1994 - 1989

1994

  • Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Hasan, T. and Gragoudas, E. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. J. and Birngruber, R.: Vascular targeting in photodynamic occlusion of subretinal vessels. Ophthalmology, no. 101, pp. 1953-61, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1994,
       author = {Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Hasan, T. and Gragoudas, E. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Vascular targeting in photodynamic occlusion of subretinal vessels},
       journal = {Ophthalmology},
       volume = {101},
       number = {12},
       pages = {1953-61},
       note = {0161-6420 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD) for occlusion of subretinal neovascular membranes, the authors studied efficiency and collateral damage of PDT-induced photothrombosis in the rabbit choriocapillary layer. METHOD: Benzoporphyrin derivative, a new photosensitizer, currently in clinical trials for tumor therapy, was used. Low-density lipoprotein served as a carrier to enhance selective targeting of vascular endothelial cells. RESULTS: Complete choriocapillary occlusion was achieved at a BPD dose of 2 mg/kg and a radiant exposure as low as 10 J/cm2. When PDT was performed 3 hours after BPD application, damage to the neural retina was minimal. Only inner photoreceptor segments showed mitochondrial swelling probably secondary to choroidal ischemia. Bruch's membrane remained intact. Retinal pigment epithelium was invariably damaged as seen with other photosensitizers. CONCLUSION: Compared with photocoagulation BPD-PDT allows endothelial-bound intraluminal photothrombosis, sparing important structures such as neural retina and Bruch's membrane. It may thus provide a more selective treatment of juxtafoveal and subfoveal neovascular membranes.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Bruch Membrane/drug effects/pathology/radiation effects
    Choroid/blood supply
    Drug Carriers
    Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects/pathology/radiation effects
    Lipoproteins, LDL/therapeutic use
    *Photochemotherapy/methods
    Photoreceptors/drug effects/pathology/radiation effects
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/drug effects/pathology/radiation effects
    Porphyrins/administration & dosage/*therapeutic use
    Rabbits
    Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/administration & dosage/*therapeutic use
    Retinal Neovascularization/*drug therapy/pathology
    Retinal Vessels/*drug effects/pathology/radiation effects},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7997334},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • VOGEL, A. and ASIYO-VOGEL, M. and BIRNGRUBER, R.: Untersuchungen zur intrastromalen refraktiven Hornhautchirurgie mit Picosekunden-Nd: YAG-Laser-Pulsen. no. 91, Springer, Berlin, ALLEMAGNE, 1994
    BibTeX
    @book{Vogel,
       author = {VOGEL, A. and ASIYO-VOGEL, M. and BIRNGRUBER, R.},
       title = {Untersuchungen zur intrastromalen refraktiven Hornhautchirurgie mit Picosekunden-Nd: YAG-Laser-Pulsen},
       publisher = {Springer},
       address = {Berlin, ALLEMAGNE},
       volume = {91},
       keywords = {Surgery
    Chirurgie
    Cornea
    Corn&#233
    e
    YAG laser
    Laser YAG
    Neodymium
    N&#233
    odyme
    Stroma
    Laser produced plasma
    Plasma produit par laser
    Cavitation bubble
    Bulle cavitation
    Eye
    Oeil
    Sheep
    Mouton
    Animal
    In vitro
    Artiodactyla
    Ungulata
    Mammalia
    Vertebrata},
       year = {1994}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Traccoli, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Anderson, R. and Birngruber, R.: Selektiver Gefässverschluss durch repetierende kurze Laserpulse. Ophthalmologe, no. 91, pp. 274-9, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider1994,
       author = {Roider, J. and Traccoli, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Anderson, R. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Selektiver Gefässverschluss durch repetierende kurze Laserpulse},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {91},
       number = {3},
       pages = {274-9},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The occlusion of arterioles and venules (30 microns in diameter) by means of repeated dye laser pulses (577 nm, 160 microseconds, 0.5 Hz) was studied in the hamster cheek pouch model. Microscopically visible changes during and after irradiation were recorded and monitored by a video system. The energy necessary per pulse for vessel occlusion with a single pulse (arterioles 5 J/cm2, venules 3.5 J/cm2) can be lowered more than 50% with 100 pulses (1.8 J/cm2, 1.2 J/cm2). Rupture of vessels, which regularly occurs with a single pulse, can be totally avoided with 100 repetitive laser pulses. Investigations of the temperature dependence of the occlusion rate of arterioles showed different interaction mechanisms with one pulse and 100 pulses (mechanical and thermal respectively). Light and electron microscopic investigations supported this concept of selective occlusion using repeated short laser pulses. Possible clinical applications are portwine stains of the eyelid, neovascularisation on the cornea and subretinal neovascularisation.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Arterioles/pathology
    Cheek/blood supply
    Cricetinae
    *Disease Models, Animal
    Light Coagulation/*instrumentation
    Microscopy, Electron
    Retinal Neovascularization/pathology/*surgery
    Venules/pathology
    Video Recording/*instrumentation},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8086741},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Inderfurth, J. H. C. and Ferguson, R. D. and Puliafito, C. A. and Frish, M. B. and Birngruber, R.: Reflectance Monitoring during Retinal Photocoagulation in Humans - Steps toward the Development of an Automated Feedback-Controlled Photocoagulator. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 35, pp. 1374-1374, 1994
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Inderfurth1994,
       author = {Inderfurth, J. H. C. and Ferguson, R. D. and Puliafito, C. A. and Frish, M. B. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Reflectance Monitoring during Retinal Photocoagulation in Humans - Steps toward the Development of an Automated Feedback-Controlled Photocoagulator},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {35},
       number = {4},
       pages = {1374-1374},
       note = {Mz585
    Times Cited:1
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1994MZ58500560},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Ludwig, K. and Busch, L. C. and Jungnickel, K. and Vogel, A.: Präparation critical-point-getrockneter Mausembryonen mit einem Laserskalpell. Ann Anat, no. 176, pp. 559 - 563, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Ludwig,
       author = {Ludwig, K. and Busch, L. C. and Jungnickel, K. and Vogel, A.},
       title = {Präparation critical-point-getrockneter Mausembryonen mit einem Laserskalpell},
       journal = {Ann Anat},
       volume = {176},
       pages = {559 - 563},
       year = {1994}
    }
    
  • Schmidt Erfurth, U. and Bauman, W. and Gragoudas, E. and Flotte, T. J. and Michaud, N. A. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.: Photodynamic Therapy of Experimental Choroidal Melanoma Using Lipoprotein-Delivered Benzoporphyrin. Ophthalmology, no. 101, pp. 89-99, 1994
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt-'Erfurth1994,
       author = {Schmidt Erfurth, U. and Bauman, W. and Gragoudas, E. and Flotte, T. J. and Michaud, N. A. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.},
       title = {Photodynamic Therapy of Experimental Choroidal Melanoma Using Lipoprotein-Delivered Benzoporphyrin},
       journal = {Ophthalmology},
       volume = {101},
       number = {1},
       pages = {89-99},
       note = {Mv308
    Times Cited:81
    Cited References Count:32},
       abstract = {Background: Benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid (BPD) is a new photosensitizer currently undergoing clinical trial for cutaneous malignancies. Compared with the clinically most frequently used sensitizer, Photofrin, BPD may offer higher tumor phototoxicity, better tissue penetration, and absence of significant skin sensitization. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) carriers heighten efficiency and selectivity of BPD because neovascular and tumor cells express an increased number of LBL receptors. Hence, in addition to the vaso-occlusive effects similar to most other photosensitizers, LDL-BPD also has been shown to cause direct tumor cell damage.
    Methods: Benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid was complexed with human LDL and used in photodynamic treatment of choroidal melanomas experimentally induced in eight albino rabbits. Five rabbits served as controls. Three hours after intravenous injection of 2 mg/kg body weight of LDL-BPD, eight tumors were irradiated at 692 nm and 100 J/cm(2) via an argon-pumped dye laser coupled into a slit lamp.
    Results: Angiography and histologic findings showed immediate photothrombosis after disintegration of endothelial membranes. After complete necrosis of tumor cells within 24 hours, a small fibrotic scar slowly developed. No tumor regrowth was noted up to 6 weeks when animals were killed.
    Conclusion: These data suggest that photodynamic treatment with LDL-BPD may be a promising modality for multiple clinical applications, including tumors and neovascularizations II.},
       keywords = {hematoporphyrin photoradiation therapy
    malignant-melanoma
    intraocular tumors
    cells
    photoimmunotherapy
    oxygen
    cancer
    invivo
    agent},
       ISSN = {0161-6420},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1994MV30800018},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Busch, S. and Jungnickel, K. and Birngruber, R.: Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses. Lasers Surg Med, no. 15, pp. 32-43, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Busch, S. and Jungnickel, K. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses},
       journal = {Lasers Surg Med},
       volume = {15},
       number = {1},
       pages = {32-43},
       note = {0196-8092 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {Nd:YAG laser photodisruption with nanosecond (ns) pulses is an established method for intraocular surgery. In order to assess whether an increased precision can be achieved by the use of picosecond (ps) pulses, the plasma size, the shock wave characteristics, and the cavitation bubble expansion after optical breakdown with ps- and ns-laser pulses were investigated by time-resolved photography and acoustic measurements. Nd:YAG laser pulses with a duration of 30 ps and 6 ns, respectively, were focused into a water-filled glass cuvette. Frequency doubled light from the same laser pulses was optically delayed between 2 ns and 136 ns and used as illumination light source for photography. Since the individual events were well reproducible, the shock wave and bubble wall position could be determined as a function of time. From the slope of these r(t) curves, the shock wave and bubble wall velocities were determined, and the shock wave pressure was calculated from the shock velocity. The plasma size at various laser pulse energies was measured from photographs of the plasma radiation. The breakdown thresholds at 30 ps and 6 ns pulse duration were found to be 15 microJ and 200 microJ, respectively. At threshold, ps-plasmas are shorter than ns-plasmas, but at the same pulse energy they are always approximately 2.5 times longer. The initial shock pressures were 17 kbar after ps-pulses with an energy of 50 microJ, and 21 kbar after 1 mJ ns-pulses. The pressure amplitude decayed much faster after the ps-pulses. The maximum expansion velocity of the cavitation bubble was 350 m/s after a 50 microJ ps-pulse, but 1,600 m/s after a 1 mJ ns-pulse. The side effects of intraocular microsurgery associated with shock wave emission and cavitation bubble expansion can be considerably reduced by the use of ps-pulses, and new applications of photodisruption may become possible.},
       keywords = {Eye/*radiation effects
    Humans
    *Laser Surgery/methods
    Models, Structural
    Physics},
       year = {1994}
    }
    
  • Hettlich, H. J. and Lucke, K. and Asiyo-Vogel, M. N. and Schulte, M. and Vogel, Alfred: Lens refilling and endocapsular polymerization of an injectable intraocular lens: in vitro and in vivo study of potential risks and benefits. J Cataract Refract Surg, no. 20, pp. 115-23, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Hettlich1994,
       author = {Hettlich, H. J. and Lucke, K. and Asiyo-Vogel, M. N. and Schulte, M. and Vogel, Alfred},
       title = {Lens refilling and endocapsular polymerization of an injectable intraocular lens: in vitro and in vivo study of potential risks and benefits},
       journal = {J Cataract Refract Surg},
       volume = {20},
       number = {2},
       pages = {115-23},
       note = {Using Smart Source Parsing
    Mar},
       abstract = {Endocapsular cataract removal and injection of a liquid artificial lens has several advantages, including restitution of accommodation, small corneoscleral incision, a more physiological position of the intraocular lens, and a reduced rate of secondary opacification. Our technique consists of bimanual phacofragmentation followed by injection of a fluid monomeric material that can be polymerized inside the capsular bag by short light exposure. Our study assessed the potential risks of the technique (e.g., heat damage to ocular tissue, light damage to the retina) and investigated the technique in vivo. We performed in vitro experiments on porcine cadaver eyes and an in vivo study on 15 rabbits. After a clinical follow-up of at least 12 weeks, the eyes were investigated histopathologically. During the polymerization process, the highest temperature measured at the posterior lens capsule was 45.1 degrees Celsius for a few seconds. The measured irradiance (0.065 watts per cm2) and the risk of photochemical damage to the retina during 20 seconds of polymerization were comparable to that caused by 1.5 minutes of standard coaxial illumination with the operating microscope. In vivo there were no serious inflammatory reactions except in four cases in which there had been intraoperative problems. The rate of secondary opacification appeared less than in conventional intraocular lens implantation in rabbits, especially when the capsule refilled completely. Retinal damage could not be detected histopathologically. In conclusion, refilling techniques may be successful once appropriate refilling materials become available.},
       ISSN = {0886-3350 (Print)
    0886-3350 (Linking)},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Wetzel, W. and Haring, G. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R.: Laser sclerostomy ab externo using the erbium: YAG laser. First results of a clinical study. Ger J Ophthalmol, no. 3, pp. 112-5, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Wetzel1994,
       author = {Wetzel, W. and Haring, G. and Brinkmann, R. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser sclerostomy ab externo using the erbium: YAG laser. First results of a clinical study},
       journal = {Ger J Ophthalmol},
       volume = {3},
       number = {2},
       pages = {112-5},
       note = {0941-2921 (Print)
    Clinical Trial
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {A new approach to fistulating glaucoma surgery, laser sclerostomy ab externo, was investigated in a clinical study. A pulsed (200 microseconds) erbium-YAG laser was used, as its wavelength (2940 nm) is very well absorbed by tissue water. The laser energy was transmitted via a fiber to an application probe with a cannula particularly designed to guide another fiber into the subconjunctival space. Nine patients with advanced open-angle or neovascular glaucoma were treated. In all cases a functioning fistula with a prominent filtering bleb and a reduction of the intraocular pressure (from up to 50 mmHg to 8-18 mmHg) could be achieved. The total energy was 60 mJ on average. No complication occurred intraoperatively. Postoperatively, all fistulas in patients with neovascular glaucoma (n = 6) were impatent after approx. 7 days due to iris adherence to the internal ostium and episcleral scarring. In cases of open-angle glaucoma (n = 3) a patent fistula persisted for several months. Variation of the exposure parameters, the use of antiproliferative drugs, and a less restrictive selection of patients could further improve the success rate.},
       keywords = {Fiber Optics
    Follow-Up Studies
    Glaucoma, Neovascular/*surgery
    Glaucoma, Open-Angle/*surgery
    Humans
    Intraocular Pressure
    Laser Surgery/*methods
    Postoperative Complications
    Prognosis
    *Sclerostomy},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8193571},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Brinkmann, R. and Dröge, G. and Koop, N. and Wördemann, A. and Schirner, G. and Birngruber, R.: Investigations on laser thermokeratoplasty. Lasers Light Ophthalmol, no. 6, pp. 259 - 270, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Binkmann1994,
       author = {Brinkmann, R. and Dröge, G. and Koop, N. and Wördemann, A. and Schirner, G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Investigations on laser thermokeratoplasty},
       journal = {Lasers Light Ophthalmol},
       volume = {6},
       number = {4},
       pages = {259 - 270},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Asiyovogel, M. and Birngruber, R.: Investigations on Intrastromal Refractive Surgery with Picosecond Nd-Yag Laser-Pulses. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 35, pp. 2155-2155, 1994
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Vogel1994,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Asiyovogel, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Investigations on Intrastromal Refractive Surgery with Picosecond Nd-Yag Laser-Pulses},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {35},
       number = {4},
       pages = {2155-2155},
       note = {Mz585
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1994MZ58504161},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Capon, M. R. and Asiyo-Vogel, M. N. and Birngruber, R.: Intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses: tissue effects in cornea, lens, and retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, no. 35, pp. 3032-44, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Capon, M. R. and Asiyo-Vogel, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses: tissue effects in cornea, lens, and retina},
       journal = {Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci},
       volume = {35},
       number = {7},
       pages = {3032-44},
       note = {0146-0404 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {PURPOSE. Nd:YAG laser photodisruption with nanosecond (ns) pulses in the millijoule range is an established tool for intraocular surgery. This study investigates tissue effects in cornea, lens, and retina to assess whether picosecond (ps) pulses with energies in the microjoule range can increase the surgical precision, reduce collateral damage, and allow applications requiring more localized tissue effects than can be achieved with ns pulses. METHODS. Both ps and ns Nd:YAG laser effects on Descemet's membrane, in the corneal stroma, in the lens, and at the retina were investigated in vitro in bovine and sheep eyes and in cataractous human lens nuclei. For each tissue, the optical breakdown threshold was determined. The morphology of the tissue effects and the damage range of the laser pulses were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The cavitation bubble dynamics during the formation of corneal intrastromal laser effects were documented by time-resolved photography. RESULTS. The optical breakdown threshold for ps pulses in clear cornea, lens, and vitreous is, on average, 12 times lower than that for ns pulses. In cataractous lens nuclei, it is lower by a factor of 7. Using ps pulses, Descemet's membrane could be dissected with fewer disruptive side effects than with ns pulses, whereby the damage range decreased by a factor of 3. The range for retinal damage was only 0.5 mm when 200 microJ ps pulses were focused into the vitreous. Picosecond pulses could be used for corneal intrastromal tissue evaporation without damaging the corneal epithelium or endothelium, when the pulses were applied in the anterior part of the stroma. The range for endothelial damage was 150 microns at 80 microJ pulse energy. Intrastromal corneal refractive surgery is compromised by the laser-induced cavitation effects. Tissue displacement during bubble expansion is more pronounced than tissue evaporation, and irregular bubble formation creates difficulties in producing predictable refractive changes. CONCLUSIONS. The use of ps pulses improves the precision of intraocular Nd:YAG laser surgery and diminishes unwanted disruptive side effects, thereby widening the field of potential applications. Promising fields for further studies are intrastromal corneal refractive surgery, cataract fragmentation, membrane cutting, and vitreolysis close to the retina.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Cattle
    Cornea/injuries/surgery/*ultrastructure
    Laser Surgery/adverse effects/instrumentation/*methods
    Lens, Crystalline/injuries/surgery/*ultrastructure
    Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
    Retina/injuries/surgery/*ultrastructure
    Sheep},
       year = {1994}
    }
    
  • Lin, C. P. and Weaver, Y. K. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Puliafito, C. A.: Intraocular microsurgery with a picosecond Nd:YAG laser. Lasers Surg Med, no. 15, pp. 44-53, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Lin1994,
       author = {Lin, C. P. and Weaver, Y. K. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Puliafito, C. A.},
       title = {Intraocular microsurgery with a picosecond Nd:YAG laser},
       journal = {Lasers Surg Med},
       volume = {15},
       number = {1},
       pages = {44-53},
       note = {0196-8092 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.},
       abstract = {We investigated the use of picosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses for intraocular microsurgery. With a pulse duration of 100 picoseconds, only 70 microJ of pulse energy is required to consistently produce optical breakdown in the deep vitreous. This pulse energy is nearly two orders of magnitude less than the typical pulse energies used in conventional (nanosecond) photodisruptors. The reduced pulse energy results in a smaller zone of tissue damage, an important consideration when operating close to the retina or other sensitive ocular structures. Efficient cutting action is achieved by applying multiple pulses at a moderately high repetition rate of 50-200 Hz. An in vitro model was developed to assess axial confinement of picosecond photodisruption. In vivo vitreous membrane surgery was performed in experimental rabbit eyes to demonstrate a potential clinical application of picosecond laser-induced optical breakdown.},
       keywords = {3T3 Cells
    Animals
    Cell Membrane
    Cells, Cultured
    Disease Models, Animal
    Eye Diseases/pathology/surgery
    Laser Surgery/instrumentation/*methods
    Mice
    Microsurgery/instrumentation/*methods
    Rabbits
    Vitreous Body/pathology/*surgery},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7997047},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Jungnickel, Kerstin and Vogel, Alfred: Interaction of two laser-induced cavitation bubbles. in Bubble Dynamics and Interface Phenomena, no. 23, pp. 47-53, Springer Netherlands, 1994
    BibTeX Link
    @inbook{Jungnickel1994,
       author = {Jungnickel, Kerstin and Vogel, Alfred},
       title = {Interaction of two laser-induced cavitation bubbles},
       booktitle = {Bubble Dynamics and Interface Phenomena},
       editor = {Blake, J. R. and Boulton-Stone, J. M. and Thomas, N. H.},
       series = {Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications},
       publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
       volume = {23},
       chapter = {4},
       pages = {47-53},
       ISBN = {978-94-010-4404-2},
       DOI = {10.1007/978-94-011-0938-3_4},
       url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-0938-3_4},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Book Section}
    }
    
  • Hee, M. R. and Izatt, J. A. and Swanson, E. A. and Huang, D. and Lin, C. P. and Schuman, J. S. and Puliafito, C. A. and Inderfurth, J. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G.: In-Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 35, pp. 2078-2078, 1994
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Hee1994,
       author = {Hee, M. R. and Izatt, J. A. and Swanson, E. A. and Huang, D. and Lin, C. P. and Schuman, J. S. and Puliafito, C. A. and Inderfurth, J. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G.},
       title = {In-Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {35},
       number = {4},
       pages = {2078-2078},
       note = {Mz585
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1994MZ58503806},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Inderfurth, J. H. and Ferguson, R. D. and Frish, M. B. and Birngruber, R.: Dynamic reflectometer for control of laser photocoagulation on the retina. Lasers Surg Med, no. 15, pp. 54-61, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Inderfurth1994,
       author = {Inderfurth, J. H. and Ferguson, R. D. and Frish, M. B. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Dynamic reflectometer for control of laser photocoagulation on the retina},
       journal = {Lasers Surg Med},
       volume = {15},
       number = {1},
       pages = {54-61},
       note = {0196-8092 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.},
       abstract = {In retinal laser photocoagulation, constant exposure parameters do not result in identical lesions. This lack of reproducibility increases the rate of complications from over- or undertreatment and inhibits determination of the optimal treatment endpoints for different retinal disorders. To this end, a feedback-controlled photocoagulator could make retinal photocoagulation a safer, more reproducible, and faster procedure. A dynamic confocal reflectometer was integrated into a slit lamp laser delivery system. Real-time reflectance changes on the retinas of pigmented rabbits were obtained by monitoring the increasing back-scattered light of the coagulating beam during argon laser photocoagulation. Reproducible temporal reflectance patterns were measured that correlated with ophthalmoscopically assessed lesion intensity independent of the exposure parameters, the transparency of the optical media, and the focusing conditions. As a step toward the development of a feedback-controlled photocoagulator, the confocal reflectometer has been proven in animal trials closely resembling clinical practice.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Laser Coagulation/*instrumentation/methods
    Rabbits
    Retina/*surgery},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7997048},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Reichle, A. and Diddens, H. and Altmayr, F. and Rastetter, J. and Andreesen, R.: Chemomodulation of drugs involved in multiple resistance in chronic lymphatic leukemia of the B-cell type. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol., no. 34, pp. 307-16, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Reichle,
       author = {Reichle, A. and Diddens, H. and Altmayr, F. and Rastetter, J. and Andreesen, R.},
       title = {Chemomodulation of drugs involved in multiple resistance in chronic lymphatic leukemia of the B-cell type},
       journal = {Cancer Chemother Pharmacol.
    },
       volume = {34},
       number = {4},
       pages = {307-16},
       year = {1994}
    }
    
  • Schmidt Erfurth, U. and Diddens, H. and Bamberg, M. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.: Carrier-Mediated Targeting in Photodynamic Therapy of Retinoblastoma Cells. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 35, pp. 2119-2119, 1994
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1994,
       author = {Schmidt Erfurth, U. and Diddens, H. and Bamberg, M. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.},
       title = {Carrier-Mediated Targeting in Photodynamic Therapy of Retinoblastoma Cells},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {35},
       number = {4},
       pages = {2119-2119},
       note = {Mz585
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1994MZ58504004},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Schiller, M. and el Hifnawi, E. S. and Birngruber, R.: [Retinal photocoagulation with a pulsed, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm)]. Ophthalmologe, no. 91, pp. 777-82, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider1994,
       author = {Roider, J. and Schiller, M. and el Hifnawi, E. S. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[Retinal photocoagulation with a pulsed, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm)]},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {91},
       number = {6},
       pages = {777-82},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    Comparative Study
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The small difference in wavelength between an argon laser (514 nm) and a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), together with the advantage of the solid-state technology, makes the Nd:YAG laser likely to play a major role in retinal photocoagulation in the near future. For technical reasons all frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers work in a quasi-continuous mode, emitting a burst of highly repetitive short laser pulses during the exposure time desired. We investigated the side effects due to high peak irradiances of those short laser pulse trains (Crystal Focus Nd:YAG laser, Emerald; pulse duration 1-10 microseconds, repetition rate 13 KHz) in rabbits in comparison with a standard argon laser system (Zeiss, Visulas, Argon II). The energy necessary for blanching the retina was similar in both cases. As opposed to the argon laser system, subretinal bubbles were regularly visible ophthalmoscopically with the Nd:YAG system, when average powers as high as 200 mW were used. The ED50 power for bubble formation is about 2-3 times above the ED50 power for blanching. Thermal calculations show that this bubble formation effect is likely to be related to the peak power of the short pulses. The hemorrhage threshold is similar in both systems. However, light microscopically there is no difference between the two laser systems. Panretinal photocoagulation (300-500 microns, 100-200 ms) in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy produced such bubbles about once per 1000 lesions.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology/surgery
    Equipment Design
    Humans
    Laser Coagulation/*instrumentation
    Light Coagulation/*instrumentation
    Microscopy, Electron
    Ophthalmoscopy
    Rabbits
    Retina/injuries/pathology/*surgery
    Retinal Hemorrhage/pathology
    Vitreoretinopathy, Proliferative/pathology/surgery},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7849431},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, Alfred and Asiyo-Vogel, M. and Birngruber, R.: [Intrastromal refractive corneal surgery with pico-second Nd:YAG laser pulses]. Ophthalmologe, no. 91, pp. 655-62, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel1994,
       author = {Vogel, Alfred and Asiyo-Vogel, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[Intrastromal refractive corneal surgery with pico-second Nd:YAG laser pulses]},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {91},
       number = {5},
       pages = {655-62},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
       abstract = {Intrastromal laser surgery with picosecond pulses aims to achieve refractive changes of the cornea without damaging the epithelium, Bowman's membrane, or the endothelium. For that, a tissue layer with well-defined thickness has to be evaporated by creating laser plasmas within the corneal stroma. We investigated the plasma formation and the plasma-induced shock wave emission and bubble generation (cavitation) in the cornea, as well as the tissue effects and the range for endothelial damage. The laser light source used was an Nd:YAG laser emitting pulses with a duration of 30 ps at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. Intrastromal plasma formation and cavitation were investigated in sheep eyes in vitro by means of time-resolved macro-photography with 20 ns exposure time. Photographs were taken at various delay times (3 microseconds-2 min) after the release of the Nd:YAG laser pulse. The morphology of the laser effects and the incidence of endothelial damage was investigated by light-microscopic inspection of histological cross sections of the irradiated corneas. The minimal plasma size at energies close to the breakdown threshold was about 40 microns. Using a laser effects could be created without causing microscopically detectable damage to the epithelium, endothelium, or Bowman's membrane. To avoid damage, the distance between endothelium and laser focus had to be larger than 150 microns. Shock wave-induced tissue damage was not observed, although the maximum shock wave pressure was up to 13 kbar. The laser-generated intrastromal cavities are at least 10 times larger than the plasma volume.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)},
       keywords = {Animals
    Corneal Stroma/pathology/*surgery
    Endothelium, Corneal/pathology
    Epithelium/pathology
    Equipment Design
    Laser Surgery/*instrumentation
    *Refraction, Ocular
    Sheep
    Surface Properties},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7812100},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schirner, G. and Huber, A. and Wordemann, A. and Droge, G. and el-Hifnawi, E. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.: [Experimental studies on the effect of the Er:glass and Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser in thermokeratoplasty]. Ophthalmologe, no. 91, pp. 638-45, 1994
    BibTeX
    @article{Schirner1994,
       author = {Schirner, G. and Huber, A. and Wordemann, A. and Droge, G. and el-Hifnawi, E. and Birngruber, R. and Brinkmann, R.},
       title = {[Experimental studies on the effect of the Er:glass and Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser in thermokeratoplasty]},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {91},
       number = {5},
       pages = {638-45},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {So far the dose-effect ratio of the Holmium laser (wavelength 2.12 microns) and the erbium laser (1.54 microns) for laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK) are not defined in detail. Our study was designed not only to compare the erbium contact and the holmium non-contact applications but also to throw light on the influence of different geometrical application patterns, pulse energies, pulses per coagulation site and repetition rates under experimental conditions. Enucleated sheep and pig eyes were used 2-6 h post mortem, pressurized to 25 mmHg and moisturized with saline solution. Before and after LTK, pachymetry and keratometry were performed. Some specimens were prepared for light and scanning microscopy. The coagulation threshold for the erbium laser in a contact mode with a 200-microns fibre was 25 J/cm2 (ca. 8 mJ/pulse) and for the holmium laser 8 J/cm2 (ca. 2.5 mJ/pulse). The erbium laser was used in a single shot per spot mode, the holmium laser in repeated pulse per spot mode. With the single shot per spot mode, we were able to induce a promising hyperopic shift of up to -3.47 +/- 0.61 D, while myopic changes could only be induced up to +1.89 +/- 0.74 D. Higher changes of up to +8.27 +/- 1.3 D could be achieved by means of repeated pulses per spot (20 pulses, 45 mJ, 10 Hz). Our experiments showed an obvious increase of dioptric changes when using a higher repetition rate while pulse energy and number were kept constant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)},
       keywords = {Animals
    Cornea/pathology
    Corneal Transplantation/*instrumentation/pathology
    Laser Coagulation/*instrumentation
    Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
    Myopia/pathology/surgery
    Refraction, Ocular
    Sheep
    Swine},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7812097},
       year = {1994},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1993

  • Pan, Y. and Du, C.W. and Liu, X.D. and Li, Z.G. and Birngruber, R.: Wavelength dependence of the faraday effect and magneto-birefringence in ferrofluid thin films.. J Appl Phys, no. 73, pp. 6139-6141, 1993
    BibTeX
    @article{Pan1993,
       author = {Pan, Y. and Du, C.W. and Liu, X.D. and Li, Z.G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Wavelength dependence of the faraday effect and magneto-birefringence in ferrofluid thin films.},
       journal = {J Appl Phys},
       volume = {73},
       number = {10},
       pages = {6139-6141},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Obana, A. and Lorenz, B. and Birngruber, R.: Transscleral and indirect ophthalmoscope diode laser retinal photocoagulation: experimental quantification of the therapeutic range for their application in the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, no. 231, pp. 378-83, 1993
    BibTeX
    @article{Obana1993,
       author = {Obana, A. and Lorenz, B. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Transscleral and indirect ophthalmoscope diode laser retinal photocoagulation: experimental quantification of the therapeutic range for their application in the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity},
       journal = {Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol},
       volume = {231},
       number = {7},
       pages = {378-83},
       note = {0721-832X (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {Laser indirect ophthalmoscope (LIO) photocoagulation and transscleral photocoagulation through the conjunctiva and subconjunctiva were performed in the fundus of chinchilla gray rabbits using various exposure times and powers, and the thresholds for retinal blanching and choroidal hemorrhage were determined. The therapeutic range was described for both applications as the ratio between energy values to produce grayish white lesions and hemorrhage at 50% probability. The therapeutic range appeared to remain almost constant with different exposure times. The mean ratio with LIO was 3.2 +/- 0.28, similar to that with slit-lamp delivery reported in our previous study. The mean ratio with transscleral photocoagulation through the conjunctiva and subconjunctiva were 2.48 +/- 0.28 and 2.38 +/- 0.26, respectively. The variability of LIO appeared to be a little lower than with transscleral photocoagulation. There was no significant difference between the variability with transscleral photocoagulation through the conjunctiva and subconjunctiva.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Choroid Hemorrhage/etiology/pathology
    Fundus Oculi
    Humans
    Infant, Newborn
    Laser Coagulation/adverse effects/*methods
    Ophthalmoscopy
    Rabbits
    Retina/*surgery
    Retinal Diseases/etiology/pathology
    Retinopathy of Prematurity/*surgery
    Semiconductors},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8406062},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Obana, A. and Lorenz, B. and Gässler, A. and Birngruber, R.: The risk of choroidal hemorrhage with diode laser photocoagulation. Jpn J Ophthalmic Surg, no. 6, pp. 285-290, 1993
    BibTeX
    @article{Obana1993,
       author = {Obana, A. and Lorenz, B. and Gässler, A. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {The risk of choroidal hemorrhage with diode laser photocoagulation},
       journal = {Jpn J Ophthalmic Surg},
       volume = {6},
       number = {2},
       pages = {285-290},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.: Selective Rpe Photocoagulation by 1 Usec Laser-Pulses. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 34, pp. 960-960, 1993
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roider1993,
       author = {Roider, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Selective Rpe Photocoagulation by 1 Usec Laser-Pulses},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {34},
       number = {4},
       pages = {960-960},
       note = {Kt893
    Times Cited:1
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1993KT89301269},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Inderfurth, J. H. C. and Frish, M. B. and Ferguson, R. D. and Birngruber, R.: Research Towards Development of a Dynamic Reflectometer for Control of Laser-Induced Retinal Photocoagulation. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 34, pp. 960-960, 1993
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Inderfurth1993,
       author = {Inderfurth, J. H. C. and Frish, M. B. and Ferguson, R. D. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Research Towards Development of a Dynamic Reflectometer for Control of Laser-Induced Retinal Photocoagulation},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {34},
       number = {4},
       pages = {960-960},
       note = {Kt893
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1993KT89301270},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Chaudhry, H. and Lynch, M. and Schomacker, K. and Birngruber, R. and Gregory, K. and Kochevar, I.: Relaxation of vascular smooth muscle induced by low-power laser radiation. Photochem Photobiol, no. 58, pp. 661-9, 1993
    BibTeX
    @article{Chudhry,
       author = {Chaudhry, H. and Lynch, M. and Schomacker, K. and Birngruber, R. and Gregory, K. and Kochevar, I.},
       title = {Relaxation of vascular smooth muscle induced by low-power laser radiation},
       journal = {Photochem Photobiol},
       volume = {58},
       number = {5},
       pages = {661-9},
       note = {0031-8655 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The relaxation of rabbit aorta rings induced by low-power laser radiation was investigated in vitro to determine the location of the chromophore(s) responsible for this response and evaluate possible mechanisms. An action spectrum for relaxation was measured on rabbit thoracic aorta rings precontracted with norepinephrine. The decrease in isometric tension was measured during exposure to laser light (351-625 nm) delivered via a fiber optic to a small spot on the adventitial surface. The shortest UV wavelength (351 nm) was 35-fold more effective than 390 nm and 1700-fold more effective than 460 nm. Ultraviolet wavelengths also produced greater maximum relaxation (0.40-0.45) than visible wavelengths (0.20-0.25), suggesting that photovasorelaxation involves more than one chromophore. The adventitial layer was not necessary for photovasorelaxation, indicating that the light is absorbed by a chromophore in the medial layer. The same degree of relaxation was obtained on rings without adventitia when either one-half of the ring, or a small spot was irradiated indicating that communication between smooth muscle cells spreads a signal from the area illuminated to the entire ring. The mechanism for photovasorelaxation was investigated using potential inhibitors. N-monomethyl-L-arginine and N-amino-L-arginine, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, did not alter photovasorelaxation nor did indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, and zinc protoporphyrin, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Aorta/*radiation effects
    Arginine/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology
    Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
    Indomethacin/pharmacology
    Light
    Models, Chemical
    Muscle Relaxation/drug effects/*physiology
    Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/*radiation effects
    NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester
    Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors
    Protoporphyrins/pharmacology
    Rabbits
    Ultraviolet Rays
    Vasodilation/drug effects/*physiology
    omega-N-Methylarginine},
       year = {1993}
    }
    
  • Schmidterfurth, U. and Jacobs, D. and Flotte, T. J. and Gragoudas, E. and Hasan, T. and Birngruber, R.: Photothrombosis of Ocular Neovascularization Using Benzoporphyrin Derivative (Bpd). Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 34, pp. 1303-1303, 1993
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt-Erfurth1993,
       author = {Schmidterfurth, U. and Jacobs, D. and Flotte, T. J. and Gragoudas, E. and Hasan, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Photothrombosis of Ocular Neovascularization Using Benzoporphyrin Derivative (Bpd)},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {34},
       number = {4},
       pages = {1303-1303},
       note = {Kt893
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1993KT89302954},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Pan, Y. and Du, C.W. and Liu, X.D. and Li, Z.G. and Birngruber, R.: Monte-carlo simulation of magneto-birefringence in magnetic fluids. J Appl Phys, no. 73, pp. 6142-6144, 1993
    BibTeX
    @article{Pan1993,
       author = {Pan, Y. and Du, C.W. and Liu, X.D. and Li, Z.G. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Monte-carlo simulation of magneto-birefringence in magnetic fluids},
       journal = {J Appl Phys},
       volume = {73},
       number = {10},
       pages = {6142-6144},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Hillenkamp, F. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.: Microphotocoagulation: selective effects of repetitive short laser pulses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, no. 90, pp. 8643-7, 1993
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider,
       author = {Roider, J. and Hillenkamp, F. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Microphotocoagulation: selective effects of repetitive short laser pulses},
       journal = {Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A},
       volume = {90},
       number = {18},
       pages = {8643-7},
       note = {0027-8424 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.},
       abstract = {Repetitive exposure to short laser pulses is shown to cause selective damage to absorbing structures (cells, organelles, or enzymes) with pulse energies below the threshold energy for single-pulse damage. Directly adjacent structures are spared in vivo. Additivity of (presumably nonphotochemical) subthreshold effects is demonstrated. Selective damage to the retinal pigment epithelium with sparing of the neural retina is shown (514 nm, 5 microseconds, 1-500 pulses at 500 Hz, 2- to 10-microJ pulse energy). A melanin granule model has been developed and applied to the experimental situation. Histological results as well as the basic mechanism for these effects are discussed.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Fluorescein Angiography
    Lasers
    Light Coagulation/adverse effects/*methods
    Microscopy, Electron
    Microsurgery/adverse effects/methods
    Probability
    Rabbits
    Retina/pathology/*radiation effects/ultrastructure
    Time Factors},
       year = {1993}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.: Histologie von Netzhautläsionen nach kontinuierlicher Bestrahlung und nach selektiver Mikrokoagulation des retinalen Pigmentepithels. Ophthalmologe, no. 90, pp. 274-8, 1993
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roider1993,
       author = {Roider, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Histologie von Netzhautläsionen nach kontinuierlicher Bestrahlung und nach selektiver Mikrokoagulation des retinalen Pigmentepithels},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {90},
       number = {3},
       pages = {274-8},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {Mild continuous wave (CW) irradiation (100 ms, 20 mW, 514 nm) and irradiation with 100 repetitive 5 microseconds laser pulses (3 or 6 microJ, 514 nm) at a repetition rate of 500 Hz was performed to the regio macularis of chinchilla rabbits. The angiographically visible lesions were histologically followed up to 4 weeks. With both irradiation modalities the original retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was replaced by a monolayer of new RPE cells. Only minimal immediate and no subsequent damage to the photoreceptors was found after selective RPE photocoagulation. Only minimal inflammatory response was found after selective RPE photocoagulation in contrast to CW photocoagulation where macrophages, RPE cells and lymphocytes regularly appear in the damaged photoreceptor layer.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Laser Coagulation/*instrumentation
    Light Coagulation/*instrumentation
    Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
    Microsurgery/*instrumentation
    Photoreceptors/injuries/pathology
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/pathology/*surgery
    Rabbits
    Regeneration/physiology
    Retina/*injuries/pathology
    Wound Healing/physiology},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8334331},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R.: Augenschäden durch Registrierkassen mit Laserscanner. Dtsch. med. Wschr., no. 118, pp. 51-52, 1993
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1993,
       author = {Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Augenschäden durch Registrierkassen mit Laserscanner},
       journal = {Dtsch. med. Wschr.},
       volume = {118},
       pages = {51-52},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R. and Hefetz, Y. and Roider, J. and Schmidt, U. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Puliafito, C. A. and Vogel, Alfred: [Spatial confinement of intraocular picoseconds-photodisruption effects]. Ophthalmologe, no. 90, pp. 387-90, 1993
    BibTeX
    @article{Birngruber1993,
       author = {Birngruber, R. and Hefetz, Y. and Roider, J. and Schmidt, U. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Puliafito, C. A. and Vogel, Alfred},
       title = {[Spatial confinement of intraocular picoseconds-photodisruption effects]},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {90},
       number = {4},
       pages = {387-90},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {Laser photodisruption is a routinely performed clinical procedure in intraocular microsurgery of post-cataract membranes, anterior synechies and iridectomies. Damage ranges of several millimeters in diameter, however, limit the use of nanosecond photodisruption close to delicate structures, e.g., in the posterior vitreous. Multiple ps-laser pulses of about 100 microJ pulse energy were used to produce disruptive effects in the anterior lens capsule in rabbit eyes in vivo. Ophthalmoscopical and morphological investigations of these effects were compared with those of minimal ns-disruptions. The direct tissue separation effects as well as the collateral damage zones are about one order of magnitude smaller if ps-laser pulses are used. Minimal sizes of disruptive effects are about 50 microns to 150 microns and 500 microns to 1000 microns for ps- and ns-pulses, respectively. The substantial improvement of spatial confinement of ps-photodisruption enables increased precision of intraocular laser microsurgery and opens up new areas of clinical application in structures like the cornea, anterior chamber angle, and crystalline lens.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Lasers/*adverse effects
    Lens Capsule, Crystalline/*injuries/pathology
    Light Coagulation/*instrumentation
    Microsurgery/instrumentation
    Rabbits},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8374239},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Obana, A. and Matsumoto, M. and Miki, T. and Eckert, K. G. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.: [Quantification of indocyanine-green enhancement of diode laser photocoagulation]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi, no. 97, pp. 581-6, 1993
    BibTeX
    @article{Obana1993,
       author = {Obana, A. and Matsumoto, M. and Miki, T. and Eckert, K. G. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {[Quantification of indocyanine-green enhancement of diode laser photocoagulation]},
       journal = {Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi},
       volume = {97},
       number = {5},
       pages = {581-6},
       note = {0029-0203 (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The enhancement by indocyanine-green (ICG) of diode laser photocoagulation was quantified. Since ICG concentration in blood increases and decreases rapidly after a single injection, it is difficult to quantify the exact enhancing effect of ICG. A steady-state plasma concentration (about 30 micrograms/ml) of ICG was achieved by injection of 2.5 mg/kg of ICG followed by continuous injection of 0.45 micrograms/kg/min of ICG. The threshold energy values to obtain grayish white retinal burn or choriocapillary occlusion were evaluated at this steady concentration of ICG, and compared with the values in the absence of ICG. The use of ICG decreased the energy values 7% for retinal burn and 8% for choriocapillary occlusion. Although the total dosage of ICG during the continuous injection was high, the enhancement of retinal burn and choriocapillary occlusion was small.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Choroid/pathology/surgery
    Indocyanine Green/administration & dosage/pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology
    Infusions, Intravenous
    *Laser Coagulation
    Rabbits
    Retina/pathology/surgery},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8337962},
       year = {1993},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1992

  • Jungnickel, K and Rein, S and Vogel, A: Untersuchungen zur Plasmabildung bei der Nd: YAG-Laserchirurgie: Katarakt. Der Ophthalmologe, no. 89, pp. 283-287, 1992
    BibTeX
    @article{Jungnickel1992,
       author = {Jungnickel, K and Rein, S and Vogel, A},
       title = {Untersuchungen zur Plasmabildung bei der Nd: YAG-Laserchirurgie: Katarakt},
       journal = {Der Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {89},
       number = {4},
       pages = {283-287},
       ISSN = {0941-293X},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Obana, A. and Lorenz, B. and Gässler, A. and Birngruber, R.: The therapeutic range of chorioretinal photocoagulation with diode and argon lasers:an experimental comparison. Lasers Light Ophthalmol, no. 4, pp. 147-156, 1992
    BibTeX
    @article{Obana1992,
       author = {Obana, A. and Lorenz, B. and Gässler, A. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {The therapeutic range of chorioretinal photocoagulation with diode and argon lasers:an experimental comparison},
       journal = {Lasers Light Ophthalmol},
       volume = {4},
       number = {3/4},
       pages = {147-156},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Vogel, A. and Birngruber, R.: The influence of wavelength on the laser power required for retinal photocoagulation in cataractous human eyes.. Lasers Light Ophthalmol, no. 5, pp. 69-78, 1992
    BibTeX
    @article{Schmidt,
       author = {Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Vogel, A. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {The influence of wavelength on the laser power required for retinal photocoagulation in cataractous human eyes.},
       journal = {Lasers Light Ophthalmol},
       volume = {5},
       number = {2},
       pages = {69-78},
       year = {1992}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Birngruber, R.: Temperature profiles in human retina and choroid during laser coagulation with different wavelengths ranging from 514 to 810 nm.. Lasers Light Ophthalmol, no. 5, pp. 9-16, 1992
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Temperature profiles in human retina and choroid during laser coagulation with different wavelengths ranging from 514 to 810 nm.},
       journal = {Lasers Light Ophthalmol},
       volume = {5},
       number = {1},
       pages = {9-16},
       year = {1992}
    }
    
  • Schmidt, U. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.: Selektiver Verschluss okularer Neovaskularisationen durch photodynamische Therapie (PDT). Ophthalmologe, no. 89, pp. 391-4, 1992
    BibTeX
    @article{Schmidt1992,
       author = {Schmidt, U. and Birngruber, R. and Hasan, T.},
       title = {Selektiver Verschluss okularer Neovaskularisationen durch photodynamische Therapie (PDT)},
       journal = {Ophthalmologe},
       volume = {89},
       number = {5},
       pages = {391-4},
       note = {0941-293X (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has successfully been used to induce vascular occlusion via endothelial damage and subsequent thrombosis. To increase the selective of this method for neovascularizations, characteristics in the ultrastructure of the proliferative vessel wall allow physiological vessels to be spared and predominantly neovascularizations to be occluded: (a) Due to the disturbance of the blood-retina barrier, free dye molecules accumulate within the vascular wall. Using a dye with prolonged retention, such as phthalocyanine (CASPc), it is possible to thrombose neovascularizations 24 h post injection while leaving the physiological vasculature of the anterior segment of the rabbit eye unaffected. (b) Proliferating endothelial cells express high numbers of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors. Chlorin e6 (Ce6), a potent photosensitizer, is covalently bound to LDL. Intravascularly, ce6-LDL complexes selectively label neovascular walls. Since ce6-LDL is incorporated intracellular into enzymatically active lysosomes, photothrombosis is effectively achieved at low drug and light doses in vivo. In addition, the induced damage is spatially confined to the inner vascular lining. We conclude that carrier-mediated PDT may offer a new and sensitive approach for selective treatment of intraocular neovascularizations.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Blood-Retinal Barrier/drug effects/physiology
    Cell Division/drug effects/physiology
    Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects/pathology
    *Photochemotherapy
    Rabbits
    Retinal Neovascularization/*drug therapy/pathology},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=1304219},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Michaud, N. A. and Flotte, T. J. and Birngruber, R.: Response of the retinal pigment epithelium to selective photocoagulation. Arch Ophthalmol, no. 110, pp. 1786-92, 1992
    BibTeX
    @article{Roider,
       author = {Roider, J. and Michaud, N. A. and Flotte, T. J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Response of the retinal pigment epithelium to selective photocoagulation},
       journal = {Arch Ophthalmol},
       volume = {110},
       number = {12},
       pages = {1786-92},
       note = {0003-9950 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.},
       abstract = {Multiple short argon laser pulses can coagulate the retinal pigment epithelium selectively, while sparing the adjacent neural retina and choroid; in contrast, continuous-wave laser irradiation typically damages the neural retina and choroid. The healing response to selective photocoagulation of the retinal pigment epithelium was studied in rabbits during a period of 4 weeks. The lesions were never visible ophthalmoscopically. During the healing period, the epithelium was reformed by a single sheet of hypertrophic retinal pigment epithelial cells. In contrast to continuous-wave photocoagulation, only minimal inflammatory response was found. Retinal pigment epithelial cells showed clear signs of viability, eg, phagocytized outer segments. The local edema in the photoreceptor layer and subretinal space found in the early stage disappeared when the blood-retinal barrier was reestablished. The choriocapillaris remained unaffected. No subsequent damage to the photoreceptors was found. This type of photocoagulation may be useful for retinal pigment epithelium-related diseases, eg, diffuse diabetic macular edema.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Biopsy
    Chinchilla
    Fluorescein Angiography
    Fundus Oculi
    Laser Surgery
    *Light Coagulation
    Microscopy, Electron
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/pathology/radiation effects/*surgery
    Statistics
    Time Factors
    Wound Healing},
       year = {1992}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Lorenz, B. and Obana, A. and Vogel, Alfred and Birngruber, R.: Problems of clinical application of diode lasers.. Lasers Light Ophthalmol, no. 4, pp. 157-163, 1992
    BibTeX
    @article{Abel1992,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Lorenz, B. and Obana, A. and Vogel, Alfred and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Problems of clinical application of diode lasers.},
       journal = {Lasers Light Ophthalmol},
       volume = {4},
       number = {3/4},
       pages = {157-163},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schmidt, U. and Bauman, W. and Schomacker, K. and Birngruber, R. and Gragoudas, E. and Hasan, T.: Photosensitizing Potency of Benzoporphyrin Derivative (Bpd) Associated with Human Low-Density-Lipoprotein (Ldl). Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 33, pp. 1253-1253, 1992
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt1992,
       author = {Schmidt, U. and Bauman, W. and Schomacker, K. and Birngruber, R. and Gragoudas, E. and Hasan, T.},
       title = {Photosensitizing Potency of Benzoporphyrin Derivative (Bpd) Associated with Human Low-Density-Lipoprotein (Ldl)},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {33},
       number = {4},
       pages = {1253-1253},
       note = {Hk135
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1992HK13502796},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Ren, Q. and Venugopalan, V. and Schomacker, K. and Deutsch, T. F. and Flotte, T. J. and Puliafito, C. A. and Birngruber, R.: Mid-infrared laser ablation of the cornea: a comparative study. Lasers Surg Med, no. 12, pp. 274-81, 1992
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Ren1992,
       author = {Ren, Q. and Venugopalan, V. and Schomacker, K. and Deutsch, T. F. and Flotte, T. J. and Puliafito, C. A. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Mid-infrared laser ablation of the cornea: a comparative study},
       journal = {Lasers Surg Med},
       volume = {12},
       number = {3},
       pages = {274-81},
       note = {0196-8092 (Print)
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The ablation thresholds and patterns of collateral damage in cornea produced by Er:YAG (2.94 microns) and Er:YSGG (2.79 microns) lasers were measured. Two different pulse durations, 200 microseconds (normal spiking mode) and 100 ns (Q-switched mode), were used at both wavelengths. In the normal spiking mode, damage zones of 16 +/- 2 microns and 39 +/- 7 microns and ablation thresholds of 250 +/- 20 mJ/cm2 and 420 +/- 35 mJ/cm2 were measured at 2.94 microns and 2.79 microns, respectively. In the Q-switched mode, damage zones of 4 +/- 2 microns and ablation thresholds of 150 +/- 10 mJ/cm2 were found irrespective of the laser used. The similarity between the results using the Er:YAG and Er:YSGG lasers in the Q-switched mode suggest that either laser can be used with equal effectiveness for corneal trephination.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Cattle
    Cornea/pathology/*surgery
    *Light Coagulation/*methods},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=1508021},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Troccoli, J. and Anderson, R. R. and Flotte, T. J. and Birngruber, R.: Microvasculature Occlusion by Repetitive Short Laser-Pulses. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 33, pp. 722-722, 1992
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roider1992,
       author = {Roider, J. and Troccoli, J. and Anderson, R. R. and Flotte, T. J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Microvasculature Occlusion by Repetitive Short Laser-Pulses},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {33},
       number = {4},
       pages = {722-722},
       note = {Hk135
    Times Cited:1
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1992HK13500151},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Gekeler, V. and Frese, G. and Noller, A. and Handgretinger, R. and Wilisch, A. and Schmidt, H. and Muller, C. P. and Dopfer, R. and Klingebiel, T. and Diddens, H. and et al.: Mdr1/P-glycoprotein, topoisomerase, and glutathione-S-transferase pi gene expression in primary and relapsed state adult and childhood leukaemias. Br J Cancer, no. 66, pp. 507-17, 1992
    BibTeX
    @article{Gekeler,
       author = {Gekeler, V. and Frese, G. and Noller, A. and Handgretinger, R. and Wilisch, A. and Schmidt, H. and Muller, C. P. and Dopfer, R. and Klingebiel, T. and Diddens, H. and et al.},
       title = {Mdr1/P-glycoprotein, topoisomerase, and glutathione-S-transferase pi gene expression in primary and relapsed state adult and childhood leukaemias},
       journal = {Br J Cancer},
       volume = {66},
       number = {3},
       pages = {507-17},
       note = {Gekeler, V
    Frese, G
    Noller, A
    Handgretinger, R
    Wilisch, A
    Schmidt, H
    Muller, C P
    Dopfer, R
    Klingebiel, T
    Diddens, H
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    England
    Br J Cancer. 1992 Sep;66(3):507-17.},
       abstract = {In a variety of adult and childhood leukaemia cell samples collected at different states of the disease, we analysed in a series of sequentially performed slot-blot or Northern-blot hybridisation experiments the expression of genes possibly involved in multiple drug resistance (MDR) (mdr1/P-glycoprotein, DNA topoisomerase II, glutathione-S-transferase pi), and the expression of the DNA topoisomerase I and histone 3.1 genes. Occasionally, P-glycoprotein gene expression was additionally examined by indirect immunocytofluorescence using the monoclonal antibody C219. No significant difference in mdr1/P-glycoprotein mRNA levels between primary and relapsed state acute lymphocytic leukaemias (ALL) was seen on average. Second or third relapses, however, showed a distinct tendency to an elevated expression of this multidrug transporter gene (up to 10-fold) in part well beyond the value seen in the moderately cross-resistant T-lymphoblastoid CCRF-CEM subline CCRF VCR 100. Increased mdr1/P-glycoprotein mRNA levels were also found in relapsed state acute myelogenous leukaemias (AML), and in chronic lymphocytic leukaemias (CLL) treated with chlorambucil and/or prednisone for several years. Topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II mRNA levels were found to be very variable. Whereas in all but one case of CLL topoisomerase II mRNA was not detected by slot-blot hybridizations, strong topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II gene expression levels, frequently exceeding the levels monitored in the CCRF-CEM cell line, were seen in many cell samples of acute leukaemia. If topoisomerase II mRNA was undetectable, expression of topoisomerase I was clearly visible throughout. These observations might be valuable considering the possible treatment with specific topoisomerase I or topoisomerase II inhibitors. Significant positive correlations were found (i) for topoisomerase I and histone 3.1 gene expression levels in general (P less than 0.001), and (ii) in the CLL samples additionally for the expression levels of the mdr1 gene, and the histone 3.1, topoisomerase I, and glutathione-S-transferase pi genes, respectively.},
       keywords = {Adult
    Child
    DNA Probes
    DNA Topoisomerases, Type I/ genetics
    DNA Topoisomerases, Type II/ genetics
    Drug Resistance/ genetics
    Fluorescent Antibody Technique
    Gene Expression/ genetics
    Glutathione Transferase/ genetics
    Histones/ genetics
    Humans
    Leukemia/drug therapy/ genetics
    Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics
    Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics
    Membrane Glycoproteins/ genetics
    Nucleic Acid Hybridization
    P-Glycoprotein
    Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy/genetics
    RNA, Messenger/ analysis
    RNA, Neoplasm/ analysis
    Tumor Cells, Cultured},
       year = {1992}
    }
    
  • Wetzel, W. and Birngruber, R.: Laser Sclerostomy Abexterno Using the Erbium-Yag Laser and a New Application System. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 33, pp. 1018-1018, 1992
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Wetzel1992,
       author = {Wetzel, W. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser Sclerostomy Abexterno Using the Erbium-Yag Laser and a New Application System},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {33},
       number = {4},
       pages = {1018-1018},
       note = {Hk135
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1992HK13501637},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Weaver, Y. K. and Lin, C. P. and Schuman, S. and Woods, W. J. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Birngruber, R. and Puliafito, C. A.: Experimental Iridotomy with a Picosecond Neodymium-Ag Laser. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 33, pp. 1265-1265, 1992
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Weaver1992,
       author = {Weaver, Y. K. and Lin, C. P. and Schuman, S. and Woods, W. J. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Birngruber, R. and Puliafito, C. A.},
       title = {Experimental Iridotomy with a Picosecond Neodymium-Ag Laser},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {33},
       number = {4},
       pages = {1265-1265},
       note = {Hk135
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1992HK13502854},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Jungnickel, K. and Vogel, A.: Efficiency of bursts in intraocular Nd: YAG laser surgery. Lasers and Light in Ophthalmology, no. 5, pp. 95 - 99, 1992
    BibTeX
    @article{Jungnickel1992,
       author = {Jungnickel, K. and Vogel, A.},
       title = {Efficiency of bursts in intraocular Nd: YAG laser surgery},
       journal = {Lasers and Light in Ophthalmology},
       volume = {5},
       number = {2},
       pages = {95 - 99},
       year = {1992}
    }
    
  • Lin, C. P. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Puliafito, C. A.: Effects of Single and Multiple Picosecond Laser-Pulses on Rpe Cells. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 33, pp. 721-721, 1992
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Lin1992,
       author = {Lin, C. P. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Puliafito, C. A.},
       title = {Effects of Single and Multiple Picosecond Laser-Pulses on Rpe Cells},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {33},
       number = {4},
       pages = {721-721},
       note = {Hk135
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:1},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1992HK13500148},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Obana, A. and Lorenz, B. and Eckert, K. G. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.: Dye-Enhanced Diode-Laser Photocoagulation Using Continuous Injection of Indocyanine Green. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 33, pp. 721-721, 1992
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Obana1992,
       author = {Obana, A. and Lorenz, B. and Eckert, K. G. and Birngruber, R. and Gabel, V. P.},
       title = {Dye-Enhanced Diode-Laser Photocoagulation Using Continuous Injection of Indocyanine Green},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {33},
       number = {4},
       pages = {721-721},
       note = {Hk135
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1992HK13500144},
       year = {1992},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1991

  • Macfarlane, R. and Teramura, A. and Owen, C. J. and Chase, S. and de la Torre, R. and Gregory, K. W. and Peterson, J. W. and Birngruber, R. and Parrish, J. A. and Zervas, N. T.: Treatment of vasospasm with a 480-nm pulsed-dye laser. J Neurosurg, no. 75, pp. 613-22, 1991
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Macfarlane1991,
       author = {Macfarlane, R. and Teramura, A. and Owen, C. J. and Chase, S. and de la Torre, R. and Gregory, K. W. and Peterson, J. W. and Birngruber, R. and Parrish, J. A. and Zervas, N. T.},
       title = {Treatment of vasospasm with a 480-nm pulsed-dye laser},
       journal = {J Neurosurg},
       volume = {75},
       number = {4},
       pages = {613-22},
       note = {0022-3085 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.},
       abstract = {Laser energy at a wavelength of 480 nm was applied in 1-microseconds pulses of 3 to 10 mJ to two models of vasospasm. Rabbit common carotid arteries (CCA's) were constricted chronically by the application of human blood within a silicone sheath. Peak vasospasm developed 24 to 48 hours later, and persisted for up to 6 days. Endovascular laser treatment was delivered to 40 CCA's via a 200-microns diameter silica quartz fiber introduced through the femoral artery. The CCA caliber increased from 60% of the pre-vasospasm control diameter to a minimum post-laser diameter of 83% of control. No instances of laser-induced perforation or of arterial thrombosis were observed for up to 60 days after treatment. Prophylactic laser application to nine normal vessels was able to attenuate the development of vasospasm if blood was applied immediately thereafter (88% vs. 59% of control diameter, p less than 0.02), but not if blood was applied 7 days later. Studies in 16 normal CCA's established that there was a considerable margin between the laser energy required to induce dilatation and that which caused perforation, providing that the fiber remained relatively central within the artery. Morphological examination demonstrated focal loss of endothelial cells immediately after laser application, followed approximately 7 days later by the development of areas of intimal hyperplasia. Only minimal changes were observed in the medial or adventitial layers. In a second study, the basilar artery of seven dogs was constricted chronically by two intracisternal injections of autologous blood 3 days apart. Five dogs received endovascular laser treatment 7 or 10 days after the first injection, when basilar artery diameter was reduced to a mean of 61% and 77% of control, respectively. Immediately following treatment, basilar artery diameter increased to 104% and 102% of resting diameter, respectively. Both untreated and laser-treated arteries were smaller than the control diameter at 30 days (80% and 82%, respectively), but in each group the vasodilatory response to hypercapnia was preserved. These findings indicate that 1-microsecond laser pulses are well tolerated by systemic and cerebral arteries in two different animal models, and suggest that the 480-nm pulsed-dye laser may have an application for the treatment or prophylaxis of cerebral vasospasm.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Basilar Artery/surgery
    Carotid Arteries/surgery/ultrastructure
    Carotid Artery Diseases/pathology/*surgery
    Chronic Disease
    Constriction, Pathologic/surgery
    Dogs
    Ischemic Attack, Transient/pathology/*surgery
    *Laser Surgery
    Light Coagulation
    Rabbits
    Spasm/pathology/*surgery},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=1885979},
       year = {1991},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Schmidt, U. and Hasan, T. and Schomacker, K. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.: Selective Vessel Occlusion by Photochemically-Induced Thrombogenesis. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 32, pp. 1162-1162, 1991
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Schmidt1991,
       author = {Schmidt, U. and Hasan, T. and Schomacker, K. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Selective Vessel Occlusion by Photochemically-Induced Thrombogenesis},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {32},
       number = {4},
       pages = {1162-1162},
       note = {Fc762
    Times Cited:1
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1991FC76202419},
       year = {1991},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.: Selective Damage of the Rpe by Repetitive Laser-Pulses - Healing Studies in Rabbits. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 32, pp. 713-713, 1991
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roider1991,
       author = {Roider, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Selective Damage of the Rpe by Repetitive Laser-Pulses - Healing Studies in Rabbits},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {32},
       number = {4},
       pages = {713-713},
       note = {Fc762
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1991FC76200240},
       year = {1991},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Dlugos, C. and Nuffer, R. and Birngruber, R.: Optical properties of human sclera, and their consequences for transscleral laser applications. Lasers Surg Med, no. 11, pp. 331-40, 1991
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel1991,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Dlugos, C. and Nuffer, R. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Optical properties of human sclera, and their consequences for transscleral laser applications},
       journal = {Lasers Surg Med},
       volume = {11},
       number = {4},
       pages = {331-40},
       note = {0196-8092 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The spectral dependence of the optical properties of human sclera adjacent to the limbus was investigated and related to the potentials of transscleral photocoagulation. The total transmission, absorption, and reflection, as well as the angular distribution of the transmitted and reflected light were measured at five laser wavelengths (442 nm, 514 nm, 633 nm, 804 nm, and 1,064 nm), both for noncontact and contact applications. Absorption and scattering coefficients were determined using the Kubelka-Munk model for light propagation through a scattering tissue. The scleral transmission is only 6% at 442 nm but increases to 35% at 804 nm and to 53% at 1,064 nm. The absorption is high at short wavelengths with 40% at 442 nm but it is only 6% at 804 nm and 1,064 nm. The reflection is generally higher than 40% and shows little wavelength dependence. The transmitted light is scattered diffusely at short wavelengths, but at 804 nm and 1,064 nm it exhibits a fairly narrow angular distribution in forward direction. Fiber contact leads to an increase of transmission, with a factor of 3.5 at 442 nm, of 2.0 at 804 nm, and 1.5 at 1,064 nm. Our results indicate that the diode laser (804 nm) and the Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm) with contact delivery are best suited for transscleral photocoagulation.},
       keywords = {Absorption
    Humans
    Lasers/*therapeutic use
    Light
    Optics
    Scattering, Radiation
    Sclera/*anatomy & histology/physiology},
       year = {1991}
    }
    
  • Doukas, A.G. and Zweig, A.D. and Frisoli, J.K. and Birngruber, R. and Deutsch, T. F.: Non-invasive determination of shock wave pressure generated by optical breakdown.. Appl Phys B, no. 53, pp. 237-245, 1991
    BibTeX
    @article{Doukas1991,
       author = {Doukas, A.G. and Zweig, A.D. and Frisoli, J.K. and Birngruber, R. and Deutsch, T. F.},
       title = {Non-invasive determination of shock wave pressure generated by optical breakdown.},
       journal = {Appl Phys B},
       volume = {53},
       pages = {237-245},
       year = {1991},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Hefetz, Y. and Roider, J. and Puliafito, C. A. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.: Low Repetition Rate Picosecond Photodisruption in Ocular Structures. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 32, pp. 798-798, 1991
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Hefetz1991,
       author = {Hefetz, Y. and Roider, J. and Puliafito, C. A. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Low Repetition Rate Picosecond Photodisruption in Ocular Structures},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {32},
       number = {4},
       pages = {798-798},
       note = {Fc762
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1991FC76200642},
       year = {1991},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Weaver, Y. K. and Lin, C. P. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Birngruber, R. and Puliafito, C. A.: Intraocular Photoablation by a High Repetition Rate Picosecond Nd-Yag Laser. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, no. 32, pp. 1224-1224, 1991
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Weaver1991,
       author = {Weaver, Y. K. and Lin, C. P. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Birngruber, R. and Puliafito, C. A.},
       title = {Intraocular Photoablation by a High Repetition Rate Picosecond Nd-Yag Laser},
       journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
       volume = {32},
       number = {4},
       pages = {1224-1224},
       note = {Fc762
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0146-0404},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1991FC76202720},
       year = {1991},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Teramura, A. and Macfarlane, R. and Owen, C. J. and de la Torre, R. and Gregory, K. W. and Birngruber, R. and Parrish, J. A. and Peterson, J. W. and Zervas, N. T.: Application of the 1-microsecond pulsed-dye laser to the treatment of experimental cerebral vasospasm. J Neurosurg, no. 75, pp. 271-6, 1991
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Teramura1991,
       author = {Teramura, A. and Macfarlane, R. and Owen, C. J. and de la Torre, R. and Gregory, K. W. and Birngruber, R. and Parrish, J. A. and Peterson, J. W. and Zervas, N. T.},
       title = {Application of the 1-microsecond pulsed-dye laser to the treatment of experimental cerebral vasospasm},
       journal = {J Neurosurg},
       volume = {75},
       number = {2},
       pages = {271-6},
       note = {0022-3085 (Print)
    In Vitro
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.},
       abstract = {Laser energy of 480 nm was applied in 1-microsecond pulses varying between 2.2 and 10 mJ to in vitro and in vivo models of cerebral vasospasm. First, the pulsed-dye laser was applied intravascularly via a 320-microns fiber to basilar artery segments from six dogs. The segments were mounted in a vessel-perfusion apparatus and constricted to, on average, 70% of resting diameter by superfusion with dog hemolysate. Immediate increase in basilar artery diameter occurred to a mean of 83% of control. In a second model, the basilar artery was exposed transclivally in the rabbit. In three normal animals, superfusion of the artery with rabbit hemolysate resulted in a reduction of mean vessel diameter to 81% of control. Following extravascular application of the laser, vessels returned to an average of 106% of the resting state. In six rabbits, the basilar artery was constricted by two intracisternal injections of autologous blood. 3 days apart. Two to 4 days after the second injection, the basilar artery was exposed. Extravascular laser treatment from a quartz fiber placed perpendicular to the vessel adventitia resulted in an immediate 53% average increase in caliber to an estimated 107% of control. No reconstriction was observed over a period of up to 5 hours. Morphologically, damage to the arterial wall was slight. This preliminary investigation suggests that the 1-microsecond pulsed-dye laser may be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Basilar Artery/surgery/ultrastructure
    Dogs
    Endothelium, Vascular/ultrastructure
    Female
    Ischemic Attack, Transient/pathology/*surgery
    *Laser Surgery
    Male
    Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
    Rabbits
    Vasodilation},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=2072166},
       year = {1991},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Roider, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.: [Microcoagulation of the fundus. Experimental results of repeated laser pulse exposure]. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 88, pp. 473-6, 1991
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Roider1991,
       author = {Roider, J. and Michaud, N. and Flotte, T. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[Microcoagulation of the fundus. Experimental results of repeated laser pulse exposure]},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {88},
       number = {5},
       pages = {473-6},
       note = {0723-8045 (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {Angiographically visible lesions were produced in the fundus of rabbit eyes with repetitive 5 microseconds pulses and continuous wave exposures with 50-ms to 1-s pulse duration from an modified argon laser (514 nm). The ophthalmoscopic and the fluorescein angiographic findings showed less damage in the neural retina and the choroid after repetitively pulsed irradiation. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the neural retina and the choroid can mostly be spared by using repetitive 5 microseconds pulses, even though the damage to the retinal pigment epithelium is similar to the damage caused by continuous wave irradiation. Possible clinical applications, e.g. for macular edema and central serous retinopathy, are discussed.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Fluorescein Angiography
    Light Coagulation/*adverse effects
    Microscopy, Electron
    Ophthalmoscopy
    Pigment Epithelium of Eye/*injuries/pathology
    Rabbits},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=1757035},
       year = {1991},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1990

  • Vogel, A. and Schweiger, P. and Frieser, A. and Asiyo, M. and Birngruber, R.: Wirkungsmechanismen, Schadensreichweite und Reduzierung von Nebenwirkungen bei der intraokularen Nd:YAG-Laserchirurgie. Fortschritte der Ophthalmologie, no. 87, pp. 675-687, 1990
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel1990,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Schweiger, P. and Frieser, A. and Asiyo, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Wirkungsmechanismen, Schadensreichweite und Reduzierung von Nebenwirkungen bei der intraokularen Nd:YAG-Laserchirurgie},
       journal = {Fortschritte der Ophthalmologie},
       volume = {87},
       number = {6},
       pages = {675-687},
       keywords = {Oeil pathologie
    Animal
    Prévention
    Physiopathologie
    Complication
    In vitro
    Cornée
    Oeil
    Néodyme
    Laser YAG
    Laser
    Chirurgie},
       year = {1990}
    }
    
  • Kimmig, A. and Gekeler, V. and Neumann, M. and Frese, G. and Handgretinger, R. and Kardos, G. and Diddens, H. and Niethammer, D.: Susceptibility of multidrug-resistant human leukemia cell lines to human interleukin 2-activated killer cells. Cancer Res, no. 50, pp. 6793-9, 1990
    BibTeX
    @article{Kimming,
       author = {Kimmig, A. and Gekeler, V. and Neumann, M. and Frese, G. and Handgretinger, R. and Kardos, G. and Diddens, H. and Niethammer, D.},
       title = {Susceptibility of multidrug-resistant human leukemia cell lines to human interleukin 2-activated killer cells},
       journal = {Cancer Res},
       volume = {50},
       number = {21},
       pages = {6793-9},
       note = {Using Smart Source Parsing
    Nov 1},
       abstract = {Considering the possibility to overcome drug resistance by other treatment strategies than chemotherapy we investigated the susceptibility of three independently selected multidrug-resistant sublines of the T-lymphoblastoid leukemic cell line CCRF-CEM to lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. We found that two of the multidrug-resistant sublines were significantly less susceptible targets to LAK cells. A third one, however, was as susceptible as the parental CCRF-CEM cell line. Moreover, a multidrug-resistant subline that reverted to an almost drug-sensitive phenotype was observed to be also revertant for resistance against LAK cells. We found an inverse relationship between the expression of the mdr1 gene (P-glycoprotein) and the susceptibility to LAK cells. Verapamil, a calcium channel blocker, while increasing the drug sensitivity of a multidrug-resistant subline, did not induce a reversal of the suppression of LAK susceptibility. The possibility of enhanced resistance to LAK cells of multidrug-resistant cells should be taken into account when one is looking for therapy strategies to overcome multidrug resistance.},
       year = {1990}
    }
    
  • Balles, M. W. and Puliafito, C. A. and Damico, D. J. and Jacobson, J. J. and Birngruber, R.: Semiconductor Diode-Laser Photocoagulation in Retinal Vascular-Disease. Ophthalmology, no. 97, pp. 1553-1561, 1990
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Balles1990,
       author = {Balles, M. W. and Puliafito, C. A. and Damico, D. J. and Jacobson, J. J. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Semiconductor Diode-Laser Photocoagulation in Retinal Vascular-Disease},
       journal = {Ophthalmology},
       volume = {97},
       number = {11},
       pages = {1553-1561},
       note = {Eg630
    Times Cited:32
    Cited References Count:22},
       ISSN = {0161-6420},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1990EG63000032},
       year = {1990},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • LaMuraglia, GM. and Prince, MR. and Nishioka, NS. and S., Obremski and Birngruber, R.: Optical Properties of Human Arterial Thrombus, Vascular Grafts, and Sutures: Implications for Selective Laser Thrombus Ablation.. IEEE J Quant Electr, no. 26, pp. 2200-2206, 1990
    BibTeX
    @article{LaMuraglia1990,
       author = {LaMuraglia, GM. and Prince, MR. and Nishioka, NS. and S., Obremski and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Optical Properties of Human Arterial Thrombus, Vascular Grafts, and Sutures: Implications for Selective Laser Thrombus Ablation.},
       journal = {IEEE J Quant Electr},
       volume = {26},
       number = {12 Special Issue on Lasers in Biology and Medicine},
       pages = {2200-2206},
       year = {1990},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Chaudhry, H. W. and Kochevar, I. E. and Schomacker, K. T. and Cooke, J. P. and Birngruber, R. and Gregory, K. W.: Laser-Induced Vasorelaxation - an Action Spectrum from 337 Nm to 630 Nm. Circulation, no. 82, pp. 408-408, 1990
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Chaudry1990,
       author = {Chaudhry, H. W. and Kochevar, I. E. and Schomacker, K. T. and Cooke, J. P. and Birngruber, R. and Gregory, K. W.},
       title = {Laser-Induced Vasorelaxation - an Action Spectrum from 337 Nm to 630 Nm},
       journal = {Circulation},
       volume = {82},
       number = {4},
       pages = {408-408},
       note = {Suppl. S
    Ec764
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0009-7322},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1990EC76401635},
       year = {1990},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Latina, M. A. and Dobrogowski, M. and March, W. F. and Birngruber, R.: Laser sclerostomy by pulsed-dye laser and goniolens. Arch Ophthalmol, no. 108, pp. 1745-50, 1990
    BibTeX
    @article{Latina,
       author = {Latina, M. A. and Dobrogowski, M. and March, W. F. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser sclerostomy by pulsed-dye laser and goniolens},
       journal = {Arch Ophthalmol},
       volume = {108},
       number = {12},
       pages = {1745-50},
       note = {0003-9950 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.},
       abstract = {We describe an ab-interno laser sclerostomy procedure using the method termed dye-enhanced ablation with a slit-lamp delivery system and special goniolens such that only the laser light beam penetrates the anterior chamber. The procedure uses a microsecond-pulsed-dye laser emitting at 666 nm and iontophoresis of methylene blue dye (absorption of 668 nm) into the sclera at the limbus to enhance the absorption of the laser light. We compared the number of pulses needed to perforate excised human sclera at pulse durations of 1.5, 20, and 300 microseconds. Pulse durations of 1.5 and 20 microseconds required 20 pulses or fewer to perforate excised human sclera with pulse energies of 75 to 100 mJ. The ab-interno laser sclerostomy procedure was performed in 54 eyes of Dutch-belted rabbits with pulse durations of 1.5 or 20 microseconds and a 100- or 200-microns incident spot diameter delivered using a CGF goniolens. Full-thickness fistulas were successfully created at both pulse durations in approximately 80% of eyes treated. A range of three to 25 pulses was required to perforate sclera with slightly fewer pulses and lower pulse energies at 1.5 microseconds compared with 20 microseconds. There were no significant complications from the procedure. This technique could permit filtration surgery to be performed on an outpatient basis.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Humans
    Iontophoresis
    *Laser Surgery
    Methylene Blue/administration & dosage
    *Optics
    Rabbits
    Sclera/pathology/radiation effects
    Sclerostomy/instrumentation/*methods},
       year = {1990}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R.: Introduction to the Special Issue on Lasers in Biology and Medicine. Ieee Journal of Quantum Electronics, no. 26, pp. 2146-2147, 1990
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Birngruber1990,
       author = {Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Introduction to the Special Issue on Lasers in Biology and Medicine},
       journal = {Ieee Journal of Quantum Electronics},
       volume = {26},
       number = {12},
       pages = {2146-2147},
       note = {Ey439
    Times Cited:0
    Cited References Count:0},
       ISSN = {0018-9197},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1990EY43900015},
       year = {1990},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Schweiger, P. and Frieser, A. and Asiyo, M. and Birngruber, R.: Intraocular Nd:YAG Laser Surgery: Damage Mechanism, Damage Range and Reduction of Collateral Effects.. IEEE J Quant Electr, no. 26, pp. 2240-2260, 1990
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel1990,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Schweiger, P. and Frieser, A. and Asiyo, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Intraocular Nd:YAG Laser Surgery: Damage Mechanism, Damage Range and Reduction of Collateral Effects.},
       journal = {IEEE J Quant Electr},
       volume = {26},
       number = {12 Special Issue on Lasers in Biology and Medicine},
       pages = {2240-2260},
       year = {1990}
    }
    
  • Doukas, A.G. and Birngruber, R. and Deutsch, T. F.: Determination of the Shock Wave Pressures Generated by Laser-Induced Breakdown in Water.. Proc. SPIE, no. 1202, pp. 61-70, 1990
    BibTeX
    @article{Doukas1990,
       author = {Doukas, A.G. and Birngruber, R. and Deutsch, T. F.},
       title = {Determination of the Shock Wave Pressures Generated by Laser-Induced Breakdown in Water.},
       journal = {Proc. SPIE},
       volume = {1202},
       pages = {61-70},
       year = {1990},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Prince, M.R. and LaMuraglia, G.M. and C.E., Seidlitz and Prahl, S.A. and Athanasoulis, C.A. and Birngruber, R.: Ball-Tipped Fibers for Laser Angioplasty with the Pulsed-Dye Laser. IEEE J Quant Electr, no. 26, pp. 2297-2304,, 1990
    BibTeX
    @article{Prince1990,
       author = {Prince, M.R. and LaMuraglia, G.M. and C.E., Seidlitz and Prahl, S.A. and Athanasoulis, C.A. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Ball-Tipped Fibers for Laser Angioplasty with the Pulsed-Dye Laser},
       journal = {IEEE J Quant Electr},
       volume = {26},
       number = {12 Special Issue on Lasers in Biology and Medicine},
       pages = {2297-2304,},
       year = {1990},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Ren, Q. and Birngruber, R.: Axicon: A New Laser Beam Delivery System for Corneal Surgery. IEEE J Quant Electr, no. 26, pp. 2200-2206, 1990
    BibTeX
    @article{Ren1990,
       author = {Ren, Q. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Axicon: A New Laser Beam Delivery System for Corneal Surgery},
       journal = {IEEE J Quant Electr},
       volume = {26},
       number = {12 Special Issue on Lasers in Biology and Medicine},
       pages = {2200-2206},
       year = {1990},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, Alfred and Schweiger, P. and Frieser, A. and Asiyo, M. and Birngruber, R.: [Mechanism of action, scope of the damage and reduction of side effects in intraocular Nd:YAG laser surgery]. Fortschr Ophthalmol, no. 87, pp. 675-87, 1990
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Vogel1990,
       author = {Vogel, Alfred and Schweiger, P. and Frieser, A. and Asiyo, M. and Birngruber, R.},
       title = {[Mechanism of action, scope of the damage and reduction of side effects in intraocular Nd:YAG laser surgery]},
       journal = {Fortschr Ophthalmol},
       volume = {87},
       number = {6},
       pages = {675-87},
       note = {0723-8045 (Print)
    English Abstract
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {The damage mechanisms of intraocular Nd:YAG laser surgery and their respective damage ranges were investigated in vitro using bovine cornea specimens as a model tissue. The main damage mechanisms are plasma formation and expansion, emission of acoustic transients, and cavitation with jet formation. When a sequence of laser pulses is applied, the interaction of the acoustic transients with gas bubbles remaining from preceding laser exposures is also important. To distinguish the effects caused by the different physical mechanisms, laser pulses were aimed directly onto the corneal endothelium, and parallel to the cornea at various distances. Simultaneously, the cavitation bubble size was determined. The surface morphology and sections of the same lesions were studied by light and electron microscopy. The primary surgical mechanism is tissue evaporation by the laser plasma, whereas the collateral damage from single laser pulses is mainly caused by the cavitation and jet formation. The damage range after a 4-mJ laser pulse is 0.8 mm which is slightly larger than the corresponding cavitation bubble radius. The damage range of the acoustic transients produced by a 4-mJ laser pulse is several millimeters, when they can interact with small gas bubbles attached to the corneal endothelium. The damage range of the acoustic transients alone is smaller than that of cavitation as far as damage detected by light and scanning electron microscopy is concerned. However, on a subcellular level the acoustic transients may possibly cause damage up to a much larger distance. The damage range observed varies with the cube root of the laser pulse energy. A reduction of collateral effects therefore requires the use of small pulse energies. For energies of less than 1 mJ, the pulse duration has to be reduced to ensure plasma production. It is proposed to use low-energy picosecond pulses with moderate repetition rate instead of single nanosecond pulses to reduce collateral damage effects.},
       keywords = {Animals
    Cattle
    Endothelium, Corneal/*injuries/pathology
    Laser Surgery/*adverse effects/instrumentation
    Microscopy, Electron, Scanning},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=2086418},
       year = {1990},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    

1989

  • Ulrich, H. and Wijnaendts-van-Resandt, R. W. and Koop, N. and Schickfuss, M. v and Rensch, C. and Ehrensperger, W.: Quality of microstructures produced by laser lithography and system performance. Microelectronic Engineering, no. 9, pp. 69-72, 1989
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Koop1989,
       author = {Ulrich, H. and Wijnaendts-van-Resandt, R. W. and Koop, N. and Schickfuss, M. v and Rensch, C. and Ehrensperger, W.},
       title = {Quality of microstructures produced by laser lithography and system performance},
       journal = {Microelectronic Engineering},
       volume = {9},
       number = {1},
       pages = {69-72},
       ISSN = {0167-9317},
       url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0167931789900154},
       year = {1989},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Zysset, B. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Puliafito, C. A. and Birngruber, R. and Deutsch, T. F.: Picosecond Optical-Breakdown - Tissue Effects and Reduction of Collateral Damage. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, no. 9, pp. 193-204, 1989
    BibTeX Link Link
    @article{Zysset1989,
       author = {Zysset, B. and Fujimoto, J. G. and Puliafito, C. A. and Birngruber, R. and Deutsch, T. F.},
       title = {Picosecond Optical-Breakdown - Tissue Effects and Reduction of Collateral Damage},
       journal = {Lasers in Surgery and Medicine},
       volume = {9},
       number = {3},
       pages = {193-204},
       note = {U7627
    Times Cited:72
    Cited References Count:36},
       ISSN = {0196-8092},
       DOI = {DOI 10.1002/lsm.1900090302},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1989U762700001},
       year = {1989},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Vogel, A. and Lauterborn, W. and Timm, R.: Optical and acoustic investigations of the dynamics of laser-produced cavitation bubbles near a solid boundary. J. Fluid Mech., no. 206, pp. 299 - 338, 1989
    BibTeX
    @article{Vogel,
       author = {Vogel, A. and Lauterborn, W. and Timm, R.},
       title = {Optical and acoustic investigations of the dynamics of laser-produced cavitation bubbles near a solid boundary},
       journal = {J. Fluid Mech.},
       volume = {206},
       pages = {299 - 338},
       year = {1989}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Gunther-Koszka, H. and Puliafito, C. A.: Nd:YAG laser photodisruption of hemorrhagic detachment of the internal limiting membrane. Am J Ophthalmol, no. 107, pp. 33-7, 1989
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Gabel1989,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Gunther-Koszka, H. and Puliafito, C. A.},
       title = {Nd:YAG laser photodisruption of hemorrhagic detachment of the internal limiting membrane},
       journal = {Am J Ophthalmol},
       volume = {107},
       number = {1},
       pages = {33-7},
       note = {0002-9394 (Print)
    Case Reports
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {We used a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to create an opening in the internal limiting membrane in three eyes with hemorrhagic detachment of the internal limiting membrane. In all instances, after membranotomy blood was rapidly cleared from the preretinal space resulting in prompt improvement in visual acuity. No retinal injury was observed. Nd:YAG laser photodisruption may be useful in the treatment of some cases of subinternal limiting hemorrhages.},
       keywords = {Adult
    Female
    Fundus Oculi
    Humans
    Lasers/therapeutic use
    *Light Coagulation
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Retinal Detachment/pathology/*therapy
    Retinal Hemorrhage/pathology/*therapy},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=2912113},
       year = {1989},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Birngruber, R.: Laser output characteristics. Health Phys, no. 56, pp. 605-11, 1989
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Birngruber1989,
       author = {Birngruber, R.},
       title = {Laser output characteristics},
       journal = {Health Phys},
       volume = {56},
       number = {5},
       pages = {605-11},
       note = {0017-9078 (Print)
    Journal Article
    Review},
       abstract = {Certain aspects of laser radiation play an important role in laser safety. After a short description of basic laser principles, the unique characteristics of laser light are explained in a phenomenological manner. The enormously wide range of laser output parameters is demonstrated and correlated to typical medical laser applications. Temporal and spatial modes of laser operation are explained in greater detail because of their importance in laser safety.},
       keywords = {Humans
    *Lasers/adverse effects/diagnostic use/therapeutic use
    Technology, Radiologic},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=2651357},
       year = {1989},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Stern, D. and Schoenlein, R. W. and Puliafito, C. A. and Dobi, E. T. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G.: Corneal Ablation by Nanosecond, Picosecond, and Femtosecond Lasers at 532 and 625 Nm. Archives of Ophthalmology, no. 107, pp. 587-592, 1989
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Stern1989,
       author = {Stern, D. and Schoenlein, R. W. and Puliafito, C. A. and Dobi, E. T. and Birngruber, R. and Fujimoto, J. G.},
       title = {Corneal Ablation by Nanosecond, Picosecond, and Femtosecond Lasers at 532 and 625 Nm},
       journal = {Archives of Ophthalmology},
       volume = {107},
       number = {4},
       pages = {587-592},
       note = {U0978
    Times Cited:108
    Cited References Count:39},
       ISSN = {0003-9950},
       url = {<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1989U097800031},
       year = {1989},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }
    
  • Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Lorenz, B. and Lang, G. K.: Clinical observations of six cases of laser injury to the eye. Health Phys, no. 56, pp. 705-10, 1989
    BibTeX Link
    @article{Gabel1989,
       author = {Gabel, V. P. and Birngruber, R. and Lorenz, B. and Lang, G. K.},
       title = {Clinical observations of six cases of laser injury to the eye},
       journal = {Health Phys},
       volume = {56},
       number = {5},
       pages = {705-10},
       note = {0017-9078 (Print)
    Journal Article},
       abstract = {During the last decade, five patients with laser injuries were examined at the University of Munich Eye Clinic, in addition to one laser-injury patient at the University of Erlangen Eye Clinic. From a review of these cases, it is possible to gain an insight into factors that led to the eye injuries and to predict the clinical sequelae of laser retinal injury. A possible means of treatment, using an ophthalmic Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, is suggested for some types of retinal injury involving vitreal hemorrhage.},
       keywords = {*Accidents, Occupational
    Adult
    Eye Injuries/*etiology
    Female
    Humans
    Lasers/*adverse effects
    Male
    Retinal Hemorrhage/etiology
    Retinal Perforations/etiology},
       url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=2708058},
       year = {1989},
       type = {Journal Article}
    }