1999 - 1995

1999

  • Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Wirbelauer, C. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.: Variability of RPE reaction in two cases after selective RPE laser effects in prophylactic treatment of drusen. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, no. 237, pp. 45-50, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider1999,
       author = {Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Wirbelauer, C. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.},
       title = {Variability of RPE reaction in two cases after selective RPE laser effects in prophylactic treatment of drusen},
       journal = {Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol},
       volume = {237},
       number = {1},
       pages = {45-50},
       note = {0721-832X (Print)
    Case Reports
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND: The value of prophylactic photocoagulation of soft drusen is unclear. Photocoagulation is usually performed by a continuous wave laser. METHODS: We report the cases of two patients with age-related macular degeneration with soft drusen who were treated by selective retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) photocoagulation of a pulsed Nd:YLF (527 nm) laser. Laser parameters were: wavelength 527 nm, number of pulses in a train 500, pulse duration 1.7 microseconds, energy per pulse 70 microJ, spot size 160 microns, repetition rate 500 Hz. RESULTS: Dosimetry performed individually showed that in both patients laser photocoagulation was performed at the threshold of RPE disruption. None of the laser effects was visible during photocoagulation. They were detectable only by fluorescein angiography. Despite identical photocoagulation parameters the RPE reaction was completely different. In the first patient RPE hyperpigmentation was notable at most photocoagulation sites and the drusen had disappeared after 6 months. In the second patient the laser effects were not visible after 6 months by biomicroscopy and the drusen stayed unchanged. CONCLUSION: These findings could reflect different repair mechanisms of the RPE after alteration and could represent a sign of a different viable stage in the life of RPE cells. Close attention should be paid to this phenomenon in the various drusen studies currently under way.},
       keywords = {Fluorescein Angiography
    Fundus Oculi
    Humans
    *Laser Coagulation
    Macular Degeneration/complications
    Middle Aged
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/pathology/*surgery
    Retinal Drusen/complications/pathology/*surgery
    Visual Acuity},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=9951641},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wachtveitl, Josef and Huber, Robert and Spörlein, Sebastian and Moser, Jacques E and Grätzel, Michael: Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer in coumarin 343 sensitized TiO2-colloidal solution. International Journal of Photoenergy, no. 1, pp. 153-155, 1999
    BibTeX Link
    @Article{HU_1999_Wachtveitl_a,
      Title                    = {{Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer in coumarin 343 sensitized TiO2-colloidal solution}},
      Author                   = {Wachtveitl, Josef and Huber, Robert and Sp\"{o}rlein, Sebastian and Moser, Jacques E and Gr\"{a}tzel, Michael},
      Journal                  = {International Journal of Photoenergy},
      Year                     = {1999},
      Number                   = {3},
      Pages                    = {153--155},
      Volume                   = {1},
    
      Doi                      = {10.1155/S1110662X99000264},
      ISSN                     = {1110-662X},
      Url                      = {http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/1999/418298/abs/}
    }
  • Koop, N. and Wirbelauer, C. and Tüngler, A. and Geerling, G. and Bastian, G. O. and Brinkmann, R: Thermische Schädigung des Hornhautendothels bei der Dioden-Laserthermokeratoplastik.. Ophthalmologe, no. 96, pp. 392-397, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Koop,
       author = {Koop, N. and Wirbelauer, C. and Tüngler, A. and Geerling, G. and Bastian, G. O. and Brinkmann, R},
       title = {Thermische Schädigung des Hornhautendothels bei der Dioden-Laserthermokeratoplastik.},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {96},
       pages = {392-397},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Theisen, D. and Brendel, T. and Birngruber, R.: Single-pulse 30-J holmium laser for myocardial revascularization - A study on ablation dynamics in comparison to CO2 laser-TMR. Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, no. 5, pp. 969-980, 1999
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Brinkmann1999,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Theisen, D. and Brendel, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Single-pulse 30-J holmium laser for myocardial revascularization - A study on ablation dynamics in comparison to CO2 laser-TMR},
       journal = {Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics},
       volume = {5},
       number = {4},
       pages = {969-980},
       note = {248CM
    Times Cited:9
    Cited References Count:40},
       abstract = {Endocardial laser revascularization (ELR) is a new technique to treat coronary heart disease in a percutaneous, minimally invasive approach. A holmium laser (lambda = 2.12 mu m) was developed to emit pulse energies of up to 30 J in order to ablate the desired channels in a single laser pulse. The energy was transmitted by multimode flexible optical waveguides as required for ELR, Ablation dynamics were investigated in two model systems, water serving as blood model and polyacrylamide (PAA) as a transparent tissue phantom. Measurements were undertaken using pulse energies of 12 J at pulse durations of 2.2 and 8 ms with a beam diameter of 1 mm, For comparison with the clinically established method of transmyocardial revascularization (TMR), ablations were also investigated with a standard 800 W TMR CO2 laser. The dynamics were recorded with a drum camera and stroboscope illumination providing a high framing rate of a single ablation process. Tissue ablation was quantified with the holmium laser in vitro on porcine heart tissue using pulse energies of up to 20 J, Tissue morphology was evaluated using polarization light microscopy to determine thermal and mechanical collateral damage zones. Oscillating vapor bubble channels were found in water and PAA with all laser systems and parameters used. Quasi-static vapor bubbles are observed in water in the millisecond time range using the holmium laser. CO2 laser radiation performed deeper channels in PAA than holmium laser pulses using the same radiant exposure. Channel depths of up to 10 mm were achieved with the holmium laser in myocardial tissue with pulse energies of 17 J, Thermal damage zones of about 150 mu m for the CO2 and 500 mu m for the holmium laser were found. The orientation of myocardial fibrils significantly influences the shape of the ablated cavities and the thermo-mechanical collateral damage zones. In conclusion, the results are very encouraging and demonstrate the potential of a catheter-based minimal invasive procedure for heart reperfusion using single high energy laser pulses.},
       keywords = {ablation dynamics
    co2 laser
    elr
    fast flash photography
    heart revascularization
    holmium laser
    polyacrylamide
    tmlr
    tmr
    transmyocardial revascularization
    tissue ablation
    channels
    generation
    duration
    water
    blood},
       ISSN = {1077-260X},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1109/2944.796319},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000083257800015},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Rögener, J. and Lin, C.P. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R. and Hüttmann, G.: Selective RPE-Photodestruction: Mechanism of Cell Damage by pulsed laser irradiance in the ns to µs time regime. Proc. SPIE, no. 3601, pp. 59-65, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Rögener, J. and Lin, C.P. and Roider, J. and Birngruber, R. and Hüttmann, G.},
       title = {Selective RPE-Photodestruction: Mechanism of Cell Damage by pulsed laser irradiance in the ns to µs time regime},
       journal = {Proc. SPIE},
       volume = {3601},
       pages = {59-65},
       year = {1999}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Wirbelauer, C. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Retinal sparing by selective retinal pigment epithelial photocoagulation. Arch Ophthalmol, no. 117, pp. 1028-34, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider1999,
       author = {Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Wirbelauer, C. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Retinal sparing by selective retinal pigment epithelial photocoagulation},
       journal = {Arch Ophthalmol},
       volume = {117},
       number = {8},
       pages = {1028-34},
       note = {0003-9950 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether photocoagulation of the retinal pigment epithelium is possible with sparing of the photoreceptors. METHODS: Mild laser effects of a neodymium:yttrium-lithium-fluoride (Nd:YLF) laser (527 nm) were applied to 17 patients. To establish the necessary energy, test exposures were performed to the lower macula (laser variables: 1.7 microseconds, 100 and 500 pulses applied in a train at 500 Hz, 20-130 microJ, 160 microm). Of 179 test lesions, 73 were followed up at various time intervals up to 1 year by performing microperimetry directly on top of the laser lesions. RESULTS: All of the test lesions were at the threshold of retinal pigment epithelial disruption, and none of the laser effects were visible by ophthalmoscopy during photocoagulation; they were detectable only by fluorescein angiography. After exposure with 500 pulses, retinal defects were detected in up to 73% of the patients (100 microJ) after the first day. Most of these defects were no longer detectable after 3 months. After exposure with 100 pulses, no defects could be detected with 70 and 100 microJ after 1 day. The absence of microscotomas in the follow-up period suggests that retinal damage was minimal or, if it occurred, was functionally repaired. CONCLUSION: By choosing proper energy and number of pulses, it is possible to produce retinal pigment epithelial effects with no subsequent retinal damage detectable by microperimetry.},
       keywords = {Adult
    Eye Injuries/physiopathology/*prevention & control
    Female
    Fluorescein Angiography
    Follow-Up Studies
    Fundus Oculi
    Humans
    *Laser Coagulation/methods
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Ophthalmoscopy
    Perimetry
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/physiopathology/*surgery
    Retina/injuries/*physiopathology
    Retinal Diseases/physiopathology/*surgery
    Visual Acuity},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=10448745},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Miller, J. W. and Sickenberg, M. and Laqua, H. and Barbazetto, I. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Zografos, L. and Piguet, B. and Pournaras, C. J. and Donati, G. and Lane, A. M. and Birngruber, R. and van den Berg, H. and Strong, H. A. and Manjuris, U. and Gray, T. and Fsadni, M. and Bressler, N. M.: Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for choroidal neovascularization caused by age-related macular degeneration: results of retreatments in a phase 1 and 2 study. Arch Ophthalmol, no. 117, pp. 1177-87, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth,
       author = {Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Miller, J. W. and Sickenberg, M. and Laqua, H. and Barbazetto, I. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Zografos, L. and Piguet, B. and Pournaras, C. J. and Donati, G. and Lane, A. M. and Birngruber, R. and van den Berg, H. and Strong, H. A. and Manjuris, U. and Gray, T. and Fsadni, M. and Bressler, N. M.},
       title = {Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for choroidal neovascularization caused by age-related macular degeneration: results of retreatments in a phase 1 and 2 study},
       journal = {Arch Ophthalmol},
       volume = {117},
       number = {9},
       pages = {1177-87},
       note = {0003-9950 (Print)
    Clinical Trial
    Clinical Trial, Phase I
    Clinical Trial, Phase II
    Comment
    Journal Article
    Multicenter Study
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {OBJECTIVES: To evaluate safety and short-term visual acuity and fluorescein angiographic effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) after retreatments with verteporfin for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) that demonstrated fluorescein leakage after at least 1 course of PDT. DESIGN: Nonrandomized, multicenter, open-label phase 1 and 2 clinical trial using 2 different retreatment dosage regimens. SETTING: Four ophthalmic centers in Europe and North America providing retinal care. METHODS: Standardized protocol refraction, visual acuity testing, ophthalmic examinations, color photographs, and fluorescein angiograms were used to evaluate the results of multiple PDT treatments. Two regimens (regimens 2 and 4) for treatment and retreatment were chosen from 5 used in a single-treatment study. Both regimens used a verteporfin dose of 6 mg/m2 infused for 10 minutes. However, regimen 2 used a light dose of 100 J/cm2 applied 20 minutes after the start of the verteporfin infusion, whereas regimen 4 used a light dose of 50, 75, or 100 J/cm2 applied 15 minutes after infusion commenced. Posttreatment evaluations were planned in 31 participants up to 3 months after up to 2 retreatments given at 2- or 4-week intervals after initial PDT treatment. Similar posttreatment evaluations were planned after retreatments in 5 additional participants who were reenrolled some time more than 12 weeks after an initial PDT treatment. RESULTS: The average visual acuity change for the 31 participants who had retreatment within 2 to 4 weeks after the initial treatment and a follow-up examination 16 to 20 weeks after the initial treatment was 0.2 lines (range, -4 to 4 lines) in regimen 2 and -1.0 line (range, -5 to 3 lines) in regimen 4. Similar outcomes were noted in the 5 reenrolled participants. Cessation of fluorescein leakage from classic CNV for at least 1 to 4 weeks could be achieved without loss of visual acuity after at least 2 treatments in 2 (6.5%) of 31 patients. Similar to single-treatment effects, the disappearance of leakage was documented regularly at 1 week after each retreatment. Fluorescein leakage reappeared by 4 to 12 weeks after a retreatment in almost all cases. However, compared with baseline, leakage activity appeared to be reduced after multiple PDT courses. For the 31 patients who had follow-up for 3 months after the last retreatment and had received retreatment 2 to 4 weeks after the initial treatment, progression of CNV beyond the area identified before the retreatment was noted in 10 (48%) of the 21 eyes with classic CNV in regimen 2 and 9 (90%) of 10 eyes in regimen 4. The rate and severity of ocular or systemic adverse events were not increased by multiple applications. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple applications of PDT with verteporfin achieve repetitive, short-term cessation of fluorescein leakage from CNV secondary to AMD, without loss of visual acuity. This strategy can be used in randomized clinical trials investigating the efficacy of verteporfin in PDT for recurrent fluorescein dye leakage from persistent or recurrent CNV, following an initial or subsequent PDT treatment, with maintenance of visual acuity. Retreatments may achieve progressive cessation of leakage and prevent further growth of CNV and subsequent visual loss.},
       keywords = {Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Capillary Permeability/drug effects
    Choroid/blood supply
    Choroidal Neovascularization/*drug therapy/etiology/metabolism/pathology
    Female
    Fluorescein/metabolism
    Fluorescein Angiography
    Follow-Up Studies
    Fundus Oculi
    Humans
    Macular Degeneration/*complications
    Male
    Middle Aged
    *Photochemotherapy
    Photosensitizing Agents/administration & dosage/*therapeutic use
    Porphyrins/administration & dosage/*therapeutic use
    Retreatment
    Safety
    Treatment Outcome
    Visual Acuity},
       year = {1999}
    }
    
  • Miller, J. W. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Sickenberg, M. and Pournaras, C. J. and Laqua, H. and Barbazetto, I. and Zografos, L. and Piguet, B. and Donati, G. and Lane, A. M. and Birngruber, R. and van den Berg, H. and Strong, H. A. and Manjuris, U. and Gray, T. and Fsadni, M. and Bressler, N. M. and Gragoudas, E. S.: Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for choroidal neovascularization caused by age-related macular degeneration - Results of a single treatment in a phase 1 and 2 study. Archives of Ophthalmology, no. 117, pp. 1161-1173, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Miller1999,
       author = {Miller, J. W. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Sickenberg, M. and Pournaras, C. J. and Laqua, H. and Barbazetto, I. and Zografos, L. and Piguet, B. and Donati, G. and Lane, A. M. and Birngruber, R. and van den Berg, H. and Strong, H. A. and Manjuris, U. and Gray, T. and Fsadni, M. and Bressler, N. M. and Gragoudas, E. S.},
       title = {Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for choroidal neovascularization caused by age-related macular degeneration - Results of a single treatment in a phase 1 and 2 study},
       journal = {Archives of Ophthalmology},
       volume = {117},
       number = {9},
       pages = {1161-1173},
       note = {234ZE
    Times Cited:196
    Cited References Count:35},
       abstract = {Objective: To evaluate the safety and short-term visual and fluorescein angiographic effects of a single photodynamic therapy treatment with verteporfin with the use of different dosage regimens in patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) from age-related macular degeneration.
    Design: Nonrandomized, multicenter, open-label, clinical trial using 5 dosage regimens.
    Setting: Four ophthalmic centers in North America and Europe providing retinal care.
    Participants: Patients with subfoveal CNV caused by age-related macular degeneration.
    Methods: Standardized protocol refraction, visual acuity testing, ophthalmic examination, color photographs, and fluorescein angiograms were used to evaluate the effects of a single treatment of photodynamic therapy with verteporfin. Follow-up was planned through 3 months in 97 patients and for less than 3 months in 31 other patients.
    Results: The mean visual acuity change (and range of change) from baseline at the follow-up examination at week 12 after a single treatment with regimens 1 through 5 was -0.2 (-3 to +2), -0.9 (-9 to +5);, -1.6 (-9 to +2), +0.4 (-8 to +7), and +0.1 (-8 to +9) lines, respectively. Only the highest light dose (150J/cm(2)) in regimens 2 and 3, which produced angiographic nonperfusion of neurosensory retinal vessels, caused marked vision loss. Some cessation of fluorescein leakage from CNV was achieved without loss of vision when the light dose used was less than 150J/cm(2). Systemic adverse events were rare. Cessation of fluorescein leakage from CNV was noted in all regimens by 1 week after photodynamic therapy. Fluorescein leakage from at least a portion of the CNV reappeared by 4 to 12 weeks after treatment in almost all cases. Progression of classic CNV beyond the area of CNV identified before treatment was noted in 42 (51%) of the 83 eyes with classic CNV followed up for 3 months after a single treatment. Eyes in which the area of any CNV leakage at 12 weeks was less than at baseline had a significantly better visual acuity outcome (+0.8 line) than eyes in which CNV leakage progressed (-0.8 line).
    Conclusions: Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin achieved short-term cessation of fluorescein leakage from CNV without loss of vision or growth of classic CNV in some patients with age-related macular degeneration. Except for nonperfusion of neurosensory retinal vessels at a light dose of 150 J/cm(2), no other adverse events were of concern. Randomized clinical trials to investigate whether this new modality can preserve vision in patients with CNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration are justified.},
       keywords = {lipoprotein-delivered benzoporphyrin
    tumor
    maculopathy
    prevalence},
       ISSN = {0003-9950},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000082513600007},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • TAP, Study group: Photodynamic Therapy of Subfoveal Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-related Macular Degeneration with Verteporfin - One-Year Results of 2 Randomized Clinical Trials - TAP Report 1. Arch Ophthalmol, no. 117, pp. 1329-1345, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{TAP,
       author = {TAP, Study group},
       title = {Photodynamic Therapy of Subfoveal Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-related Macular Degeneration with Verteporfin - One-Year Results of 2 Randomized Clinical Trials - TAP Report 1},
       journal = {Arch Ophthalmol},
       volume = {117},
       pages = {1329-1345},
       year = {1999}
    }
    
  • Hüttmann, G. and Birngruber, R.: On the Possibility of High-Precision Photothermal Microeffects and the Measurement of Fast thermal Denaturation of Proteins.. IEEE J Quant Electr, no. 5, pp. 954-962, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Hüttmann,
       author = {Hüttmann, G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {On the Possibility of High-Precision Photothermal Microeffects and the Measurement of Fast thermal Denaturation of Proteins.},
       journal = {IEEE J Quant Electr},
       volume = {5},
       number = {4},
       pages = {954-962},
       year = {1999}
    }
    
  • Huttmann, G. and Birngruber, R.: On the possibility of high-precision photothermal microeffects and the measurement of fast thermal denaturation of proteins. Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, no. 5, pp. 954-962, 1999
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Hüttmann1999,
       author = {Huttmann, G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {On the possibility of high-precision photothermal microeffects and the measurement of fast thermal denaturation of proteins},
       journal = {Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics},
       volume = {5},
       number = {4},
       pages = {954-962},
       note = {248CM
    Times Cited:77
    Cited References Count:43},
       abstract = {The precision of laser-induced effects is often limited by thermal and thermomechanical collateral damage. Adjusting the pulsewidth of the laser to the size of the absorbing structure can at least avoid thermal side effects and facilitates a selective treatment of vessels or pigmented cells. Further extending the precision of thermal effects below cellular dimensions by using nanometer sized particles could open up new fields of applications for lasers in medicine and biology. Calculations show that under irradiation with nano- or picosecond laser pulses gold particles of submicrometer size can easily be heated by several hundred K, High temperatures have to be used for subcellular thermal effects, because heat confinement to such small structures requires the thermal damage to occur in extremely short times. Estimating the denaturation temperature by extrapolating the Arrhenius equation from a time range of minutes and seconds into a time range of nano- and picoseconds leads to temperatures beta;een 370 K-470 K, There is evidence that in aqueous media, due to the surface tension, these temperatures can be generated at the surface of nanometer sized particles without vaporization of the surrounding water,
    In order to show whether or not an extrapolation of the damage rates over six to nine orders of magnitude gives correct data, a temperature-jump experiment was designed and tested which allows to measure denaturation rates of proteins in the millisecond time range. Denaturation of chymotrypsin was observed within 300 mu s at temperatures below 380 K, The rate constants for the unfolding of chymotrypsin followed the Arrhenius equation up to rates of 3000 s(-1).},
       keywords = {laser medicine
    microeffects
    protein denaturation
    thermal effects
    assisted laser inactivation},
       ISSN = {1077-260X},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1109/2944.796317},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000083257800013},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Buesgen, P. and Hoerauf, H. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Macular injury by a military range finder. Retina-the Journal of Retinal and Vitreous Diseases, no. 19, pp. 531-535, 1999
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roider1999,
       author = {Roider, J. and Buesgen, P. and Hoerauf, H. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Macular injury by a military range finder},
       journal = {Retina-the Journal of Retinal and Vitreous Diseases},
       volume = {19},
       number = {6},
       pages = {531-535},
       note = {403KZ
    Times Cited:11
    Cited References Count:18},
       abstract = {Objective: The authors report the clinical findings of a civilian patient who unintentionally looked into the laser beam of a military range finder. Detailed information on the range finder is given. The objective is to illustrate the potential danger of such devices and to give detailed information on the device, the clinical findings associated with exposure, and the laser-tissue interaction mechanism.
    Methods: The patient was examined with fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, microperimetry, and optical coherence tomography, both in the acute stage (2 hours) and 4 weeks later. Fluorescein angiography was performed again 4 months later. A total of 100 mg prednisone tapered over 9 days was prescribed. Additionally, 50 mug tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) and 0.5 mt pure C2F6 were injected in the vitreous.
    Results: In the acute phase, hemorrhage was located beneath the retina, primarily beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. Retinal defects as seen initially over the subretinal blood were reduced after 4 weeks, but a retinal defect ranging from the lasered site toward the fovea remained. Visual acuity slightly increased from 20/100 to 20/63 after 4 weeks. Indocyanine green angiography showed a large hypofluorescent spot in the macula. Four months after the accident, a classic choroidal neovascularization developed, originating from the lasered site. The technical parameters of the range finder were: Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), pulse duration 10 ns, beam divergence 1.5 mrad, energy 10 mJ.
    Conclusion: A range finder can produce severe macular injury. The primary laser-tissue interaction mechanism seems to be explosive disruption of choroidal tissue. Intravitreal injection of TPA and C2F6 did not show a clear benefit to such laser lesions. A late complication can be secondary choroidal neovascularization.},
       keywords = {laser accident
    range finder
    nd : yag
    tissue plasminogen activator
    choroidal neovascularization
    retinal injury
    yag laser
    neovascularization
    neodymium},
       ISSN = {0275-004X},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1097/00006982-199911000-00009},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000167042200009},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Noack, J. and Vogel, A.: Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density. Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of, no. 35, pp. 1156-1167, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Noack,
       author = {Noack, J. and Vogel, A.},
       title = {Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density},
       journal = {Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of},
       volume = {35},
       number = {8},
       pages = {1156-1167},
       keywords = {absorption coefficients
    electron density
    high-speed optical techniques
    multiphoton processes
    photoionisation
    plasma density
    plasma production by laser
    plasma theory
    water
    H<sub>2</sub>O
    absorption coefficient
    breakdown threshold
    cascade ionization
    collision losses
    complex pulse duration dependence
    decreasing laser pulse duration
    distilled water
    energy density
    energy threshold
    femtosecond time scales
    free electron density
    free electrons
    high-power laser pulses
    laser pulse
    laser-induced plasma formation
    multiphoton ionization
    multiphoton ionization gains
    nanosecond laser pulses
    nanosecond time scales
    numerical solution
    plasma absorption coefficient
    plasma energy density
    plasma generation
    plasma transmission
    pulse durations
    quantitative agreement
    rate equation
    recombination losses
    thresholds},
       year = {1999}
    }
    
  • Nahen, K. and Vogel, A.: Investigations on Acoustic On- Line Monitoring of IR Laser Ablation of burned Skin. Laser in Surgery and Medicine, no. 25, pp. 69-78, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Nahen,
       author = {Nahen, K. and Vogel, A.},
       title = {Investigations on Acoustic On- Line Monitoring of IR Laser Ablation of burned Skin},
       journal = {Laser in Surgery and Medicine},
       volume = {25},
       pages = {69-78},
       year = {1999}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Nahen, K. and Theisen-Kunde, D. and Birngruber, R. and Thomas, J. and Rockwell, B.A.: Influence of optical aberrations on laser-induced plasma formation in water, and their consequences for intraocular photodisruption. Appl Optics, no. 38, pp. 3636-3643, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Nahen, K. and Theisen-Kunde, D. and Birngruber, R. and Thomas, J. and Rockwell, B.A.},
       title = {Influence of optical aberrations on laser-induced plasma formation in water, and their consequences for intraocular photodisruption},
       journal = {Appl Optics},
       volume = {38},
       number = {16},
       pages = {3636-3643},
       year = {1999}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Noack, J. and Nahen, K. and Theisen, D. and Busch, S. and Parlitz, U. and Hammer, D.X. and Noojin, G. D. and Rockwell, B.A. and Birngruber, R.: Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales. Appl Phys B, no. 68, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Noack, J. and Nahen, K. and Theisen, D. and Busch, S. and Parlitz, U. and Hammer, D.X. and Noojin, G. D. and Rockwell, B.A. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales},
       journal = {Appl Phys B},
       volume = {68},
       number = {271-280},
       year = {1999}
    }
    
  • Theisen, D. and Brendel, T. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R: Endokardiale Laser Revaskularisation des Myokards mittels 20 J Einzelpuls Holmium Laserstrahlung. Lasermedizin, no. 14, pp. 125-128, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Theisen1999,
       author = {Theisen, D. and Brendel, T. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R},
       title = {Endokardiale Laser Revaskularisation des Myokards mittels 20 J Einzelpuls Holmium Laserstrahlung},
       journal = {Lasermedizin},
       volume = {14},
       pages = {125-128},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Geerling, G. and Koop, N. and Tungler, A. and Brinkmann, R. and Wirbelauer, C. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.: Diode laser thermokeratoplasty. Initial clinical experiences. Ophthalmologe, no. 96, pp. 306-11, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Geerling1999,
       author = {Geerling, G. and Koop, N. and Tungler, A. and Brinkmann, R. and Wirbelauer, C. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.},
       title = {Diode laser thermokeratoplasty. Initial clinical experiences},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {96},
       number = {5},
       pages = {306-11},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: Pulsed holmium lasers are currently used to correct hyperopia by means of laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK). Series of microsecond laser pulses are applied with a high repetition rate to induce shrinkage of corneal collagen fibers. The pulsed energy application results in intrastromal temperature peaks of up to 200 degrees C. A continuously emitting laser diode can--as we demonstrated recently in an invivo study on minipigs--be used for LTK and may be of advantage because the temperature rise is more steady. The aim of this study was to examine the safety, amount, and stability of hyperopic correction of diode LTK on blind human eyes. METHODS: We used a laserdiode that was set to continuously emit light at lambda = 1.854 microns/mu a = 1.04 mm-1 (group I, n = 4) or 1.87 microns/mu a = 1.92 mm-1 (group II, n = 4). Radiation energy was 100 to 150 mW for 10 s per coagulation. Eight coagulations on a single ring (group I) and 16 coagulations on a double ring (group II) diameter were applied in the cornea concentric to the entrance pupil by means of a vacuum-fixed application mask (group I = conjunctival fixation; group II = corneal fixation) and a handpiece with a focusing optic. Preoperatively as well as 1 week, 1, 2, 3, 6 12 and 18 months postoperative ophthalmologic controls were performed and the corneal refractive power was measured. RESULTS: In group I initial refractive changes of up to +4.9 D were achieved (1 week postoperative). However, due to the great penetration depth of the laser irradiation, large endothelial defects resulted beneath the stromal coagulations. In group II an initial refractive change of up to +6.8 D was achieved and as a result of the reduced penetration depth, the endothelial cell damage was much reduced. Partial regression of the refractive effect occurred in all subjects, which continued in higher refractive changes during the 2nd postoperative year. The refractive effect at 12 months was +0.6 to +1.5 D in group I and +0.9 to +5.7 D in group II. At 12 months the induced astigmatism was 0.5 to 2.2 D in group I and 0.3 to 1.6 D in group II. No serious adverse effects were noticed. CONCLUSION: A continously emitting laser diode working at a wavelength of 1.87 microns can be used to correct hyperopia by means of LTK safely and effectively. Regression occurs predominantly in the first 6 postoperative months. Further studies must be conducted to determine the importance of patient inherent parameters such as age in establishing a nomogram.},
       keywords = {Adult
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Blindness/*surgery
    Corneal Topography
    English Abstract
    Equipment Safety
    Female
    Human
    Hyperopia/*surgery
    Keratectomy, Photorefractive, Excimer Laser/*instrumentation
    Laser Coagulation/*instrumentation
    Male
    Middle Age
    Postoperative Complications/etiology
    Refraction, Ocular
    Temperature},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Geerling, G. and Koop, N. and Brinkmann, R. and Tungler, A. and Wirbelauer, C. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.: Continuous-wave diode laser thermokeratoplasty: first clinical experience in blind human eyes. J Cataract Refract Surg, no. 25, pp. 32-40, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Geerling1999,
       author = {Geerling, G. and Koop, N. and Brinkmann, R. and Tungler, A. and Wirbelauer, C. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.},
       title = {Continuous-wave diode laser thermokeratoplasty: first clinical experience in blind human eyes},
       journal = {J Cataract Refract Surg},
       volume = {25},
       number = {1},
       pages = {32-40},
       note = {0886-3350 (Print)
    Clinical Trial
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and stability of laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK) with a continuous-wave diode laser in blind human eyes and to optimize parameters for a study in sighted eyes. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University Lubeck, Germany. METHODS: A continuous-wave diode laser was set to emit radiation with a wavelength of 1.854 microns (Group 1, n = 4) or 1.870 microns (Group 2, n = 4) and 100 to 150 mW power for 10 seconds. A focusing handpiece was coupled with an application mask and fixed by partial vacuum to the conjunctiva or cornea. The radiation was focused into the corneal stroma between 400 and 600 microns in Group 1 and set to 1000 microns in Group 2. Eight (Group 1, single ring) or 16 (Group 2, double ring) coagulations were applied. RESULTS: The refractive change increased with higher laser power and smaller ring diameters. Two rings of coagulations provided higher and more stable refractive changes of up to 5.66 diopters (D) than a single ring. The refractive effect stabilized between 3 and 6 months postoperatively. At 1 year, mean refractive change was +0.99 D +/- 0.39 (SD) in Group 1 and +2.32 +/- 2.24 D in Group 2. Extensive endothelial damage occurred in Group 1 but was minimal in Group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Diode LTK was used to treat hyperopia safely and effectively. Regression occurred mainly in the first 3 postoperative months. With a wavelength of 1.870 microns, corneal endothelial damage was limited.},
       keywords = {Adult
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Blindness/*complications
    Corneal Stroma/pathology/physiopathology/*surgery
    Corneal Topography
    Female
    Humans
    Hyperopia/pathology/physiopathology/*surgery
    Laser Coagulation/adverse effects/*methods
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Postoperative Complications
    Safety},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=9888074},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Noack, J. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.: Confocal laserscanning fluorescence topography of chorioretinal vascular structures. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 40, pp. S571-S571, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1999,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Noack, J. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U.},
       title = {Confocal laserscanning fluorescence topography of chorioretinal vascular structures},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {40},
       number = {4},
       pages = {S571-S571},
       note = {178MF
    3007
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000079269203007},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brendel, T. and Brinkmann, R. and Theisen, D. and Birngruber, R.: Ablation Dynamics of High Energy IR Laser Pulses in Myocardial Revascularization. Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest, pp. 152-154, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Brendel1999,
       author = {Brendel, T. and Brinkmann, R.  and Theisen, D.  and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Ablation Dynamics of High Energy IR Laser Pulses in Myocardial Revascularization},
       journal = {Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest},
       pages = {152-154},
       year = {1999},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Noack, J. and Teschner, S. and Birngruber, R.: [Confocal indocyanine green angiography with 3-dimensional topography. Results in choroid neovascularization (CNV)]. Ophthalmologe, no. 96, pp. 797-804, Dec, 1999
    BibTeX
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth,
       author = {Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Noack, J. and Teschner, S. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[Confocal indocyanine green angiography with 3-dimensional topography. Results in choroid neovascularization (CNV)]},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {96},
       number = {12},
       pages = {797-804},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       month = {Dec},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND: Confocal indocyanin green angiography (ICGA) offers detailed two-dimensional imaging of choroidal pathologies. However, the spatial extension of lesions is not reproduced. We developed a novel method for three-dimensional documentation of choroidal vascular abnormalities. METHODS: Focal series were performed using a laser scanning ophthalmoscope (Heidelberg Retina Angiograph). Thirty-two images within a distance of 4 mm were taken at a frequency of 20 Hz. Following correction of dislocation, a surface of normalized fluorescence intensity was determined and displayed topographically. RESULTS: In physiological eyes three-dimensional ICGA demonstrates the homogeneous concavity of the choroid with prominent overlay of retinal vessels. Classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) imposes as substantial elevation. Occult CNV are demarcated despite negative conventional ICGA due to reduction of blocking phenomena. Therapeutic interventions such as photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy and surgery induce a resolution of CNV with or without residual defects within the choroidal pattern. CONCLUSION: Topographic ICGA allows for the first time in-vivo representation of prominence and depth of vascularized pathologies and provides a tool for improved diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation.},
       keywords = {Choroidal Neovascularization/*diagnosis
    *Fluorescein Angiography
    Humans
    *Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
    Indocyanine Green/*diagnostic use
    Macular Degeneration/diagnosis
    *Microscopy, Confocal
    *Ophthalmoscopes
    Sensitivity and Specificity},
       year = {1999}
    }
    

1998

  • Huber, R and Koch, M and Perner, M and Spirkl, W and Feldmann, J: Time-resolved thermal expansion of an STM tip after ultrafast optical excitation. in Technical Digest. Summaries of Papers Presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics. Conference Edition. 1998 Technical Digest Series, Vol.6 (IEEE Cat. No.98CH36178), pp. 526-527, Opt. Soc. America, 1998
    BibTeX Link
    @InProceedings{HU_1998_Huber_a,
      Title                    = {{Time-resolved thermal expansion of an STM tip after ultrafast optical excitation}},
      Author                   = {Huber, R and Koch, M and Perner, M and Spirkl, W and Feldmann, J},
      Booktitle                = {Technical Digest. Summaries of Papers Presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics. Conference Edition. 1998 Technical Digest Series, Vol.6 (IEEE Cat. No.98CH36178)},
      Year                     = {1998},
      Pages                    = {526--527},
      Publisher                = {Opt. Soc. America},
    
      Doi                      = {10.1109/CLEO.1998.676586},
      ISBN                     = {1-55752-339-0},
      Url                      = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=676586}
    }
  • Roider, J. and Lindemann, C. and el-Hifnawi el, S. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Therapeutic range of repetitive nanosecond laser exposures in selective RPE photocoagulation. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, no. 236, pp. 213-9, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider1998,
       author = {Roider, J. and Lindemann, C. and el-Hifnawi el, S. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Therapeutic range of repetitive nanosecond laser exposures in selective RPE photocoagulation},
       journal = {Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol},
       volume = {236},
       number = {3},
       pages = {213-9},
       note = {0721-832X (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether selective damage the RPE while sparing the adjacent photoreceptors is possible with repetitive 200-ns pulses of Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) and what potential side effects can be expected with higher pulse energies. METHODS: We irradiated the retinas of 19 eyes of 10 chinchilla rabbits with 500 pulses from a Nd:YAG laser, each 200 ns in duration, at a repetition rate of 500 Hz (158 microns, 0-120 microJ). Threshold curves for different effects were established. Representative lesions were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: It was possible to produce lesions, which were only visible by fluorescein angiography. The ED50 threshold energy per pulse for visibility by fluorescein angiography was 2.1 microJ per pulse, for visibility by ophthalmoscopy 8.6 microJ. Bubble formation, an uncommon phenomenon in retinal photocoagulation, occurred at energies of 15-25 microJ. Hemorrhage occurred at surprisingly high energy levels of more than 100 microJ. Histology performed on lesions visible only by angiography showed damage primarily to the RPE and outer segments, with very little damage to some inner segments dependent on the energy used. CONCLUSIONS: Selective RPE damage is possible with repetitive 200-ns laser pulses and appropriate energy; however, the collateral damage to the adjacent retina is more pronounced than with repetitive microsecond laser pulses. There is no risk of hemorrhage of retinal photocoagulation with the repetitive 200-ns laser pulses at low energy levels which would be used clinically.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Eye Injuries/etiology/pathology
    Fundus Oculi
    Laser Coagulation/adverse effects/*methods
    Photoreceptors/injuries/ultrastructure
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/*surgery/ultrastructure
    Rabbits
    Reoperation
    Retinal Hemorrhage/etiology
    Safety},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=9541826},
       year = {1998},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Noack, J. and Vogel, A.: Single-shot spatially resolved characterization of laser-induced shock waves in water. Appl Optics, no. 37, pp. 4092-4099, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Noack,
       author = {Noack, J. and Vogel, A.},
       title = {Single-shot spatially resolved characterization of laser-induced shock waves in water},
       journal = {Appl Optics},
       volume = {37},
       number = {19},
       pages = {4092-4099},
       year = {1998}
    }
    
  • Scammon, R.J. and Chapyak, E.J. and Godwin, R.P. and Vogel, A.: Simulations of shock waces and cavitation bubbles produced in water by picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses. SPIE Proc., no. 3254, pp. 264-275, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Scammon,
       author = {Scammon, R.J. and Chapyak, E.J. and Godwin, R.P. and Vogel, A.},
       title = {Simulations of shock waces and cavitation bubbles produced in water by picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses},
       journal = {SPIE Proc.},
       volume = {3254},
       pages = {264-275},
       year = {1998}
    }
    
  • Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.: Photodynamic therapy in ocular vascular disease (Reprinted from IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol 2, 1996). Laser Physics, no. 8, pp. 191-198, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1998,
       author = {Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.},
       title = {Photodynamic therapy in ocular vascular disease (Reprinted from IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol 2, 1996)},
       journal = {Laser Physics},
       volume = {8},
       number = {1},
       pages = {191-198},
       note = {Zb459
    Times Cited:4
    Cited References Count:58},
       abstract = {Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a novel therapeutical approach which is noninvasive and potentially selective for neoplastic pathologies. Association of photosensitizers with low density lipoprotein (LDL) leads to direct targeting of the treated lesions with enhanced efficiency and selectivity. LDL-mediated PDT is particularly useful in the treatment of neovascular structures since LDL receptors are abundantly expressed on vascular endothelial cells. To evaluate the potential of selective photodynamic vasoocclusion in ocular neovascular disease, a sequence of experiments was designed: efficiency of the LDL-carrier was tested in vitro, and the system was then transferred to an in vivo model demonstrating a vascularized neoplasm. Occlusion was successfully performed in experimentally-induced neovascularization in the cornea, while selective photothrombosis of subretinal vasculature revealed lack of collateral damage. The experimental results were used to establish a first clinical trial for the use of PDT in age-related macular degeneration, one of the leading causes for blindness.},
       keywords = {low-density-lipoprotein
    receptor activity
    plasma-lipoproteins
    singlet oxygen
    cells-invitro
    murine tumor
    hematoporphyrin
    invivo
    benzoporphyrin
    retinoblastoma},
       ISSN = {1054-660X},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000072474100030},
       year = {1998},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Welzel, J. and Lankenau, E. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.: Optical coherence tomography of the skin. Curr Probl Dermatol, no. 26, pp. 27-37, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Welzel1998,
       author = {Welzel, J. and Lankenau, E. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.},
       title = {Optical coherence tomography of the skin},
       journal = {Curr Probl Dermatol},
       volume = {26},
       pages = {27-37},
       note = {1421-5721 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       keywords = {Biomedical Engineering
    Blister/pathology
    Eczema/pathology
    Epidermis/anatomy & histology/pathology
    Humans
    Melanoma/pathology
    Optics
    Pemphigus/pathology
    Scabies/parasitology/pathology
    Skin/*anatomy & histology/pathology
    Skin Neoplasms/pathology
    Tomography/*methods},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=9597313},
       year = {1998},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Eichenauer, Rolf H. and Huettmann, Gereon and Woermer, Stephan and Koop, Norbert and Beyer, Wolfgang and Jocham, Dieter: New balloon catheter system used for PDT in the human urinary bladder: accuracy of light distribution. pp. 138-144, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Eichenauer,
       author = {Eichenauer, Rolf H. and Huettmann, Gereon and Woermer, Stephan and Koop, Norbert and Beyer, Wolfgang and Jocham, Dieter},
       title = {New balloon catheter system used for PDT in the human urinary bladder: accuracy of light distribution},
       pages = {138-144},
       note = {10.1117/12.308141},
       abstract = {Photodynamic therapy (PDT) may provide a new approach for treatment of patients with superficial transitional carcinoma and carcinoma in situ of the bladder. The light applicator for the bladder wall (Rusch) is constructed as a balloon catheter with two concentric balloons. A new PDT applicator (Rusch) was assessed for the homogeneity and accuracy of irradiation during PDT. In an in-vitro experiment with 17 freshly harvested porcine bladders the fluence rate was measured locally with isotropic detectors. The results were compared to the light fluence detected by the PDT applicator. The increase of the fluence rate (beta) inside the bladders due to back scattering ranged between 5.3 and 7.0 with an average of 6.2. Local variations of the fluence rate in the spherical bladders were also smaller than 15%. Therefore it is concluded, that a homogeneous and accurate irradiation during PDT is possible. Blood between the outer balloon and the bladder wall reduces the local fluence rate strongly and should to be avoided. Also larger air bubbles in the applicator can lead to an inhomogeneous light distribution. In regular application the presented new catheter system provides accurate and easy light dosimetry during PDT of the bladder. Attention had to be paid to a continuous flushing of the space between balloon and bladder wall in order to prevent the accumulation of urine and blood. To avoid a malfunction of the system and large errors in light dosimetry and application, it is advisable to monitor the measured light dosage and the shape of the balloon using ultrasonography during PDT.},
       year = {1998}
    }
    
  • Noske, U.M. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Meyer, C. and Diddens, H.: Lipidmetabolismus im Retinalen Pigmentepithel (RPE): Mögliche Bedeutung der Lipoprotein-Rezeptoren bei der Altersbezogenen Makuladegeneration. Ophthalmologe, no. 95, pp. 814-819, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Noske,
       author = {Noske, U.M. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Meyer, C. and Diddens, H.},
       title = {Lipidmetabolismus im Retinalen Pigmentepithel (RPE): Mögliche Bedeutung der Lipoprotein-Rezeptoren bei der Altersbezogenen Makuladegeneration},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {95},
       pages = {814-819},
       year = {1998}
    }
    
  • Huber, R and Koch, M and Feldmann, J: Laser-induced thermal expansion of a scanning tunneling microscope tip measured with an atomic force microscope cantilever. Applied Physics Letters, no. 73, pp. 2521, 1998
    BibTeX Link
    @Article{HU_1998_Huber_b,
      Title                    = {{Laser-induced thermal expansion of a scanning tunneling microscope tip measured with an atomic force microscope cantilever}},
      Author                   = {Huber, R and Koch, M and Feldmann, J},
      Journal                  = {Applied Physics Letters},
      Year                     = {1998},
      Number                   = {17},
      Pages                    = {2521},
      Volume                   = {73},
    
      Doi                      = {10.1063/1.122502},
      ISSN                     = {00036951},
      Url                      = {http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/apl/73/17/10.1063/1.122502}
    }
  • Brinkmann, R and Koop, N. and Kamm, K. and Geerling, G. and Kampmeier, J. and Birngruber, R.: Laser Thermokeratoplastik: eine in vitro- und in vivo-Studie mit kontinuierlich emittierender Laserdiode im mittleren IR-Spektralbereich.. Laser in der Medizin, Proc. Laser 97, pp. 412-416, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann1998,
       author = {Brinkmann, R and Koop, N. and Kamm, K. and Geerling, G. and Kampmeier, J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser Thermokeratoplastik: eine in vitro- und in vivo-Studie mit kontinuierlich emittierender Laserdiode im mittleren IR-Spektralbereich.},
       journal = {Laser in der Medizin, Proc. Laser 97},
       pages = {412-416},
       year = {1998},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Geerling, G. and Roider, J. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Nahen, K. and El Hifnawi, E. S. and Laqua, H. and Vogel, A.: Initial clinical experience with the picosecond Nd: YLF laser for intraocular therapeutic applications. Br J Ohthalmol, no. 82, pp. 504-509, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Geerling,
       author = {Geerling, G. and Roider, J. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Nahen, K. and El Hifnawi, E. S. and Laqua, H. and Vogel, A.},
       title = {Initial clinical experience with the picosecond Nd: YLF laser for intraocular therapeutic applications},
       journal = {Br J Ohthalmol},
       volume = {82},
       number = {5},
       pages = {504-509},
       year = {1998}
    }
    
  • Noack, J. and Hammer, D.X. and Rockwell, B.A. and Vogel, A. and Noojin, G. D.: Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water. J Appl Phys, no. 83, pp. 7488-7495, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Noack,
       author = {Noack, J. and Hammer, D.X. and Rockwell, B.A. and Vogel, A. and Noojin, G. D.},
       title = {Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water},
       journal = {J Appl Phys},
       volume = {83},
       number = {12},
       pages = {7488-7495},
       year = {1998}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Knipper, A. and Dröge, G. and Schroer, F. and Gromoll, B. and Birngruber, R.: Fundamental Studies of Fiber-Guided Soft Tissue Cutting by Means of Pulsed Midinfrared IR lasers and their Application in Ureterotomy. J Biomed Opt, no. 3, pp. 85-95, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Knipper, A. and Dröge, G. and Schroer, F. and Gromoll, B. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Fundamental Studies of Fiber-Guided Soft Tissue Cutting by Means of Pulsed Midinfrared IR lasers and their Application in Ureterotomy},
       journal = {J Biomed Opt},
       volume = {3},
       number = {1},
       pages = {85-95},
       year = {1998}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R and Theisen, D. and Stubbe, H.M. and Birngruber, R.: Endocardial Laser Revascularization with Single High Energy Laser Pulses. OSA TOPS, no. 22, pp. 272-276, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann1998,
       author = {Brinkmann, R and Theisen, D. and Stubbe, H.M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Endocardial Laser Revascularization with Single High Energy Laser Pulses},
       journal = {OSA TOPS},
       volume = {22},
       pages = {272-276},
       year = {1998},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Hüttmann, G. and Birngruber, R.: Dynamics of Thermal Microeffects: Rate Constants of Thermal Denaturation Measured by a Temperature-Jump Experiment. OSA TOPS, no. 22, pp. 300-305, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Hüttmann1998,
       author = {Hüttmann, G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Dynamics of Thermal Microeffects: Rate Constants of Thermal Denaturation Measured by a Temperature-Jump Experiment},
       journal = {OSA TOPS},
       volume = {22},
       pages = {300-305},
       year = {1998},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Geerling, G. and Kampmeier, J. and Borcherding, S. and Kamm, K. and Birngruber, R.: Diode laser thermokeratoplasty: application strategy and dosimetry. J Cataract Refract Surg, no. 24, pp. 1195-207, 1998
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Geerling, G. and Kampmeier, J. and Borcherding, S. and Kamm, K. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Diode laser thermokeratoplasty: application strategy and dosimetry},
       journal = {J Cataract Refract Surg},
       volume = {24},
       number = {9},
       pages = {1195-207},
       note = {0886-3350 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To investigate suitable application parameters for efficient hyperopic correction by laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK) using mid-infrared laser diodes. SETTING: Medical Laser Center Lubeck, Lubeck, Germany. METHOD: A tunable continuous-wave laser diode in the spectral range between 1.845 and 1.871 microns was used. Transmitted by waveguides, the laser energy was used to induce coagulations on freshly enucleated porcine eyes to increase corneal curvature. The coagulations were equidistantly applied by a fiber-cornea contact and a noncontact focusing device that were adjusted on a ring concentric to the corneal apex. Different laser parameters and application geometries were evaluated. Refractive changes were measured by computer-assisted corneal topography before and after treatment. Polarization light microscopy and temperature calculations were used to analyze the coagulations. RESULTS: Because of the tunability of the laser diode, the influence of the corneal absorption coefficient (between 0.9 and 1.6 mm-1) on the refractive change could be measured. A laser power between 125 and 200 mW was adequate to achieve refractive changes up to 10.0 diopters. In the preferable focusing device, the refractive change increased almost logarithmically with the irradiation time up to 15 seconds. The number of coagulations on a fixed application ring showed no significant influence on refractive change; however, it showed an almost linear decrease with increasing ring diameter from 5.0 to 10.0 mm. Histological analysis revealed 3 stages of thermal damage. CONCLUSION: Diode LTK provided defined and uniform coagulations when using a well-adapted focusing device, resulting in sufficient refractive change. The results indicate that diode LTK is superior to pulsed holmium LTK.},
       keywords = {Absorption
    Animals
    Cornea/pathology/physiopathology/*surgery
    Hyperopia/pathology/physiopathology/*surgery
    Laser Coagulation/*methods
    Microscopy, Polarization
    Refraction, Ocular
    Swine},
       year = {1998}
    }
    
  • Spiegel, D. and Wetzel, W. and Birngruber, R.: Comparison of the efficacy of ER-YAG laser sclerostomy ab externo versus trabeculectomy in the treatment of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmologe, no. 95, pp. 537-541, 1998
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Spiegel1998,
       author = {Spiegel, D. and Wetzel, W. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Comparison of the efficacy of ER-YAG laser sclerostomy ab externo versus trabeculectomy in the treatment of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {95},
       number = {8},
       pages = {537-541},
       note = {119TQ
    Times Cited:3
    Cited References Count:16},
       abstract = {Purpose: This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of the Er-YAG laser sclerostomy ab externo versus trabeculectomy in the treatment of primary open - angle glaucoma.
    Methods: Twelve patients with POAG underwent ab externo laser sclerostomy using an Er-YAG laser (Sklerostom 2.9(R); lambda = 2940 nm, t = 200 mu s, 2 Hz, 400 mu m, 15 mJ). Only local medication was used, and there were no risk factors for failure. As a control group 12 patients out of 248 standardized trabeculectomies were matched in terms of age, sex, diagnosis and local medications. No antimetabolites were used in either group.
    Results: After a follow-up of 9 months in the sclerostomy group 53%; (7/12; P = 0.03) showed a patent fistula in comparison of 100% in the trabeculectomy group. There was a significantly lower mean IOP during the first postsurgical week in the group of sclerostomies (3.6 +/- 1.5 mmHg versus 7.5 +/- 2.7 mmHg; P = 0.0001) with a higher incidence of choroidal detachments (9/12 versus 2/12; P = 0.004). The choroidal detachments lasted longer in the sclerostomy group (3.5 months versus 0.3 months; P = 0.014). Iris incarcerations were found only in sclerostomies (7/12; P = 0.05).
    Conclusions: Based on these findings, Er-YAG laser sclerostomy prooved to be less effective than trabeculectomy in the treatment of glaucoma patients. Er-YAG laser sclerostomies were associated with a higher incidence of postsurgical complications such as hypotony, choroidal detachments and iris incarcerations. At this point Er-YAG laser sclerostomy is not superior to conventional trabeculectomy.},
       keywords = {glaucoma
    er-yag laser
    sclerostomy
    trabeculectomy
    filtration surgery
    mitomycin
    aphakia},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1007/s003470050312},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000075913700003},
       year = {1998},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and El Hifnawi, E. S. and Birngruber, R.: Bubble formation as primary interaction mechanism in retinal laser exposure with 200-ns laser pulses. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, no. 22, pp. 240-248, 1998
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roider1998,
       author = {Roider, J. and El Hifnawi, E. S. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Bubble formation as primary interaction mechanism in retinal laser exposure with 200-ns laser pulses},
       journal = {Lasers in Surgery and Medicine},
       volume = {22},
       number = {4},
       pages = {240-248},
       note = {Zl426
    Times Cited:15
    Cited References Count:23},
       abstract = {Background and Objective: Retinal laser photocoagulation is generally performed by laser pulses of a few hundred milliseconds. The tissue interaction mechanism is a pure thermal interaction mechanism. As pulse duration gets shorter, different, non-thermal interaction mechanisms start to appear. The time domain for a change of tissue interaction mechanism seems to be in the ns and mu s range. The goal of this study was to characterize the tissue interaction mechanism with 200-ns laser pulses, which approximate the thermal relaxation time of single melanin granules.
    Materials and Methods: The retinas of 19 eyes of 10 rabbits were irradiated by 10 and 500 repetitive laser pulses (wavelength, 532 nm; repetition rate, 500 Hz; pulse duration, 200 ns; per pulse energy, 0-120 mu J; retinal spot size, 100 mu m). The effects were evaluated by fluorescein angiography, ophthalmoscopy and by theoretical thermal calculations. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were additionally performed on lesions irradiated by 500 pulses.
    Results: Single pulse threshold energies for angiographic visibility were 3.5 mu J (10 pulses) and 2.1 mu J (500 pulses), for ophthalmoscopic visibility 9.0 mu J (10 pulses) vs. 8.6 mu J (500 pulses). At energy levels above ophthalmoscopic visibility macroscopically visible bubble formation inside the retina could be observed. This occurred at energy levels of 35 mu J (10 pulses) vs. 17 mu J (500 pulses). Microscopic evaluation of lesions irradiated with 500 pulses and energies at the angiographic threshold showed a damage primarily to the RPE. Additional outer segment damage of the photoreceptors could be found. A gap between damaged RPE cells and the outer segments could be repeatedly found as well as damaged RPE cells, which were detached from intact Bruch's membrane. Temperature calculation shows that temperatures above 100 degrees C may exist around single melanin granules.
    Conclusion: The studies suggest that RPE damage may occur by bubble formation around single melanin granules. (C) 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.},
       keywords = {bubble
    laser
    melanin
    retina
    retinal pigment epithelium
    injury
    stress
    radiation},
       ISSN = {0196-8092},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1002/(Sici)1096-9101(1998)22:4<240::Aid-Lsm9>3.0.Co;2-P},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000073431700009},
       year = {1998},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1997

  • Koop, Norbert and Langholz, Michael and Birngruber, Reginald and Geerling, Gerd and Bastian, Gerd-Otto: Vergleichende Untersuchungen verschiedener kornealer Topographiemeßgeräte. Der Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 120-126, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Koop1997,
       author = {Koop, Norbert and Langholz, Michael and Birngruber, Reginald and Geerling, Gerd and Bastian, Gerd-Otto},
       title = {Vergleichende Untersuchungen verschiedener kornealer Topographiemeßgeräte},
       journal = {Der Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       number = {2},
       pages = {120-126},
       ISSN = {1433-0423},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003470050092},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, Alfred and Günther, Thomas and Birngruber, Reginald and Asyo-Vogel, M: Untersuchungen zur Entstehung von Refraktionseffekten bei der intrastromalen refraktiven Hornhautchirurgie mit dem Pikosekundenlaser. Der Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 467-474, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Vogel 1997,
       author = {Vogel, Alfred and Günther, Thomas and Birngruber, Reginald and Asyo-Vogel, M},
       title = {Untersuchungen zur Entstehung von Refraktionseffekten bei der intrastromalen refraktiven Hornhautchirurgie mit dem Pikosekundenlaser},
       journal = {Der Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       number = {7},
       pages = {467-474},
       keywords = {Schlüsselwörter Refraktive Hornhautchirurgie
    Intrastromale photorefraktive Keratektomie
    Pikosekundenlaser
    Photodisruption
    Kavitation
    Key words Refractive surgery
    Intrastromal photorefractive keratectomy
    Picosecond laser
    Cavitation},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       DOI = {10.1007/s003470050141},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003470050141},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, Alfred and Günther, Thomas and Birngruber, Reginald and Asyo-Vogel, M: Untersuchungen zur Entstehung von Refraktionseffekten bei der intrastromalen refraktiven Hornhautchirurgie mit dem Pikosekundenlaser. Der Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 467-474, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Vogel1997,
       author = {Vogel, Alfred and Günther, Thomas and Birngruber, Reginald and Asyo-Vogel, M},
       title = {Untersuchungen zur Entstehung von Refraktionseffekten bei der intrastromalen refraktiven Hornhautchirurgie mit dem Pikosekundenlaser},
       journal = {Der Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       number = {7},
       pages = {467-474},
       keywords = {Schlüsselwörter Refraktive Hornhautchirurgie
    Intrastromale photorefraktive Keratektomie
    Pikosekundenlaser
    Photodisruption
    Kavitation
    Key words Refractive surgery
    Intrastromal photorefractive keratectomy
    Picosecond laser
    Cavitation},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       DOI = {10.1007/s003470050141},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003470050141},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Therapeutical bandwidth or selective RPE-photocoagulation treatment by repetitive mu s-laser pulses (527 nm) - First clinical results. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 38, pp. 404-404, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider1997,
       author = {Roider, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Therapeutical bandwidth or selective RPE-photocoagulation treatment by repetitive mu s-laser pulses (527 nm) - First clinical results},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {38},
       number = {4},
       pages = {404-404},
       note = {1
    Wn186
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WN18600402},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Hammer, D.X. and Jansen, E.D. and Frenz, M. and Nojin, G.D. and Thomas, R.J. and Noack, J. and Vogel, A. and Rockwell, B.A. and Welch, A.J.: Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water from pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs.. Appl Optics, no. 36, pp. 5630-5640, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Hammer,
       author = {Hammer, D.X. and Jansen, E.D. and Frenz, M. and Nojin, G.D. and Thomas, R.J. and Noack, J. and Vogel, A. and Rockwell, B.A. and Welch, A.J.},
       title = {Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water from pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs.},
       journal = {Appl Optics},
       volume = {36},
       pages = {5630-5640},
       year = {1997}
    }
    
  • Gragoudas, E. S. and SchmidtErfurth, U. and Sickenberg, M. and Pournaras, C. J. and Bressler, N. M. and Strong, A. and Hoehne, U. and Fsadni, M. and Lane, A. M. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R. and Donati, G. and Zografos, L. and vandenBergh, H. and Piguet, B. and Miller, J. W.: Results and preliminary dosimetry of photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration in a phase I/II study.. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 38, pp. 73-73, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Gragoudas1997,
       author = {Gragoudas, E. S. and SchmidtErfurth, U. and Sickenberg, M. and Pournaras, C. J. and Bressler, N. M. and Strong, A. and Hoehne, U. and Fsadni, M. and Lane, A. M. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R. and Donati, G. and Zografos, L. and vandenBergh, H. and Piguet, B. and Miller, J. W.},
       title = {Results and preliminary dosimetry of photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration in a phase I/II study.},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {38},
       number = {4},
       pages = {73-73},
       note = {1
    Wn186
    Times Cited:5
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WN18600073},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Sickenberg, M. and SchimdtErfurth, U. and Miller, J. W. and Donati, G. and Bressler, N. M. and Zografos, L. and Piguet, B. and Laqua, H. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Lane, A. M. and Pournaras, C. and Birngruber, R. and vandenBergh, H. and Strong, H. A. and Manjuris, U. and Fsadni, M.: Preliminary results of photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization in pathologic myopia, ocular histoplasmosis syndrome and idiopathic causes within a phase I/II study. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 38, pp. 450-450, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Sickenberg1997,
       author = {Sickenberg, M. and SchimdtErfurth, U. and Miller, J. W. and Donati, G. and Bressler, N. M. and Zografos, L. and Piguet, B. and Laqua, H. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Lane, A. M. and Pournaras, C. and Birngruber, R. and vandenBergh, H. and Strong, H. A. and Manjuris, U. and Fsadni, M.},
       title = {Preliminary results of photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization in pathologic myopia, ocular histoplasmosis syndrome and idiopathic causes within a phase I/II study},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {38},
       number = {4},
       pages = {450-450},
       note = {1
    Wn186
    Times Cited:1
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WN18600448},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • SchmidtErfurth, U. and Miller, J. W. and Sickenberg, M. and Bressler, N. M. and Laqua, H. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Zografos, L. and Hager, A. and Piguet, B. and Birngruber, R. and vandenBergh, H. and Strong, H. A. and Fsadni, M.: Photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularisation in a phase I/II study: Preliminary results of multiple treatments. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 38, pp. 74-74, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1997,
       author = {SchmidtErfurth, U. and Miller, J. W. and Sickenberg, M. and Bressler, N. M. and Laqua, H. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Zografos, L. and Hager, A. and Piguet, B. and Birngruber, R. and vandenBergh, H. and Strong, H. A. and Fsadni, M.},
       title = {Photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularisation in a phase I/II study: Preliminary results of multiple treatments},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {38},
       number = {4},
       pages = {74-74},
       note = {1
    Wn186
    Times Cited:8
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WN18600074},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • SchmidtErfurth, U. and Diddens, H. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.: Photodynamic targeting of human retinoblastoma cells using covalent low-density lipoprotein conjugates. British Journal of Cancer, no. 75, pp. 54-61, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1997,
       author = {SchmidtErfurth, U. and Diddens, H. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.},
       title = {Photodynamic targeting of human retinoblastoma cells using covalent low-density lipoprotein conjugates},
       journal = {British Journal of Cancer},
       volume = {75},
       number = {1},
       pages = {54-61},
       note = {Wa344
    Times Cited:69
    Cited References Count:64},
       abstract = {Combination of photosensitizers with carrier molecules has been shown to enhance the efficiency of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Owing to an increased expression of their receptors on some malignant and proliferating cells, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are potential endogenous carriers. A photosensitizer, chlorin e(6) (Ce-6), was covalently bound to LDL via carbodiimide activation. The Ce-6-LDL conjugate was evaluated on a fibroblast cell line with defined LDL receptor expression and a retinoblastoma cell line (Y79). Uptake of free Ce-6 and Ce-6 either covalently bound to or complexed with LDL was measured by spectrofluorimetry. Phototoxicity after irradiation at 660 nm was determined by a mitochondrial activity assay (MTT). Covalent binding to LDL significantly increased the uptake of Ce, for both cell lines by a factor of 4-5. A Ce-6:LDL binding ratio of 50:1 was optimal. A receptor-mediated uptake was demonstrated by saturability and competitive inhibition by free LDL. Binding also occurred at 2 degrees C and was attributed to non-specific associations. Irradiation with 10 J cm(-2) of 660 nm light after treatment of cells with Ce-6-LDL conjugate reduced the MTT activity by 80%, while free or mixed Ce-6 induced a maximum of 10% reduction in the MTT activity following identical treatment conditions. These data suggest that targeting of LDL receptor-bearing cells using covalently bound carriers, such as LDL, might increase the efficiency and selectivity of PDT. Intraocular tumours such as retinoblastomas could be appropriate targets for such an approach owing to the ease of access of light sources and the need for non-invasive approaches in sensitive ocular sites.},
       keywords = {photochemistry
    ocular
    neovascularization
    chlorin
    bladder-carcinoma cells
    receptor-mediated uptake
    plasma-lipoproteins
    endothelial-cells
    human fibroblasts
    cellular-uptake
    therapy
    tumor
    benzoporphyrin
    cancer},
       ISSN = {0007-0920},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1038/Bjc.1997.9},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WA34400009},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Diddens, H. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.: Photodynamic targeting of human retinoblastoma cells using covalent low-density lipoprotein conjugates. Br J Cancer, no. 75, pp. 54-61, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth,
       author = {Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Diddens, H. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.},
       title = {Photodynamic targeting of human retinoblastoma cells using covalent low-density lipoprotein conjugates},
       journal = {Br J Cancer},
       volume = {75},
       number = {1},
       pages = {54-61},
       note = {0007-0920 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.},
       abstract = {Combination of photosensitizers with carrier molecules has been shown to enhance the efficiency of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Owing to an increased expression of their receptors on some malignant and proliferating cells, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are potential endogenous carriers. A photosensitizer, chlorin e6 (Ce6), was covalently bound to LDL via carbodiimide activation. The Ce6-LDL conjugate was evaluated on a fibroblast cell line with defined LDL receptor expression and a retinoblastoma cell line (Y79). Uptake of free Ce6 and Ce6 either covalently bound to or complexed with LDL was measured by spectrofluorimetry. Phototoxicity after irradiation at 660 nm was determined by a mitochondrial activity assay (MTT). Covalent binding to LDL significantly increased the uptake of Ce6 for both cell lines by a factor of 4-5. A Ce6: LDL binding ratio of 50:1 was optimal. A receptor-mediated uptake was demonstrated by saturability and competitive inhibition by free LDL. Binding also occurred at 2 degrees C and was attributed to non-specific associations. Irradiation with 10 J cm-2 of 660 nm light after treatment of cells with Ce6-LDL conjugate reduced the MTT activity by 80%, while free or mixed Ce6 induced a maximum of 10% reduction in the MTT activity following identical treatment conditions. These data suggest that targeting of LDL receptor-bearing cells using covalently bound carriers, such as LDL, might increase the efficiency and selectivity of PDT. Intraocular tumours such as retinoblastomas could be appropriate targets for such an approach owing to the ease of access of light sources and the need for non-invasive approaches in sensitive ocular sites.},
       keywords = {Carrier Proteins
    Cell Survival/drug effects
    Dermatitis, Phototoxic
    Fibroblasts/cytology/drug effects
    Humans
    Lipoproteins, LDL/*chemistry
    Photosensitizing Agents/*pharmacology
    Porphyrins/*pharmacology
    Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/*pharmacology
    Retinoblastoma/*drug therapy
    Tumor Cells, Cultured},
       year = {1997}
    }
    
  • Hendrich, C. and Hüttmann, G. and Lehnert, C. and Diddens, H. and Siebert, W.E.: Photodynamic laser therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: Cell culture studies and animal experiments.. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthroscopy, no. 5, pp. 58-63, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Hendrich,
       author = {Hendrich, C. and Hüttmann, G. and Lehnert, C. and Diddens, H. and Siebert, W.E.},
       title = {Photodynamic laser therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: Cell culture studies and animal experiments.},
       journal = {Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthroscopy},
       volume = {5},
       pages = {58-63},
       year = {1997}
    }
    
  • Koop, Norbert and Brinkmann, Ralf and Lankenau, Eva and Flache, Stefan and Engelhardt, Ralf and Birngruber, Reginald: Optische Kohärenztomographie der Kornea und des vorderen Augenabschnitts. Der Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 481-486, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Koop1997,
       author = {Koop, Norbert and Brinkmann, Ralf and Lankenau, Eva and Flache, Stefan and Engelhardt, Ralf and Birngruber, Reginald},
       title = {Optische Kohärenztomographie der Kornea und des vorderen Augenabschnitts},
       journal = {Der Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       number = {7},
       pages = {481-486},
       ISSN = {1433-0423},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003470050143},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Welzel, J. and Lankenau, E. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.: Optical coherence tomography of the human skin. J Am Acad Dermatol, no. 37, pp. 958-63, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Welzel1997,
       author = {Welzel, J. and Lankenau, E. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.},
       title = {Optical coherence tomography of the human skin},
       journal = {J Am Acad Dermatol},
       volume = {37},
       number = {6},
       pages = {958-63},
       note = {0190-9622 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new diagnostic method for tissue characterization. OBJECTIVE: We investigated normal and pathologic structures in human skin in several locations to evaluate the potential application of this technique to dermatology. METHODS: Based on the principle of low-coherence interferometry, cross-sectional images of the human skin can be obtained in vivo with a high spatial resolution of about 15 microns. Within a penetration depth of 0.5 to 1.5 mm, structures of the stratum corneum, the living epidermis, and the papillary dermis can be distinguished. RESULTS: Different layers could be detected that were differentiated by induction of experimental blisters and by comparison with corresponding histologic sections. Furthermore, OCT images of several skin diseases and tumors were obtained. CONCLUSION: OCT is a promising new imaging method for visualization of morphologic changes of superficial layers of the human skin. It may be useful for noninvasive diagnosis of bullous skin diseases, skin tumors, and in vivo investigation of pharmacologic effects.},
       keywords = {Adult
    Anatomy, Cross-Sectional
    Basement Membrane/pathology
    Blister/diagnosis/pathology
    Epidermis/anatomy & histology
    Evaluation Studies
    Female
    Forearm/anatomy & histology
    Hand/anatomy & histology
    Humans
    Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle/diagnosis/pathology
    Image Enhancement
    Interferometry
    Male
    Melanoma/diagnosis/pathology
    Nails/anatomy & histology
    Optics
    Skin/*anatomy & histology
    Skin Diseases/*diagnosis/pathology
    Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous/diagnosis/pathology
    Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis/pathology
    Tomography/*methods},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=9418764},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Koop, N. and Brinkmann, R. and Lankenau, E. and Flache, S. and Engelhardt, R. and Birngruber, R.: Optical coherence tomography of cornea and anterior segment of the eye. Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 481-486, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Koop1997,
       author = {Koop, N. and Brinkmann, R. and Lankenau, E. and Flache, S. and Engelhardt, R. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Optical coherence tomography of cornea and anterior segment of the eye},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       number = {7},
       pages = {481-486},
       note = {Yp140
    Times Cited:34
    Cited References Count:19},
       abstract = {Target: The method of optical coherence tomography (OCT) was investigated regarding its suitability and limits for measuring the cornea and the anterior segment of the eye. Furthermore, the stromal expansion of thermally induced lesions in the cornea directly after irradiation was determined within the scope of the laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK).
    Material and methods: With the experimental scanning OCT system, x-z sections of the anterior eye segment were made with an optical resolution of about 20 mu m axially and 25 mu m laterally. Freshly enucleated, tonicized porcine eyes were used as model eyes. Thermal lesions were applied with a continuously emitting laser diode (lambda=1.86 mu m) and various radiation parameters, Before and after coagulation, the cornea was viewed from limbus to limbus in a central OCT scan and the individual coagulation source was measured,
    Results: Global and local changes of the thickness of the cornea as well as the distance between cornea and lens were measured with high precision. Thermal lesions in their expansion can be clearly presented and matching well with the histologically stained sections, bur are not as exactly defined at the edges due to the limited optical resolution, as known from histological preparations.
    Conclusion: With the OCT method quantitative measuring of the anterior eye segment can be performed in vitro and with reduced resolutions also in vivo. Due to the qualitatively good correspondence regarding the dimensions of thermal damage of the cornea with histologically obtained morphometric results,this method can be used for supervision of coagulation directly after LTK as well as for examination of the individual healing process.},
       keywords = {optical coherence tomography
    pachometry
    laser thermokeratoplasty
    thermal damage
    tissue},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1007/s003470050143},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000071246700003},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A.: Nonlinear absorption: intraocular microsurgery and laser lithotripsy. Phys. Med. Biol., no. 42, pp. 895, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel,
       author = {Vogel, A.},
       title = {Nonlinear absorption: intraocular microsurgery and laser lithotripsy },
       journal = {Phys. Med. Biol.},
       volume = {42},
       number = {5},
       pages = {895},
       year = {1997}
    }
    
  • SchmidtErfurth, U. and Wetzel, W. and Droge, G. and Birngruber, R.: Mitomycin-C in laser sclerostomy: Benefit and complications. Ophthalmic Surgery and Lasers, no. 28, pp. 14-20, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1997,
       author = {SchmidtErfurth, U. and Wetzel, W. and Droge, G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Mitomycin-C in laser sclerostomy: Benefit and complications},
       journal = {Ophthalmic Surgery and Lasers},
       volume = {28},
       number = {1},
       pages = {14-20},
       note = {Wf713
    Times Cited:6
    Cited References Count:27},
       abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The authors studied the effect of topical mitomycin-C administration on the maintenance of filter function and intraocular pressure (IOP) following laser sclerostomy.
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with a presumed high risk of episcleral scarring were treated intraoperatively with topical mitomycin-C (0.5 mg/ml) for 3 to 5 minutes. Their IOPs were monitored for at least 2 years. The IOP data of these patients were compared with the results for 46 patients who underwent the identical procedure without antimetabolite.
    RESULTS: IOPs below 23 mm Hg were achieved in 70% of the mitomycin-C-treated patients. Compared with the non-mitomycin-C group, the rate and duration of early postoperative hypotony was significantly increased in the mitomycin-C-treated group.
    CONCLUSION: Mitomycin-C is useful for maintaining successful filter function in patients with unfavorable prognoses. However, severe and persistent hypotony may occur.},
       keywords = {topical antiglaucoma medication
    open-angle glaucoma
    filtration surgery
    thermal sclerostomy
    trabeculectomy
    abexterno
    rabbits},
       ISSN = {0022-023X},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WF71300003},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Kampmeier, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Pfleiderer, M. and Schneider, E. and Birngruber, R.: Laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK): A finite element model of the cornea. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 38, pp. 2515-2515, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Kampmeier1997,
       author = {Kampmeier, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Pfleiderer, M. and Schneider, E. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK): A finite element model of the cornea},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {38},
       number = {4},
       pages = {2515-2515},
       note = {1
    Wn186
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WN18602507},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Gunther, T. and Asiyo-Vogel, M. and Birngruber, R.: Investigations on the origin of refractive effects in intrastromal refractive surgery with the picosecond laser. Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 467-474, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Vogel1997,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Gunther, T. and Asiyo-Vogel, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Investigations on the origin of refractive effects in intrastromal refractive surgery with the picosecond laser},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       number = {7},
       pages = {467-474},
       note = {Yp140
    Times Cited:2
    Cited References Count:21},
       abstract = {Background: Picosecond laser intrastromal photorefractive keratectomy (ISPRK) aims at achieving a flattening of the central cornea by plasma-mediated tissue evaporation without affecting the anterior or posterior corneal layers. We investigated the laser-induced tissue effects to establish a functional relationship between laser parameters and tissue removal and to assess their influence on the healing process and long-term refractive changes.
    Materials and methods: A modified ISL 2001 System with a cone angle of 30 degrees was used for in vitro investigations of the laser effects in water and porcine cornea. Photographic methods were used to determine the plasma volume and the thickness of the laser-generated intrastromal bubble layer as a function of the pulse energy and the number and separation in which the pulses were applied (216 eyes). Histological evaluation was done by polarization microscopy (9 eyes).
    Results: Polarization microscopy revealed only minor signs of thermal tissue damage. The maximum amount of tissue that can be evaporated without damaging the outer corneal layers corresponds to a layer about 10 mu m thick. With a 6-mm optical zone, this tissue removal yields an immediate refractive effect of only 0.85 dpt. Stronger long-term refractive changes observed in animal experiments and clinical studies must thus be due to the healing response of the cornea. The healing response may be induced by mechanical distortion due to intrastromal bubble formation affecting about one third of the corneal thickness.
    Conclusion: Since the refractive effects are apparently strongly influenced by corneal healing, they are poorly predictable and can probably not be used for clinical purposes.},
       keywords = {refractive surgery
    intrastromal photorefractive keratectomy
    picosecond laser
    photodisruption
    cavitation
    photorefractive keratectomy
    intraocular photodisruption
    corneal tissue
    pulses},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1007/s003470050141},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000071246700001},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Noack, J. and Tonnies, R. and Hohla, K. and Birngruber, R. and Vogel, A.: Influence of ablation plume dynamics on the formation of central islands in excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy. Ophthalmology, no. 104, pp. 823-30, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Noack,
       author = {Noack, J. and Tonnies, R. and Hohla, K. and Birngruber, R. and Vogel, A.},
       title = {Influence of ablation plume dynamics on the formation of central islands in excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy},
       journal = {Ophthalmology},
       volume = {104},
       number = {5},
       pages = {823-30},
       note = {0161-6420 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    In Vitro
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to understand the dynamics of ablation products during excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy, and their influence on the formation of central islands. METHOD: Laser flash photography was used to investigate the dynamics of ablation products during photorefractive keratectomy. The ablation plume over polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and porcine cornea targets ablated with different zone diameters was imaged at various times between 10 musec and 100 msec after the ablating laser pulse. On PMMA targets, the profiles of the resulting ablation craters were measured. RESULTS: In all cases, the ablation products formed a ring vortex. The plume velocities on cornea were found to be approximately twice as fast as on PMMA for all zone diameters. For both materials, the ablation plume evolves faster for smaller zone diameters. Central islands were observed for zone diameters between 1 and 7 mm on PMMA substrates. The islands became more pronounced with increasing zone diameter. CONCLUSIONS: A major cause for the formation of central islands was found to be particle redeposition at the center of the ablation zone. Because of the vortex dynamics, redeposition of particles favorably occurs at the center of the ablation zone. Additionally, the dynamics of the ablation plume lead to a concentration of airborne particles over the center of the ablation zone, which also may contribute to the creation of central islands by partial absorption of the next excimer laser pulse.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Cornea/*pathology/*surgery
    Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
    *Keratectomy, Photorefractive, Excimer Laser
    Methylmethacrylates
    Models, Anatomic
    Swine
    Time and Motion Studies
    Volatilization},
       year = {1997}
    }
    
  • Asiyo-Vogel, M. and Brinkmann, R and Notbohm, H. and Eggers, R. and Lubatschowski, H. and Laqua, H. and Vogel, A.: Histologic analysis of thermal effects of laserthermokeratoplasty and corneal ablation using Sirius-Red polarization microscopy. J Cataract Refr Surg, no. 23, pp. 515-526, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Asiyo-Vogel,
       author = {Asiyo-Vogel, M. and Brinkmann, R and Notbohm, H. and Eggers, R. and Lubatschowski, H. and Laqua, H. and Vogel, A.},
       title = {Histologic analysis of thermal effects of laserthermokeratoplasty and corneal ablation using Sirius-Red polarization microscopy},
       journal = {J Cataract Refr Surg},
       volume = {23},
       pages = {515-526},
       year = {1997}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Günther, T. and Asiyo-Vogel, M. and Birngruber, R.: Factors determining the refractive effects of intrastromal photorefractive keratectomy with the picosecond laser. J Cataract Refract Surg, no. 23, pp. 1301-1310, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel1997,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Günther, T. and Asiyo-Vogel, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Factors determining the refractive effects of intrastromal photorefractive keratectomy with the picosecond laser},
       journal = {J Cataract Refract Surg},
       volume = {23},
       number = {9},
       pages = {1301-1310},
       abstract = {To determine the relationship between laser parameters and tissue removal with picosecond laser intrastromal photorefractive keratectomy (ISPRK) and to assess the effect of the parameters on the healing process and the long-term refractive changes.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Corneal Stroma
    Follow-Up Studies
    Lasers, Excimer
    Microscopy, Polarization
    Photorefractive Keratectomy
    Refraction, Ocular
    Refractive Errors
    Swine
    Wound Healing
    pathology
    physiopathology
    surgery
    adverse effects
    methods
    physiology
    etiology},
       year = {1997}
    }
    
  • Asiyo-Vogel, M. N. and Koop, N. and Brinkmann, R. and Engelhardt, R. and Eggers, R. and Birngruber, R. and Vogel, A.: Evaluation of LTK lesions by optical low coherence tomography (OCT) and polarization microscopy after Sirius-Red staining. Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 487-491, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Asiyo-Vogel1997,
       author = {Asiyo-Vogel, M. N. and Koop, N. and Brinkmann, R. and Engelhardt, R. and Eggers, R. and Birngruber, R. and Vogel, A.},
       title = {Evaluation of LTK lesions by optical low coherence tomography (OCT) and polarization microscopy after Sirius-Red staining},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       number = {7},
       pages = {487-491},
       note = {Yp140
    Times Cited:5
    Cited References Count:21},
       abstract = {Background: Information on the extent and degree of the thermal effect produced is of great importance for control of the laser dosage in laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK) and for postoperative follow-up. We investigated on acute LTK effects which information images obtained by optical low coherence tomography (OCT) offer compared to those obtained by polarization microscopy.
    Methods: Porcine eyes were irradiated through a 400 mu m quartz fiber using light from a laser diode emitting up to 300 mW at a wavelength of 1.86 mu m. Thermal lesions of varying strength were scanned using an experimental OCT device with about 25 mu m lateral and 20 mu m axial resolution. Histologic evaluation of the scanned areas was done by polarization microscopy after Sirius-Red staining, and similar lesions were also analyzed by TEM.
    Results: Both methods differentiated three damage zones: a transition zone, a zone of moderate coagulation, and a central zone of strong coagulation. In the transition zone,increased birefringence was seen in polarization microscopy, which correlated with increased light scattering seen in the DCT images,ln the moderately coagulated zone, a decrease in birefringence was associated with an even stronger increase of the OCT signal, In the central zone,a loss of the fibrillar tissue structure was observed, which led to a complete loss of birefringence and a strong reduction of the OCT signal.
    Conclusions: Although OCT does not provide the detailed information on thermal changes of tissue seen by the histologic method, it offers information on the extent and degree of tissue changes without preparation artifacts and provides a non-invasive method of immediate and follow-up control of LTK lesions, A quantitative analysis of changes in corneal thickness and curvature is much simpler than by a slit lamp. Time-resolved measurements of corneal light scattering may be used for on-line control of the laser-light dosage during LTK.},
       keywords = {refractive surgery
    laser thermokeratoplasty
    collagen denaturation
    collagen shrinkage
    optical low coherence tomography
    polarization microscopy
    sirius-red staining
    tissue
    collagen
    eye},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1007/s003470050144},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000071246700004},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Geerling, G. and Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Wirbelauer, C. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Diode-laser thermokeratoplasty - First clinical experiences in human blind eyes. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 38, pp. 2292-2292, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Geerling1997,
       author = {Geerling, G. and Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Wirbelauer, C. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Diode-laser thermokeratoplasty - First clinical experiences in human blind eyes},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {38},
       number = {4},
       pages = {2292-2292},
       note = {1
    Wn186
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WN18602285},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Asiyo-Vogel, M and Koop, N and Brinkmann, R and Engelhardt, R and Eggers, R and Birngruber, R and Vogel, A: Darstellung von LTK-Läsionen durch optische Kurzkohärenztomographie (OCT) und Polarisationsmikroskopie nach Sirius-Rot-Färbung. Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 487-491, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Asiyo-Vogel1997,
       author = {Asiyo-Vogel, M and Koop, N and Brinkmann, R and Engelhardt, R and Eggers, R and Birngruber, R and Vogel, A},
       title = {Darstellung von LTK-Läsionen durch optische Kurzkohärenztomographie (OCT) und Polarisationsmikroskopie nach Sirius-Rot-Färbung},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       pages = {487-491},
       year = {1997}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Kampmeier, J. and Bruhns, A. and AsiyoVogel, M. and Engelhardt, R. and Birngruber, R.: Corneal collagen denaturation in laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK). Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 38, pp. 2514-2514, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann1997,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Kampmeier, J. and Bruhns, A. and AsiyoVogel, M. and Engelhardt, R. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Corneal collagen denaturation in laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK)},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {38},
       number = {4},
       pages = {2514-2514},
       note = {1
    Wn186
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WN18602506},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Pan, Y. T. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.: Contrast limits of coherence-gated imaging in scattering media. Applied Optics, no. 36, pp. 2979-2983, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Pan1997,
       author = {Pan, Y. T. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.},
       title = {Contrast limits of coherence-gated imaging in scattering media},
       journal = {Applied Optics},
       volume = {36},
       number = {13},
       pages = {2979-2983},
       note = {Wx242
    Times Cited:50
    Cited References Count:8},
       abstract = {The fundamental difference between time-resolved and coherence-gated imaging modalities in scattering media is analyzed in terms of their optical transfer functions. The effectiveness of coherence gating for multiple-scattering rejection is shown by imaging a 100-mu m-thick razor blade hidden in the scattering phantoms (i.e., Intralipid suspensions) with different scattering coefficients. We found that the imaging contrast is limited by multiple scattering and speckle effects in high-scattering media, and the measured effective penetration depth of optical coherence tomography is approximately equal to six mean free paths under the experimental conditions of a numerical aperture of less than 0.1 and a scattering anisotropy of approximately 0.8. (C) 1997 Optical Society of America.},
       keywords = {coherence-gated imaging
    time-resolved imaging
    low-coherence interference
    imaging contrast limits
    multiple scattering effects
    tissue optics
    tomography},
       ISSN = {0003-6935},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1364/Ao.36.002979},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WX24200038},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Spiegel, D. and Wetzel, W. and Birngruber, R.: Comparison of the efficacy of Er-YAG laser sclerostomy ab externo versus trabeculectomy in the treatment of ``low risk`` glaucoma patients.. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 38, pp. 829-829, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Spiegel1997,
       author = {Spiegel, D. and Wetzel, W. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Comparison of the efficacy of Er-YAG laser sclerostomy ab externo versus trabeculectomy in the treatment of ''low risk'' glaucoma patients.},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {38},
       number = {4},
       pages = {829-829},
       note = {1
    Wn186
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WN18600827},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Koop, N. and Langholz, M. and Birngruber, R. and Geerling, G. and Bastian, G. O.: Comparative evaluation of different corneal topographical devices. Ophthalmologe, no. 94, pp. 120-126, 1997
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Koop1997
       author = {Koop, N. and Langholz, M. and Birngruber, R. and Geerling, G. and Bastian, G. O.},
       title = {Comparative evaluation of different corneal topographical devices},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {94},
       number = {2},
       pages = {120-126},
       note = {Yp129
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:25},
       abstract = {Purpose: It is difficult to measure the topography of the cornea with high resolution and visualize it on a map displaying refraction. This is demonstrated by the ongoing improvement and further development of different methods and by the fact that users of these techniques are not always satisfied.
    Materials and methods: Five different ring projectors were compared. Spherical and aspherical ball standards were used to measure the standard deviation of the refraction of the system. A patient group of eight people with healthy eyes was used to compare the measurement accuracy and operational errors. Some patients were also measured after cataract surgery. The lateral and axial range of the devices was determined.
    Results: The measurement accuracy for bail stand ards for the five devices was below 1/8 D. For the in vivo case in the control group it was below 1/4 D for four devices. Furthermore, the reproducibility of the results, the accuracy of angle determination and the influence of mechanical and optical design will be discussed. The study demonstrates applications and limits of this measurement method.},
       keywords = {placido-disk
    corneal topography
    refractive power
    videokeratoscope
    accuracy
    system
    reproducibility},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1007/s003470050092},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:000071245600008},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Toth, C. A. and Birngruber, R. and Boppart, S. A. and Hee, M. R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and DiCarlo, C. D. and Swanson, E. A. and Cain, C. P. and Narayan, D. G. and Noojin, G. D. and Roach, W. P.: Argon laser retinal lesions evaluated in vivo by optical coherence tomography. Am J Ophthalmol, no. 123, pp. 188-98, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Toth1997,
       author = {Toth, C. A. and Birngruber, R. and Boppart, S. A. and Hee, M. R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and DiCarlo, C. D. and Swanson, E. A. and Cain, C. P. and Narayan, D. G. and Noojin, G. D. and Roach, W. P.},
       title = {Argon laser retinal lesions evaluated in vivo by optical coherence tomography},
       journal = {Am J Ophthalmol},
       volume = {123},
       number = {2},
       pages = {188-98},
       note = {0002-9394 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To assess the in vivo evolution of argon laser retinal lesions by correlating the cross-sectional structure from sequential optical coherence tomography with histopathologic sectioning. METHODS: Argon laser lesions were created in the retinas of Macaca mulatta and evaluated by cross-section optical coherence tomography, which was compared at selected time points with corresponding histopathology. RESULTS: Argon laser lesions induced an optical coherence tomography pattern of early outer retinal relative high reflectivity with subsequent surrounding relative low reflectivity that correlated well with histopathologic findings. The in vivo optical coherence tomography images of macular laser lesions clearly demonstrated differences in pathologic response by retinal layer over time. CONCLUSION: The novel sequential imaging of rapidly evolving macular lesions with optical coherence tomography provides new insight into the patterns of acute tissue response by cross-sectional layer. This sequential imaging technique will aid in our understanding of the rapid evolution of retinal pathology and response to treatment in the research and clinical setting.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Argon
    *Lasers
    Macaca mulatta
    *Optics
    Retina/*pathology/*radiation effects
    Time Factors
    Tomography/*methods},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=9186124},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wirbelauer, C. and Geerling, G. and Koop, N. and Brinkmann, R. and Tungler, A. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.: Acute endothelial cell changes after laser thermal keratoplasty with a CW-IR laser diode. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 38, pp. 2516-2516, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Wirbelauer1997,
       author = {Wirbelauer, C. and Geerling, G. and Koop, N. and Brinkmann, R. and Tungler, A. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.},
       title = {Acute endothelial cell changes after laser thermal keratoplasty with a CW-IR laser diode},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {38},
       number = {4},
       pages = {2516-2516},
       note = {1
    Wn186
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997WN18602508},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R and Dröge, G and Schroer, F and Scheu, M and Birngruber, R: Ablation Dynamics in Laser Sclerostomy Ab Externo by means of Pulsed Lasers in the Mid-Infrared Spectral Range. Ophth Surg Las, no. 28, pp. 853-865, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann1997,
       author = {Brinkmann, R and Dröge, G and Schroer, F and Scheu, M and Birngruber, R},
       title = {Ablation Dynamics in Laser Sclerostomy Ab Externo by means of Pulsed Lasers in the Mid-Infrared Spectral Range},
       journal = {Ophth Surg Las},
       volume = {28},
       number = {10},
       pages = {853-865},
       year = {1997},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Toth, C. A. and Narayan, D. G. and Boppart, S. A. and Hee, M. R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Birngruber, R. and Cain, C. P. and DiCarlo, C. D. and Roach, W. P.: A comparison of retinal morphology viewed by optical coherence tomography and by light microscopy. Arch Ophthalmol, no. 115, pp. 1425-8, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Toth,
       author = {Toth, C. A. and Narayan, D. G. and Boppart, S. A. and Hee, M. R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Birngruber, R. and Cain, C. P. and DiCarlo, C. D. and Roach, W. P.},
       title = {A comparison of retinal morphology viewed by optical coherence tomography and by light microscopy},
       journal = {Arch Ophthalmol},
       volume = {115},
       number = {11},
       pages = {1425-8},
       note = {0003-9950 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.},
       abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To compare the cross-sectional images of primate retinal morphology obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT) with light microscopy to determine the retinal components represented in OCT images. METHODS: Laser pulses were delivered to the retina to create small marker lesions in a Macaca mulatta. These lesions were used to align in vivo OCT scans and ex vivum histologic cross sections for image comparison. RESULTS: The OCT images demonstrated reproducible patterns of retinal morphology that corresponded to the location of retinal layers seen on light microscopic overlays. Layers of relative high reflectivity corresponded to horizontally aligned retinal components such as the nerve fiber layer and plexiform layers, as well as to the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. In contrast, the nuclear layers and the photoreceptor inner and outer segments demonstrated relative low reflectivity by OCT. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal morphology and macular OCT imaging correlate well, with alignment of areas of high and low reflectivity to specific retinal and choroidal elements. Resolution of retinal structures by OCT depends on the contrast in relative reflectivity of adjacent structures. Use of this tool will enable expanded study of retinal morphology, both normal and pathologic, as it evolves in vivo.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Macaca mulatta
    Microscopy/*methods
    Retina/*cytology
    Tomography/*methods},
       year = {1997}
    }
    
  • Chapyak, J. and Godwin, R.P. and Vogel, A.: A comparison of numerical simulations and laboratory studies on shock waves and cavitation bubble growth produced by optical breakdown in water. SPIE Proc., no. 2975, pp. 335-342, 1997
    BibTeX
    @article{Chapyak,
       author = {Chapyak, J. and Godwin, R.P. and Vogel, A.},
       title = {A comparison of numerical simulations and laboratory studies on shock waves and cavitation bubble growth produced by optical breakdown in water},
       journal = {SPIE Proc.},
       volume = {2975},
       pages = {335-342},
       year = {1997}
    }
    

1996

  • Brinkmann, R and Knipper, A and Dröge, G and Gafumbegete, D and Miller, A and Gromoll, B and Birngruber, R: Ureterotomy with a pulsed Holmium Laser. Proc LASER `95, Springer Verlag, pp. 16-19, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann1996,
       author = {Brinkmann, R and Knipper, A and Dröge, G and Gafumbegete, D and Miller, A and Gromoll, B and Birngruber, R},
       title = {Ureterotomy with a pulsed Holmium Laser},
       journal = {Proc LASER '95, Springer Verlag},
       pages = {16-19},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Gillies, R. and Kollias, N. and Hasan, T. and Diddens, H.: Spectral characterization of the benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring-A photoproduct formed in fetal calf solutions during irradiation with 694 nm continuous-wave radiation. J Photochem Photobiol B, no. 33, pp. 87-90, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Gillies,
       author = {Gillies, R. and Kollias, N. and Hasan, T. and Diddens, H.},
       title = {Spectral characterization of the benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring-A photoproduct formed in fetal calf solutions during irradiation with 694 nm continuous-wave radiation},
       journal = {J Photochem Photobiol B},
       volume = {33},
       number = {1},
       pages = {87-90},
       abstract = {Benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA) is a second-generation photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) that has shown good results in phase I clinical trials. Similar to other porphyrin derivatives, BPD-MA readily photobleaches during in-vivo PDT treatment. This study investigated the photodegradation of BPD-MA in fetal calf serum (FCS) solutions in vitro. Absorption and fluorescence spectra from dilute solutions of BPD-MA in 10% FCS were recorded before and immediately after irradiation with light at 694 nm. After irradiation, the appearance of a new fluorescence emission band at 650 nm and changes in the fluorescence excitation spectra indicate the formation of a photoproduct. Photoproduct formation was observed only when BPD-MA was bound to FCS and in oxygenated solutions. The spectroscopy of the photoproduct is consistent with the reaction of an oxygen species with the ring B vinyl group, forming a hydroxyaldehyde photoproduct. Monitoring the increase in photoproduct fluorescence during treatment may provide an in-vivo dosimeter to measure PDT efficacy.},
       year = {1996}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Busch, S.: Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water. J Acoust Soc Am, no. 100, pp. 148-165, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Busch, S.},
       title = {Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water},
       journal = {J Acoust Soc Am},
       volume = {100},
       pages = {148-165},
       year = {1996}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Lindemann, C. and Droge, G. and ElHifnawi, E. and Birngruber, R.: Selective RPE-photocoagulation with repetitive 200 ns subthreshold laser pulses. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 37, pp. 3585-3585, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider1996,
       author = {Roider, J. and Lindemann, C. and Droge, G. and ElHifnawi, E. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Selective RPE-photocoagulation with repetitive 200 ns subthreshold laser pulses},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {37},
       number = {3},
       pages = {3585-3585},
       note = {Tx397
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996TX39703579},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Nahen, K. and Vogel, A.: Plasma Formation in Water by Picosecond and Nanosecond Nd: YAG Laser Pulses - Part II: Transmission, Scattering, and Reflection. IEEE, no. 2, pp. 861-871, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Nahen,
       author = {Nahen, K. and Vogel, A.},
       title = {Plasma Formation in Water by Picosecond and Nanosecond Nd: YAG Laser Pulses - Part II: Transmission, Scattering, and Reflection},
       journal = {IEEE},
       volume = {2},
       number = {4},
       pages = {861-871},
       year = {1996}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Nahen, K. and Theisen, D and Noack, J.: Plasma Formation in Water by Picosecond and Nanosecond Nd: YAG Laser Pulses - Part I: Optical Breakdown at Threshold and Superthreshold Irradiance.. IEEE, no. 2, pp. 847-860, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel1996,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Nahen, K. and Theisen, D and Noack, J.},
       title = {Plasma Formation in Water by Picosecond and Nanosecond Nd: YAG Laser Pulses - Part I: Optical Breakdown at Threshold and Superthreshold Irradiance.},
       journal = {IEEE},
       volume = {2},
       number = {4},
       pages = {847-860},
       year = {1996}
    }
    
  • Wetzel, W. and Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Schroer, F. and Birngruber, R.: Photofragmentation of lens nuclei using the Er:YAG laser: Preliminary report of an in vitro study. German Journal of Ophthalmology, no. 5, pp. 281-284, 1996
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Wetzel1996,
       author = {Wetzel, W. and Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Schroer, F. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Photofragmentation of lens nuclei using the Er:YAG laser: Preliminary report of an in vitro study},
       journal = {German Journal of Ophthalmology},
       volume = {5},
       number = {5},
       pages = {281-284},
       note = {Vq341
    Times Cited:13
    Cited References Count:12},
       abstract = {The energy of the erbium:YAG laser (2,940-nm wave-length) can be used for minimally traumatic photoablation due to its high absorption at the tissue water and its consequently low penetration depth. Laser sclerostomy ab externo, an application of this principle, has undergone advanced clinical investigation. Another potential application is photofragmentation of the lens for cataract extraction. A laboratory model Er: YAG laser (flashlamp-pumped, 200-mu s pulse length, 5-Hz repetition frequency) was coupled to a short low-OH quartz fiber (400 mu m in diameter). The laser energy was applied by direct contact of the fiber tip to human lenses with very dense cataract. The lenses rested in a small cuvette filled with an aqueous-humor-analogous fluid. The fragmentablation rate was evaluated in relation to the number of pulses and the pulse energy. A laser-triggered flash-photography unit was engaged to visualize the ablation dynamics. We found tissue-ablation rates to range from 4 to 19 mu g/pulse, depending on the nucleus density and ulse energy. The maximal size of the removed fragments was always below 500 mu m During ablation, rapidly increasing and collapsing cavitation bubbles were photographed at the distal tip of the application fiber. The impact radius of these cavitation effects markedly exceeded the pure penetration depth of laser radiation at a 2.9-mu m wavelength. A clinical application of the method should be possible as judged by the results obtained for tissue-ablation rate and fragment size. Cavitation-bubble dynamics seems to be responsible for the high fragmentation efficiency. Special application probes have to be developed to optimize ablation and to prevent inadvertent destruction of the posterior lens capsule by cavitation effects.},
       keywords = {phacoemulsification
    er:yag laser
    cavitation effects
    ablation
    surgery},
       ISSN = {0941-2921},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996VQ34100006},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • SchmidtErfurth, U. and Miller, J. and Sickerberg, M. and Strong, A. and Hoehne, U. and Fsachi, M. and Birngruber, R. and vandenBerg, H. and Laqua, H. and Gragoudas, E. and Zografos, L. and Bressler, N.: Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization using benzoporphyrin derivative: First results of a multi-center trial. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 37, pp. 580-580, 1996
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1996,
       author = {SchmidtErfurth, U. and Miller, J. and Sickerberg, M. and Strong, A. and Hoehne, U. and Fsachi, M. and Birngruber, R. and vandenBerg, H. and Laqua, H. and Gragoudas, E. and Zografos, L. and Bressler, N.},
       title = {Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization using benzoporphyrin derivative: First results of a multi-center trial},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {37},
       number = {3},
       pages = {580-580},
       note = {Tx397
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996TX39700579},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • SchmidtErfurth, U. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.: Photodynamic therapy in ocular vascular disease. Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, no. 2, pp. 988-996, 1996
    BibTeX Link Auszeichnung
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1996,
       author = {SchmidtErfurth, U. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.},
       title = {Photodynamic therapy in ocular vascular disease},
       journal = {Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics},
       volume = {2},
       number = {4},
       pages = {988-996},
       note = {Xd616
    Times Cited:5
    Cited References Count:57},
       abstract = {Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a novel therapeutical approach which is noninvasive and potentially selective for neoplastic pathologies, Association of photosensitizers with low density lipoprotein (LDL) leads to direct targeting of the treated lesions with enhanced efficiency and selectivity. LDL-mediated PDT is particularly useful in the treatment of neovascular structures since LDL receptors are abundantly expressed on vascular endothelial cells, To evaluate the potential of selective photodynamic vasoocclusion in ocular neovascular disease a sequence of experiments was designed: Efficiency of the LDL-carrier was tested in vitro, the system was then transfered to an in vivo model demonstrating a vascularized neoplasm, Occlusion was successfully performed in experimentally induced neovascularization in the cornea, while selective photothrombosis of subretinal vasculature revealed lack of collateral damage, The experimental results were used to establish a first clinical trial for the use of PDT in age-related macular degeneration, one of the leading causes for blindness.},
       keywords = {low-density-lipoprotein
    receptor activity
    plasma-lipoproteins
    singlet oxygen
    cells-invitro
    murine tumor
    hematoporphyrin
    invivo
    benzoporphyrin
    retinoblastoma},
       ISSN = {1077-260X},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1109/2944.577328},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996XD61600025},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Indorf, L. and Soultanopoulos, D. and Droge, G. and Eggers, H. and SchmidtErfurth, U.: Photodynamic occlusion of ocular neovascularization: Preclinical evaluation of liposomal zinc phthalocyanine. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 37, pp. 4214-4214, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1996,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Indorf, L. and Soultanopoulos, D. and Droge, G. and Eggers, H. and SchmidtErfurth, U.},
       title = {Photodynamic occlusion of ocular neovascularization: Preclinical evaluation of liposomal zinc phthalocyanine},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {37},
       number = {3},
       pages = {4214-4214},
       note = {Tx397
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996TX39704208},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Pan, Y. and Lankenau, E. and Welzel, J. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.: Optical Coherence - Gated imaging of Biological Tissues. IEEE J Quant Electr, no. 2, pp. 1029-1034, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Pan,
       author = {Pan, Y. and Lankenau, E. and Welzel, J. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.},
       title = {Optical Coherence - Gated imaging of Biological Tissues},
       journal = {IEEE J Quant Electr},
       volume = {2},
       number = {4},
       pages = {1029-1034},
       year = {1996}
    }
    
  • Gerling, G. and Vogel, A. and ElHifnawi, E. and Koop, N. and Droge, G. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.: Morphological and biomorphometrical observations on laser thermal keratoplasty - Histological and biomorphometrical examination of the relationship between refractive change and the volume of laser thermal keratoplasty lesions following Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser treatment. German Journal of Ophthalmology, no. 5, pp. 84-91, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Gerling1996,
       author = {Gerling, G. and Vogel, A. and ElHifnawi, E. and Koop, N. and Droge, G. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Morphological and biomorphometrical observations on laser thermal keratoplasty - Histological and biomorphometrical examination of the relationship between refractive change and the volume of laser thermal keratoplasty lesions following Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser treatment},
       journal = {German Journal of Ophthalmology},
       volume = {5},
       number = {2},
       pages = {84-91},
       note = {Vf915
    Times Cited:4
    Cited References Count:21},
       abstract = {Laser thermal keratoplasty (LTK) is currently under clinical trial for the correction of hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism by means of collagen coagulation in the peripheral cornea. The purpose of our study was to optimize the ratio between the volume of damaged corneal stroma and the refractive effect so as to minimize potential side effects such as endothelial damage or induction of glare phenomena. We therefore performed histological and morphometrical examinations of enucleated pig eyes to determine the relationship between the coagulated stromal volume and the refractive change after LTK using a pulsed Cr: Tm: Ho: YAG laser (wavelength 2.12 mu m) on enucleated pig eyes. The refractive change was documented with a Littman ophthalmometer. Morphometrical analysis was performed using polarized light microscopy of sirius red-stained specimens. This special stain separated the thermally changed stroma into a dark, nonbirefringent center and a birefringent peripheral zone. The volume of both zones was positively correlated with the refractive change induced. The volume was in turn influenced by the choice of laser parameters, From the ratio of the volume to the refractive change it was found that pulse energies above 30 mJ led to an enlargement of the coagulation volume without increasing the refractive change effectively. The use of high pulse energies did not improve the effect of LTK but only increased the risk of unwanted side effects. However, an increase in the laser repetition rate at a constant pulse number per spot led to refractive changes with a minimal coagulation volume. The highest relative refractive change was achieved with a dark central zone and a birefringent zone, each having a volume of about 50 - 80 x 10(-3) mm(3).},
       keywords = {laser thermal keratoplasty
    hyperopic correction
    biomorphometry
    sirius red stain
    polarization microscopy
    organization
    microscopy
    collagen},
       ISSN = {0941-2921},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996VF91500004},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Engelhardt, R. and Behnle, U. and Parlitz, U.: Minimization of cavitation effects in pulsed laser ablation illustrated on laser angioplasty. Appl Phys B, no. 62, pp. 173-182, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel1996,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Engelhardt, R. and Behnle, U. and Parlitz, U.},
       title = {Minimization of cavitation effects in pulsed laser ablation illustrated on laser angioplasty},
       journal = {Appl Phys B},
       volume = {62},
       pages = {173-182},
       year = {1996}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Kamm, K. and Geerling, G. and Kampmeier, J. and Birngruber, R.: Laser thermokeratoplasty: an in vitro and in vivo-study by means of a Continous Wave Mid-IR laser diode.. Lasermedizin, no. 12, pp. 179-186, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann1996,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Kamm, K. and Geerling, G. and Kampmeier, J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser thermokeratoplasty: an in vitro and in vivo-study by means of a Continous Wave Mid-IR laser diode.},
       journal = {Lasermedizin},
       volume = {12},
       pages = {179-186},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Kampmeier, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R.: Laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK): Biomechanical properties and IR-laser induced forces in porcine cornea.. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 37, pp. 301-301, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Kampmeier1996,
       author = {Kampmeier, J. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK): Biomechanical properties and IR-laser induced forces in porcine cornea.},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {37},
       number = {3},
       pages = {301-301},
       note = {Tx397
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996TX39700301},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Geerling, G. and Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Klingemann, I. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.: Laser thermokeratoplasty - Experimental study in minipigs with a cw-IR laser diode. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 37, pp. 304-304, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Geerling1996,
       author = {Geerling, G. and Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and Klingemann, I. and Laqua, H. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser thermokeratoplasty - Experimental study in minipigs with a cw-IR laser diode},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {37},
       number = {3},
       pages = {304-304},
       note = {Tx397
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996TX39700304},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wetzel, W. and SchmidtErfurth, U. and Spiegel, D. and Jacobi, P. and Buhl, M. and Birngruber, R.: Laser sclerostomy ab externo using a new Er:YAG laser device. A clinical multicenter study - Laser sclerostomy study group. Vision Research, no. 36, pp. 2414-2414, 1996
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Wetzel1996,
       author = {Wetzel, W. and SchmidtErfurth, U. and Spiegel, D. and Jacobi, P. and Buhl, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser sclerostomy ab externo using a new Er:YAG laser device. A clinical multicenter study - Laser sclerostomy study group},
       journal = {Vision Research},
       volume = {36},
       pages = {2414-2414},
       note = {Suppl. S
    Vr898
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0042-6989},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996VR89800185},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Zwaan, M. and Behnle, U. and Engelhardt, R. and Vogel, A. and Kloess, W. and Birngruber, R. and Weiss, H. D.: In-vitro-Untersuchungen zur gepulsten Laserangioplastie in flüssigem und gasförmigem Medium.. Fortschr Röntgenstr, no. 164, pp. 68-71, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Zwaan,
       author = {Zwaan, M. and Behnle, U. and Engelhardt, R. and Vogel, A. and Kloess, W. and Birngruber, R. and Weiss, H. D.},
       title = {In-vitro-Untersuchungen zur gepulsten Laserangioplastie in flüssigem und gasförmigem Medium.},
       journal = {Fortschr Röntgenstr},
       volume = {164},
       number = {1},
       pages = {68-71},
       year = {1996}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and AsiyoVogel, M. N. and Kaftan, B. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.: CW-IR laser thermokeratoplasty: Refractive changes and analysis by optical coherence tomography and light microscopy. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 37, pp. 305-305, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Brinkmann1996,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Koop, N. and AsiyoVogel, M. N. and Kaftan, B. and Birngruber, R. and Engelhardt, R.},
       title = {CW-IR laser thermokeratoplasty: Refractive changes and analysis by optical coherence tomography and light microscopy},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {37},
       number = {3},
       pages = {305-305},
       note = {Tx397
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996TX39700305},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Novo, M. and Hüttmann, G. and Diddens, H.: Chemical instability of 5-aminolevulinic acid used in the fluorescence diagnosis of bladder tumours. J Photoch Photobio, no. 34, pp. 143-148, 1996
    BibTeX
    @article{Novo,
       author = {Novo, M. and Hüttmann, G. and Diddens, H.},
       title = {Chemical instability of 5-aminolevulinic acid used in the fluorescence diagnosis of bladder tumours},
       journal = {J Photoch Photobio},
       volume = {34},
       pages = {143-148},
       year = {1996}
    }
    
  • SchmidtErfurth, U. and Flotte, T. J. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Schomacker, K. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.: Benzoporphyrin-lipoprotein-mediated photodestruction of intraocular tumors. Experimental Eye Research, no. 62, pp. 1-10, 1996
    BibTeX Link Link
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1996,
       author = {SchmidtErfurth, U. and Flotte, T. J. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Schomacker, K. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.},
       title = {Benzoporphyrin-lipoprotein-mediated photodestruction of intraocular tumors},
       journal = {Experimental Eye Research},
       volume = {62},
       number = {1},
       pages = {1-10},
       note = {Tt612
    Times Cited:22
    Cited References Count:43},
       abstract = {Benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD), a sensitizer currently in clinical trials, was evaluated for the treatment of experimental Greene melanoma implanted in the rabbit iris. To improve tumor targeting, BPD was complexed with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) representing an endogenous carrier system for BPD as previously described. Twelve tumors were irradiated at a sensitizer dose of 2 mg kg(-1) body weight using a dye laser at 692 nm. Tumor responses were documented by photography, angiography and light and electron microscopy. All tumors treated with 80 J cm(-2) regressed irreversibly. The principal mechanism of tumor necrosis was thrombosis following disruption of endothelial membranes. Ultrastructure data suggested tumor cell damage, although evidence for this being the result of direct PDT-mediated tumor cell death was less clear. These data suggest that BPD-LDL may be used to improve the selectivity of photodynamic tumor therapy possibly by the increased uptake of lipoprotein-delivered sensitizer to neovascular endothelial cells. (C) 1996 Academic Press Limited},
       keywords = {photodynamic therapy
    benzoporphyrin derivative
    low-density lipoprotein
    intraocular tumors, in vivo
    photodynamic therapy
    plasma-lipoproteins
    malignant-melanoma
    cholesterol-metabolism
    endothelial-cells
    hematoporphyrin
    photosensitization
    photoimmunotherapy
    biodistribution
    invitro},
       ISSN = {0014-4835},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1006/exer.1996.0001},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996TT61200001},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Hansen, C. and Mohrenstecher, D. and Scheu, M. and Birngruber, R.: Analysis of cavitation dynamics during pulsed laser tissue ablation by optical on-line monitoring. Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, no. 2, pp. 826-835, 1996
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Brinkmann1996,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Hansen, C. and Mohrenstecher, D. and Scheu, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Analysis of cavitation dynamics during pulsed laser tissue ablation by optical on-line monitoring},
       journal = {Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics},
       volume = {2},
       number = {4},
       pages = {826-835},
       note = {Xd616
    Times Cited:20
    Cited References Count:24},
       abstract = {Flashlamp pumped mid-IR laser systems emitting in the 23-mu m wavelength range are widely used for various medical applications, especially for tissue ablation, Explosive evaporation is inevitably associated with this process due to the short pulse durations of these laser systems and the high absorption of tissue and water in this spectral regime, Tissue displacement and dissection occur in liquid environment as a consequence of the induced cavitation, Depending on the application these processes might enhance the tissue ablation but can also cause adverse tissue effects, The ablation dynamics were investigated by evaluating the change in rejected probe-light intensity reemitted from the application fiber tip. The ablated cavity and the signal was correlated to fast-flash photographs of the event. Based on this reflection signal a water/tissue discrimination system is introduced which can widely support medical laser applications. In laser sclerostomy ab externo, for example, this approach can be used as a feedback system to automatically control the ablation process. With such a system, adverse effects to adjacent tissue in the anterior chamber of the eye can be minimized.},
       ISSN = {1077-260X},
       DOI = {Doi 10.1109/2944.577305},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996XD61600006},
       year = {1996},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1995

  • Schmidterfurth, U. and Droge, G. and Wetzel, W. and Birngruber, R.: Mitomycin-C in Laser Sclerostomy - Time of Administration and Postoperative Hypotony. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 36, pp. S89-S89, 1995
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1995,
       author = {Schmidterfurth, U. and Droge, G. and Wetzel, W. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Mitomycin-C in Laser Sclerostomy - Time of Administration and Postoperative Hypotony},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {36},
       number = {4},
       pages = {S89-S89},
       note = {Qm915
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1995QM91500432},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Pan, Y. and Birngruber, R. and Rosperich, J. and Engelhardt, R.: Low-coherence optical tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis.. Appl Optics, no. 34, pp. 6564-6574, 1995
    BibTeX
    @article{Pan,
       author = {Pan, Y. and Birngruber, R. and Rosperich, J. and Engelhardt, R.},
       title = {Low-coherence optical tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis.},
       journal = {Appl Optics},
       volume = {34},
       number = {28},
       pages = {6564-6574},
       year = {1995}
    }
    
  • Wetzel, W. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Haring, G. and Roider, J. and Droge, G. and Birngruber, R.: Laser sclerostomy ab externo using two different infrared lasers: a clinical comparison. Ger J Ophthalmol, no. 4, pp. 1-6, 1995
    BibTeX
    @article{Wetzel1995,
       author = {Wetzel, W. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Haring, G. and Roider, J. and Droge, G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser sclerostomy ab externo using two different infrared lasers: a clinical comparison},
       journal = {Ger J Ophthalmol},
       volume = {4},
       number = {1},
       pages = {1-6},
       note = {0941-2921 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {This study was designed to compare the clinical results of an ab externo approach to laser sclerostomy using two different laser sources under identical conditions. A pulsed (200 microseconds) erbium-YAG laser (lambda = 2940 nm) and a pulsed (200 microseconds) holmium:YAG laser (lambda = 2120 nm) were used. The energy of each laser was transmitted via a fiber (300 microns in diameter) and applied near the limbus, with the fiber tip remaining in steady contact with the sclera. According to the higher tissue absorption coefficient, a shorter penetration depth and, therefore, fewer complications were expected for the Er:YAG laser. A total of 26 patients with advanced open-angle glaucoma were treated and followed for up to 6 months. In all cases a functioning fistula with a prominent filtering bleb and a marked reduction in the intraocular pressure (from up to 35 mm Hg to < 10 mm Hg) could be achieved primarily. The total energy required was about 4 times lower for erbium:YAG laser was compared with holmium:YAG laser sclerostomies. No complication occurred intraoperatively. Postoperatively, reversible adherence of the iris to the internal ostium was more frequently observed in Ho:YAG laser sclerostomies (60%) and small hyphemas were more often seen in Er:YAG laser sclerostomies (30%). After 6 months of follow-up, about 40% of the fistula remained patent in both groups. In principle, both lasers are suited to serve as energy sources for the described approach. Under the conditions of the present study, different levels of thermal effects did not cause any significant difference in the clinical success rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)},
       keywords = {Adult
    Chronic Disease
    Follow-Up Studies
    Glaucoma, Open-Angle/*surgery
    Humans
    Intraocular Pressure
    Laser Surgery/*methods
    Middle Aged
    Ostomy
    Postoperative Complications
    Prognosis
    Sclera/surgery
    *Sclerostomy},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7728103},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schmidterfurth, U. and Hasan, T. and Schomacker, K. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.: In-Vivo Uptake of Liposomal Benzoporphyrin Derivative and Photothrombosis in Experimental Corneal Neovascularization. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, no. 17, pp. 178-188, 1995
    BibTeX Link Link
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1995,
       author = {Schmidterfurth, U. and Hasan, T. and Schomacker, K. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {In-Vivo Uptake of Liposomal Benzoporphyrin Derivative and Photothrombosis in Experimental Corneal Neovascularization},
       journal = {Lasers in Surgery and Medicine},
       volume = {17},
       number = {2},
       pages = {178-188},
       note = {Rw607
    Times Cited:72
    Cited References Count:39},
       abstract = {Background and Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used successfully to occlude neovascularizations experimentally. We evaluated the vasoocclusive potential of benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD), a new photosensitizer currently in clinical trials. Since liposomally formulated BPD strongly binds to endogenous low density lipoproteins (LDL) after i.v. injection, LDL act as carrier to deliver BPD preferentially 60 proliferating endothelial cells.
    Study Design/Materials and Methods: Corneal neovascularizations in rabbits were used as model. Time-dependent uptake and retention of liposomal BPD were measured in vivo by monitoring the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). Photothrombosis was induced using a dye laser emitting at 692 nm.
    Results: A maximal BPD concentration was measured at 60-90 minutes postinjection determining the optimal time interval for treatment. Exposures as low as 10 J/cm(2) allowed complete and irreversible neovascular occlusion as documented angiographically. Histology revealed selective endothelial damage, adjacent corneal stroma, or iris vessels, remained intact. Identical results were obtained using BPD directly complexed with LDL suggesting use of a LDL-mediated pathway.
    Conclusion: We suggest BPD-PDT for a selective treatment of neovascular diseases. (C) 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.},
       keywords = {benzoporphyrin derivative
    ocular photothrombosis
    liposomes
    cornea
    neovascularization
    low-density lipoprotein
    photodynamic therapy
    laser photocoagulation
    photochemical initiation
    vascular occlusion
    lipid keratopathy
    endothelial-cells
    feeder vessels
    thrombosis
    hematoporphyrin},
       ISSN = {0196-8092},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1002/lsm.1900170207},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1995RW60700006},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Goldau, R. and Twilfer, H. and Zwaan, M. and Morrin, M. and Marquardt, U. and Birngruber, R.: In-vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of abdominal and iliac arterial in humans.. Lasermedizin, no. 11, pp. 212-218, 1995
    BibTeX
    @article{Goldau1995,
       author = {Goldau, R. and Twilfer, H. and Zwaan, M. and Morrin, M. and Marquardt, U. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {In-vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of abdominal and iliac arterial in humans.},
       journal = {Lasermedizin},
       volume = {11},
       pages = {212-218},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schirner, G. and Koop, N. and Elhifnawi, E. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.: Experiments with Pulsed and Continuous-Wave Laser Sources to Optimize Laserthermo-Keratoplasty. Vision Research, no. 35, pp. P167-P167, 1995
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schirner1995,
       author = {Schirner, G. and Koop, N. and Elhifnawi, E. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {Experiments with Pulsed and Continuous-Wave Laser Sources to Optimize Laserthermo-Keratoplasty},
       journal = {Vision Research},
       volume = {35},
       pages = {P167-P167},
       note = {Suppl. S
    Rz562
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0042-6989},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1995RZ56200472},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schirner, G. and Brinkmann, R. and Droge, G. and Koop, N. and Elhifnawi, E. S. and Birngruber, R.: Experimental Studies to Optimize Laser-Thermokeratoplasty Using Pulsed and Cw-Laser-Sources. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 36, pp. S716-S716, 1995
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schirner1995,
       author = {Schirner, G. and Brinkmann, R. and Droge, G. and Koop, N. and Elhifnawi, E. S. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Experimental Studies to Optimize Laser-Thermokeratoplasty Using Pulsed and Cw-Laser-Sources},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {36},
       number = {4},
       pages = {S716-S716},
       note = {Qm915
    Times Cited:3
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1995QM91503294},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wetzel, W. and Otto, R. and Falkenstein, W. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Birngruber, R.: Development of a new Er: YAG laser conception for laser sclerostomy ab externo: experimental and first clinical results. Ger J Ophthalmol, no. 4, pp. 283-8, 1995
    BibTeX
    @article{Wetzel1995,
       author = {Wetzel, W. and Otto, R. and Falkenstein, W. and Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Development of a new Er: YAG laser conception for laser sclerostomy ab externo: experimental and first clinical results},
       journal = {Ger J Ophthalmol},
       volume = {4},
       number = {5},
       pages = {283-8},
       note = {0941-2921 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The erbium:YAG laser is a preferable energy source for laser sclerostomy ab externo due to the high absorption of its radiation (2940-nm wavelength) in the aqueous parts of scleral tissue. It has thus far been a disadvantage that laser energy has to be transmitted from the laser source to the application site via very susceptible special optical fibers (ZrF). As a consequence of technical improvements, the laser source could be integrated into the application probe. Therefore, only a robust quartz fiber was necessary for contact application. A fiber diameter of 400 microns was chosen according to the experience gained in previous studies. A total of 24 eyes with chronical open-angle glaucoma were treated. A fistula end-point detection unit was developed for safe indication of a full-thickness perforation of the sclera. With a fiber diameter of 400 microns, a postoperative success rate of about 54% was achieved at 6 months follow-up. The automated full-thickness perforation detection prevented the application of additional, surplus laser pulses in the anterior chamber. The postoperative success rate could be improved over that achieved in previous studies. The new device/conception offers more technical reliability and is a further step toward minimally invasive fistulating laser surgery of open-angle glaucoma.},
       keywords = {Erbium
    Follow-Up Studies
    Glaucoma, Open-Angle/*surgery
    Humans
    Laser Surgery/instrumentation/*methods
    Sclera/*surgery
    Treatment Outcome},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7496339},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Toth, C. A. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Boppart, S. A. and Hee, M. R. and Dicarlo, C. D. and Cain, C. P. and Roach, W. P.: Correlation between Optical Coherence Tomography, Clinical Examination and Histopathology of Macular Laser Lesions. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 36, pp. S207-S207, 1995
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Toth1995,
       author = {Toth, C. A. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Boppart, S. A. and Hee, M. R. and Dicarlo, C. D. and Cain, C. P. and Roach, W. P.},
       title = {Correlation between Optical Coherence Tomography, Clinical Examination and Histopathology of Macular Laser Lesions},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {36},
       number = {4},
       pages = {S207-S207},
       note = {Qm915
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1995QM91500948},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Schmidterfurth, U. and Hoerauf, H. and Lasser, T. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.: Contact Diode-Laser Cyclophotocoagulation (Cpc) with a New Focusing Fiber Tip. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 36, pp. S559-S559, 1995
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roider1995,
       author = {Roider, J. and Schmidterfurth, U. and Hoerauf, H. and Lasser, T. and Birngruber, R. and Laqua, H.},
       title = {Contact Diode-Laser Cyclophotocoagulation (Cpc) with a New Focusing Fiber Tip},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {36},
       number = {4},
       pages = {S559-S559},
       note = {Qm915
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1995QM91502590},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Reichle, A. and Diddens, H. and Altmayr, F. and Rastetter, J. and Andreesen, R.: Beta-tubulin and P-glycoprotein: Major determinants of vincristine accumulation in B-CLL cells. Leuk Res, no. 19, pp. 823-829, 1995
    BibTeX
    @article{Reichle,
       author = {Reichle, A. and Diddens, H. and Altmayr, F. and Rastetter, J. and Andreesen, R.},
       title = {Beta-tubulin and P-glycoprotein: Major determinants of vincristine accumulation in B-CLL cells},
       journal = {Leuk Res},
       volume = {19},
       number = {11},
       pages = {823-829},
       abstract = {Vincristine (VCR) accumulation in chronic lymphatic leukemia of B-cell origin (B-CLL) has recently been shown not to be inversely correlated to P-glycoprotein (PGP) levels. Therefore, we studied, in addition to PGP expression and accumulation of VCR, the cellular ?-tubulin content in quiescent and rhIL-2 activated B-CLL cells. VCR mediates cytotoxicity by binding to tubulin. Constitutive ?-tubulin levels in B-CLL cells varied considerably. Upon activation with rhIL-2, ?-tubulin expression increased significantly. Therefore, tubulin levels could be correlated over a wide range to VCR accumulation. When the PGP-mediated drug efflux was blocked by verapamil (VRP), tubulin levels correlated linearly to VCR accumulation. All B-CLL cases expressed PGP at different levels. There was no linear correlation between PGP expression and VCR accumulation. A modulation factor m was defined as a quotient of VCR accumulation in the presence and absence of VRP to define the extent by which VRP inhibited a steady-state accumulation of VCR. The factor allowed discrimination between B-CLLs expressing low versus high PGP, irrespective of the levels of tubulin. However, PGP and ?-tubulin levels together were predictive for VCR accumulation in steady state. There was no uniform accumulation defect for VCR in B-cell CLL because ?-tubulin and PGP were expressed independently. Non PGP-mediated VCR transport seems to play a minor role in B-cell CLL. Leukemia-associated varying of cytoskeletal organization in B-cell CLL might be one reason for the diverse cellular responses to receptor-mediated signals.},
       keywords = {Multidrug resistance
    tubulin
    vincristine
    B-CLL},
       year = {1995}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Schroer, F. and Mohrenstecher, D. and Droge, G. and Birngruber, R.: Ablation Dynamics in Laser Sclerostomy Ab-Externo. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 36, pp. S558-S558, 1995
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Brinkmann1995,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Schroer, F. and Mohrenstecher, D. and Droge, G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Ablation Dynamics in Laser Sclerostomy Ab-Externo},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {36},
       number = {4},
       pages = {S558-S558},
       note = {Qm915
    Times Cited:1
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1995QM91502583},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Inderfurth, J. and Ferguson, R. D. and Puliafito, C. A. and Frish, M. B. and Birngruber, R.: [Reflection measurement during retinal laser coagulation in patients. Development of an automatically controlled dosimeter]. Ophthalmologe, no. 92, pp. 717-22, 1995
    BibTeX
    @article{Inderfurth1995,
       author = {Inderfurth, J. and Ferguson, R. D. and Puliafito, C. A. and Frish, M. B. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[Reflection measurement during retinal laser coagulation in patients. Development of an automatically controlled dosimeter]},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {92},
       number = {5},
       pages = {717-22},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: Retinal laser coagulation has limited reproducibility, because every laser exposition is unpredictably affected by pigmentation and media opacities. This can lead to complications. A feedback-controlled dosimeter would make retinal laser treatment a safer, more reproducible and faster procedure. METHOD: A reflectometer was developed that allows monitoring of the reflection of laser light during standard photocoagulation. Hundreds of coagulations in rabbit eyes and about 12,000 coagulations in patients undergoing routine laser treatment were recorded. RESULTS: The results of the first reflectance measurements in humans are presented along with extensive animal studies. A typical reflectance history was found for different lesion intensities. The degree of retinal whitening correlates with reflectance characteristics. These characteristics allow an early prediction of lesion intensity. Motion during laser exposure affects each coagulation in a fashion similar to spot size and exposure time. CONCLUSION: Reflectometry is the currently most effective means of monitoring lesion development. An automatic dosimeter for retinal photocoagulation seems feasible.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Equipment Design
    Feasibility Studies
    Humans
    Laser Coagulation/*instrumentation
    Rabbits
    Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted/*instrumentation
    Retinal Diseases/*surgery
    Treatment Outcome},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8751004},
       year = {1995},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }