagen synthesis. Poor oxygenation is directly associated with the development of chronic ischemic wounds, which affect more than 6 million people each year in the United States alone at an estimated cost of $25 billion. Knowledge of oxygenation status is also important in the management of burns and skin grafts, as well as in a wide range of skin conditions. Despite the importance of the clinical determination of tissue oxygenation, there is a lack of rapid, user-friendly and quantitative diagnostic tools that allow for non-disruptive, continuous monitoring of oxygen content across large areas of skin and wounds to guide care and therapeutic decisions. In this work, we describe a sensitive, colorimetric, oxygen-sensing paint-on bandage for two-dimensional mapping of tissue oxygenation in skin, burns, and skin grafts. By embedding both an oxygen-sensing porphyrin-dendrimer phosphor and a reference dye in a liquid bandage matrix, we have created a liquid bandage that can be painted onto the skin surface and dries into a thin film that adheres tightly to the skin or wound topology. When captured by a camera-based imaging device, the oxygen-dependent phosphorescence emission of the bandage can be used to quantify and map both the pO2 and oxygen consumption of the underlying tissue. In this proof-of-principle study, we first demonstrate our system on a rat ischemic limb model to show its capabilities in sensing tissue ischemia. It is then tested on both ex vivo and in vivo porcine burn models to monitor the progression of burn injuries. Lastly, the bandage is applied to an in vivo porcine graft model for monitoring the integration of full- and partial-thickness skin grafts.},
       keywords = {(160.2540) Fluorescent and luminescent materials
    (170.2655) Functional monitoring and imaging
    (170.3880) Medical and biological imaging
    (170.6510) Spectroscopy, tissue diagnostics},
       ISSN = {2156-7085},
       DOI = {10.1364/boe.5.003748},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Li, Z. X. and Roussakis, E. and Koolen, P. G. L. and Ibrahim, A. M. S. and Kim, K. and Rose, L. F. and Wu, J. and Nichols, A. J. and Baek, Y. and Birngruber, R. and Apiou-Sbirlea, G. and Matyal, R. and Huang, T. and Chan, R. and Lin, S. J. and Evans, C. L.: Non-invasive transdermal two-dimensional mapping of cutaneous oxygenation with a rapid-drying liquid bandage. Biomedical Optics Express, no. 5, pp. 3748-3764, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Li2014,
       author = {Li, Z. X. and Roussakis, E. and Koolen, P. G. L. and Ibrahim, A. M. S. and Kim, K. and Rose, L. F. and Wu, J. and Nichols, A. J. and Baek, Y. and Birngruber, R. and Apiou-Sbirlea, G. and Matyal, R. and Huang, T. and Chan, R. and Lin, S. J. and Evans, C. L.},
       title = {Non-invasive transdermal two-dimensional mapping of cutaneous oxygenation with a rapid-drying liquid bandage},
       journal = {Biomedical Optics Express},
       volume = {5},
       number = {11},
       pages = {3748-3764},
       ISSN = {2156-7085},
       DOI = {10.1364/Boe.5.003748},
      
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Guder, Ellen and Lankenau, Eva and Fleischhauer, F. and Schulz-Hildebrandt, H. and Hüttmann, G. and Pau, H. W. and Just, Tino: Microanatomy of the tympanic membrane in chronic myringitis obtained with optical coherence tomography. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, pp. 1-7, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Guder2014,
       author = {Guder, Ellen and Lankenau, Eva and Fleischhauer, F. and Schulz-Hildebrandt, H. and Hüttmann, G. and Pau, H. W. and Just, Tino},
       title = {Microanatomy of the tympanic membrane in chronic myringitis obtained with optical coherence tomography},
       journal = {European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology},
       pages = {1-7},
       keywords = {Optical coherence tomography
    Tympanic membrane
    Chronic myringitis},
       ISSN = {0937-4477},
       DOI = {10.1007/s00405-014-3373-z},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-014-3373-z},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Reznicek, Lukas and Klein, Thomas and Wieser, Wolfgang and Kernt, Marcus and Wolf, Armin and Haritoglou, Christos and Kampik, Anselm and Huber, Robert and Neubauer, Aljoscha S: Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices.. Graefe`s archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology Albrecht von Graefes Archiv für klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie, no. 252, pp. 1009-16, jun,, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @Article{HU_2014_Reznicek_a,
      Title                    = {{Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices.}},
      Author                   = {Reznicek, Lukas and Klein, Thomas and Wieser, Wolfgang and Kernt, Marcus and Wolf, Armin and Haritoglou, Christos and Kampik, Anselm and Huber, Robert and Neubauer, Aljoscha S},
      Journal                  = {Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv f\"{u}r klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie},
      Year                     = {2014},
    
      Month                    = jun,
      Number                   = {6},
      Pages                    = {1009--16},
      Volume                   = {252},
    
      Doi                      = {10.1007/s00417-014-2640-4},
      ISSN                     = {1435-702X},
      Url                      = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007\%2Fs00417-014-2640-4}
    }
  • Karpf, Sebastian and Eibl, Matthias and Klein, Thomas and Wieser, Wolfgang and Huber, Robert: Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Microscopy with Fiber-based, Rapidly Wavelength Swept cw-Lasers. in CLEO: 2014, pp. 1-2, OSA, 2014
    BibTeX Link Link
    @inproceedings{HU_2014_Karpf_b,
    abstract = {A hyperspectral stimulated Raman microscopy system using rapidly wavelength swept lasers is presented. Imaging of biological samples with shot noise limited detection is demonstrated with the fiber based setup.},
    author = {Karpf, Sebastian and Eibl, Matthias and Klein, Thomas and Wieser, Wolfgang and Huber, Robert},
    booktitle = {CLEO: 2014},
    doi = {10.1364/CLEO_SI.2014.SM3P.3},
    isbn = {978-1-55752-999-2},
    keywords = {Lasers,Raman microscopy,Scattering,stimulated Raman,tunable},
    pages = {1--2},
    publisher = {OSA},
    title = {{Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Microscopy with Fiber-based, Rapidly Wavelength Swept cw-Lasers}},
    url = {http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO\_SI-2014-SM3P.3},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • Wieser, Wolfgang and Draxinger, Wolfgang and Klein, Thomas and Karpf, Sebastian and Pfeiffer, Tom and Huber, Robert: High definition live 3D-OCT in vivo: design and evaluation of a 4D OCT engine with 1 GVoxel/s. Biomedical optics express, no. 5, pp. 2963-77, sep,, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @Article{HU_2014_Wieser_a,
      Title                    = {{High definition live 3D-OCT in vivo: design and evaluation of a 4D OCT engine with 1 GVoxel/s}},
      Author                   = {Wieser, Wolfgang and Draxinger, Wolfgang and Klein, Thomas and Karpf, Sebastian and Pfeiffer, Tom and Huber, Robert},
      Journal                  = {Biomedical optics express},
      Year                     = {2014},
    
      Month                    = sep,
      Number                   = {9},
      Pages                    = {2963--77},
      Volume                   = {5},
    
      Doi                      = {10.1364/BOE.5.002963},
      ISSN                     = {2156-7085},
      Url                      = {http://www.opticsinfobase.org/boe/abstract.cfm?uri=boe-5-9-2963}
    }
  • Rohde, Ingo and Brinkmann, Ralf: Gain broadening and mode-locking in overcoupled second harmonic Q-switched microsecond pulses. Journal of Optics, no. 16, pp. 105209, 2014
    BibTeX
    @article{Rohde2014,
       author = {Rohde, Ingo and Brinkmann, Ralf},
       title = {Gain broadening and mode-locking in overcoupled second harmonic Q-switched microsecond pulses},
       journal = {Journal of Optics},
       volume = {16},
       number = {10},
       pages = {105209},
       abstract = {An intracavity frequency doubled, Q-switched Nd:YLF emitting at a wavelength of 527 nm was designed with the goal to temporally stretch the Q-switched pulses up to some microseconds at pulse energies of several millijoules. With different resonator configurations pulse durations between 12 μ s and 3 μ s with energies of 1 mJ–4.5 mJ have been achieved, which is demanded for an application in ophthalmology. For tighter intracavity foci and high pump power, however, strong power modulations by trains of picosecond pulses on the rear flank of the microsecond pulses were observed, indicating the occurrence of cascading nonlinearities and mode-locking. Simultaneously a significant increase of the fundamental spectrum up to 5 nm was found. A similar effect, which is referred to as gain broadening, has previously been observed by using ppKTP for intracavity second harmonic generation. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first observation of this effect with unpoled second harmonic media.},
       ISSN = {2040-8986},
       url = {http://stacks.iop.org/2040-8986/16/i=10/a=105209},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Rudolf, M. and Mohi, A. and Dettbarn, M. C. and Miura, Y. and Aherrahrou, Z. and Ranjbar, M. and Mutus, B. and Knobloch, J. K.: Detection of esterified cholesterol in murine Bruch`s membrane wholemounts with a perfringolysin O-based cholesterol marker. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, no. 55, pp. 4759-67, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Rudolf2014,
       author = {Rudolf, M. and Mohi, A. and Dettbarn, M. C. and Miura, Y. and Aherrahrou, Z. and Ranjbar, M. and Mutus, B. and Knobloch, J. K.},
       title = {Detection of esterified cholesterol in murine Bruch's membrane wholemounts with a perfringolysin O-based cholesterol marker},
       journal = {Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci},
       volume = {55},
       number = {8},
       pages = {4759-67},
       note = {1552-5783
    Rudolf, Martin
    Mohi, Armin
    Dettbarn, Marie C
    Miura, Yoko
    Aherrahrou, Zouhair
    Ranjbar, Mahdy
    Mutus, Bulent
    Knobloch, Johannes K M
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    United States
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Jul 1;55(8):4759-67. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-14311.},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of Bruch's membrane (BrM) neutral lipid deposition in mouse models and its significance to aging and age-related macular degeneration, it is essential to reliably detect small quantities of neutral lipids including esterified cholesterol (EC). In chorioretinal sections and BrM wholemounts, we tested a novel fluorescent cholesterol marker based on the bacterial toxin perfringolysin O (PFO) and compared results with those obtained with the classic cholesterol dye filipin. METHODS: An engineered plasmid containing the specific cholesterol binding domain (D4) of PFO fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) was expressed in cultured E. coli, isolated, purified, and concentrated. A total of 150 BrM-choroid wholemounts and chorioretinal sections of 11- to 13-month-old ApoE(null) mice were prepared and stained with PFO/D4-GFP or filipin for EC. Samples were examined by epifluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: The fluorescence intensity of PFO/D4-GFP was strong, stable, and, if small quantities of EC were present, superior to filipin. In all specimens, we could sharply locate the PFO/D4-GFP signal to BrM. A semiquantitative evaluation of BrM lipid deposition is possible by measuring PFO/D4-GFP fluorescence intensity. CONCLUSIONS: The use of PFO/D4-GFP allowed a robust and direct detection of EC in aged murine BrM. In wholemount samples, its strong and stable fluorescence facilitated a semiquantitative evaluation of BrM-EC content over a large area. The patterns of EC deposition in murine BrM wholemounts are comparable with findings in human BrM wholemounts. Perfringolysin O/D4-GFP could be an important tool for investigating the effects of BrM lipid deposition in mouse models.},
       keywords = {Aging/*metabolism/pathology
    Animals
    Bacterial Toxins
    Bruch Membrane/*metabolism/ultrastructure
    Cells, Cultured
    Cholesterol Esters/*metabolism
    Clostridium perfringens
    Disease Models, Animal
    Feasibility Studies
    Female
    Hemolysin Proteins/*diagnostic use
    Humans
    Macular Degeneration/*diagnosis/metabolism
    Mice
    Mice, Inbred C57BL
    Microscopy, Electron, Transmission},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       DOI = {10.1167/iovs.14-14311},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Koinzer, S. and Caliebe, A. and Portz, L. and Saeger, M. and Miura, Y. and Schlott, K. and Brinkmann, R. and Roider, J.: Comprehensive detection, grading, and growth behavior evaluation of subthreshold and low intensity photocoagulation lesions by optical coherence tomographic and infrared image analysis. Biomed Res Int, no. 2014, pp. 492679, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Koinzer2014,
       author = {Koinzer, S. and Caliebe, A. and Portz, L. and Saeger, M. and Miura, Y. and Schlott, K. and Brinkmann, R. and Roider, J.},
       title = {Comprehensive detection, grading, and growth behavior evaluation of subthreshold and low intensity photocoagulation lesions by optical coherence tomographic and infrared image analysis},
       journal = {Biomed Res Int},
       volume = {2014},
       pages = {492679},
       note = {2314-6141
    Koinzer, Stefan
    Caliebe, Amke
    Portz, Lea
    Saeger, Mark
    Miura, Yoko
    Schlott, Kerstin
    Brinkmann, Ralf
    Roider, Johann
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    United States
    Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:492679. doi: 10.1155/2014/492679. Epub 2014 May 12.},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To correlate the long-term clinical effect of photocoagulation lesions after 6 months, as measured by their retinal damage size, to exposure parameters. We used optical coherence tomographic (OCT)-based lesion classes in order to detect and assess clinically invisible and mild lesions. METHODS: In this prospective study, 488 photocoagulation lesions were imaged in 20 patients. We varied irradiation diameters (100/300 microm), exposure-times (20-200 ms), and power. Intensities were classified in OCT images after one hour, and we evaluated OCT and infrared (IR) images over six months after exposure. RESULTS: For six consecutive OCT-based lesion classes, the following parameters increased with the class: ophthalmoscopic, OCT and IR visibility rate, fundus and OCT diameter, and IR area, but not irradiation power. OCT diameters correlated with exposure-time, irradiation diameter, and OCT class. OCT classes discriminated the largest bandwidth of OCT diameters. CONCLUSION: OCT classes represent objective and valid endpoints of photocoagulation intensity even for "subthreshold" intensities. They are suitable to calculate the treated retinal area. As the area is critical for treatment efficacy, OCT classes are useful to define treatment intensity, calculate necessary lesion numbers, and universally categorize lesions in clinical studies.},
       DOI = {10.1155/2014/492679},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/492679},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Koinzer, S. and Bajorat, S. and Hesse, C. and Caliebe, A. and Bever, M. and Brinkmann, R. and Roecken, C. and Roider, J.: Calibration of histological retina specimens after fixation in Margo`s solution and paraffin embedding to in-vivo dimensions, using photography and optical coherence tomography. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, no. 252, pp. 145-53, 2014
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Koinzer2014,
       author = {Koinzer, S. and Bajorat, S. and Hesse, C. and Caliebe, A. and Bever, M. and Brinkmann, R. and Roecken, C. and Roider, J.},
       title = {Calibration of histological retina specimens after fixation in Margo's solution and paraffin embedding to in-vivo dimensions, using photography and optical coherence tomography},
       journal = {Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol},
       volume = {252},
       number = {1},
       pages = {145-53},
       note = {1435-702x
    Koinzer, Stefan
    Bajorat, Sandra
    Hesse, Carola
    Caliebe, Amke
    Bever, Marco
    Brinkmann, Ralf
    Roecken, Christoph
    Roider, Johann
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Germany
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2014 Jan;252(1):145-53. doi: 10.1007/s00417-013-2457-6. Epub 2013 Sep 14.},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND: The extent of retinal tissue deformation by histological processing needs to be separately measured for every workup protocol. This work presents a simple approach for its quantitative assessment, and shows lateral and axial scaling factors for a common protocol. We calibrated histological measurements by in-vivo photographic and optical coherence tomographic (OCT) measurements, using retinal photocoagulation lesions as calibration markers. METHODS: We evaluated four rabbit eyes that were examined histologically after fixation in Margo's solution (1 % paraformaldehyde:1.25 % glutaraldehyde), isopropanol dehydration, paraffin embedding and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Distances between 51 pairs of laser lesions were compared in photographs and on histological slides. Retinal thickness measurements were performed at 15 anatomically defined sites in these eyes, and related to anatomically matched OCT thickness measurements of six different rabbit eyes. RESULTS: We found that the ratio of histological over photographic lesion distances was 1.17 (95 % CI 1.13-1.22), indicating 17 % lateral retinal stretching or expansion by the processing. Thickness measurements in histology were 65.6 % of the in-vivo thickness as measured in OCT, indicating 1/3 axial tissue compression or shrinkage. CONCLUSIONS: We provide an analysis of retinal tissue deformation after fixation in Margo's solution and paraffin embedding. In spite of protocol optimization for reduced tissue deformation, the workup caused 1/3 axial compression/shrinkage and 17 % lateral elongation, which was unexpected. We show a simple way how to calibrate retina specimens by fundus photography and OCT, two methods that are readily available to most ophthalmologists. Our findings underline the necessity to calibrate specimens prior to morphometry.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Calibration
    *Histological Techniques
    Laser Coagulation
    *Paraffin Embedding
    Photography/*methods
    Rabbits
    *Retina
    *Tissue Fixation
    Tomography, Optical Coherence/*methods},
       ISSN = {0721-832x},
       DOI = {10.1007/s00417-013-2457-6},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Eibl, Matthias and Karpf, Sebastian and Wieser, Wolfgang and Klein, Thomas and Huber, Robert: Broadband, High Resolution Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy with Rapidly Wavelength Swept cw-Lasers. in CLEO: 2014, pp. ATu3P.4 1-3, OSA, 2014
    BibTeX Link Link
    @inproceedings{HU_2014_Eibl_a,
    abstract = {A fast all fiber based setup for stimulated Raman spectroscopy with a rapidly wavelength swept cw-laser is presented. It enables flexible acquisition of broadband (750 cm-1 to 3150 cm-1) spectra with high resolution (0.5 cm-1).},
    author = {Eibl, Matthias and Karpf, Sebastian and Wieser, Wolfgang and Klein, Thomas and Huber, Robert},
    booktitle = {CLEO: 2014},
    doi = {10.1364/CLEO_AT.2014.ATu3P.4},
    isbn = {978-1-55752-999-2},
    keywords = {Lasers,Raman,Scattering,Spectroscopy,stimulated Raman,tunable},
    pages = {ATu3P.4 1--3},
    publisher = {OSA},
    title = {{Broadband, High Resolution Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy with Rapidly Wavelength Swept cw-Lasers}},
    url = {http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO\_AT-2014-ATu3P.4},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • Vogel, A and Freidank, S and Linz, N: Alternativen zur Femtosekundentechnologie: UV Subnanosekunden-pulse und Ringfoki für LASIK Flaperzeugung (at press). Ophthalomologe, no. 111, 2014
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel2014,
       author = {Vogel, A and Freidank, S and Linz, N },
       title = {Alternativen zur Femtosekundentechnologie: UV Subnanosekunden-pulse und Ringfoki für LASIK Flaperzeugung (at press)},
       journal = {Ophthalomologe },
       volume = {111},
       number = {6},
       year = {2014},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wieser, Wolfgang and Draxinger, Wolfgang and Klein, Thomas and Karpf, Sebastian and Pfeiffer, Tom and Huber, Robert: A 4-D OCT Engine with 1 GVoxel/s. Optics and Photonics News, no. 25, pp. 36, OSA, dec,, 2014
    BibTeX
    @Article{HU_2014_Wieser_b,
      Title                    = {{A 4-D OCT Engine with 1 GVoxel/s}},
      Author                   = {Wieser, Wolfgang and Draxinger, Wolfgang and Klein, Thomas and Karpf, Sebastian and Pfeiffer, Tom and Huber, Robert},
      Journal                  = {Optics and Photonics News},
      Year                     = {2014},
    
      Month                    = dec,
      Number                   = {12},
      Pages                    = {36 },
      Volume                   = {25},
    
      Publisher                = {OSA},
      Url                      = { http://www.osa-opn.org/home/articles/volume_25/december_2014/extras/a_4-d_oct_engine_with_1_gvoxel_s/#.VcH21Pl5raw}
    }